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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(24)2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036993

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)- or AmpC beta-lactamase (ACBL)-producing Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common cause of community-acquired multidrug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) in New Zealand. The carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria has been found in both people and pets from the same household; thus, the home environment may be a place where antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are shared between humans and pets. In this study, we sought to determine whether members (pets and people) of the households of human index cases with a UTI caused by an ESBL- or ACBL-producing E. coli strain also carried an ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strain and, if so, whether it was a clonal match to the index case clinical strain. Index cases with a community-acquired UTI were recruited based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urine isolates. Fecal samples were collected from 18 non-index case people and 36 pets across 27 households. Eleven of the 27 households screened had non-index case household members (8/18 people and 5/36 animals) positive for ESBL- and/or ACBL-producing E. coli strains. Whole-genome sequence analysis of 125 E. coli isolates (including the clinical urine isolates) from these 11 households showed that within seven households, the same strain of ESBL-/ACBL-producing E. coli was cultured from both the index case and another person (5/11 households) or pet dog (2/11 households). These results suggest that transmission within the household may contribute to the community spread of ESBL- or ACBL-producing E. coli IMPORTANCE Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC beta-lactamases (ACBLs) are important pathogens and can cause community-acquired illnesses, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). Fecal carriage of these resistant bacteria by companion animals may pose a risk for transmission to humans. Our work evaluated the sharing of ESBL- and ACBL-producing E. coli isolates between humans and companion animals. We found that in some households, dogs carried the same strain of ESBL-producing E. coli as the household member with a UTI. This suggests that transmission events between humans and animals (or vice versa) are likely occurring within the home environment and, therefore, the community as a whole. This is significant from a health perspective, when considering measures to minimize community transmission, and highlights that in order to manage community spread, we need to consider interventions at the household level.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(4): e014220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111845

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsioses are emerging diseases. In some of these diseases, domestic dogs act as sentinels. Canine serological studies have demonstrated that rickettsial dispersion is concentrated in rural areas, seroprevalence being higher where human rickettsioses are endemic. In Rio de Janeiro, the Atlantic forest vegetation has been devastated by urbanization. In this context, we aimed to detect Rickettsia spp. in urban areas of the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Sera from 130 dogs were tested by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay, and ticks collected from these dogs were tested by polymerase chain reaction. We found the rate of serological reactions against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri in our study area to exceed those of rural and non-endemic areas, highlighting the importance of dogs as urban sentinels. The possibility of contact with opossums and capybaras increased the chances of exposure to Rickettsia spp., reinforcing the hypothetical link between the landscape and the rickettsial wild cycle. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was the tick most frequently observed. PCR-positive samples showed similarity with R. rickettsii and R. felis, an emerging pathogen rarely reported from ticks. We observed that rickettsiae circulate in urban places and ticks from indoor environments, which may be involved in bacterial epidemiology.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Infecções por Rickettsia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Humanos , Rickettsia , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091006

RESUMO

Shedding of DNA of pathogenic Leptospira spp. has been documented in naturally infected cats in several countries, but urinary shedding of infectious Leptospira spp. has only recently been proven. The climate in Southern Chile is temperate rainy with high annual precipitations which represents ideal preconditions for survival of Leptospira spp., especially during spring and summer. The aims of this study were to investigate shedding of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in outdoor cats in Southern Chile, to perform molecular characterization of isolates growing in culture, and to assess potential risk factors associated with shedding. Urine samples of 231 outdoor cats from rural and urban areas in southern Chile were collected. Urine samples were investigated for pathogenic Leptospira spp. by 4 techniques: qPCR targeting the lipL32 gene, immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-coupled qPCR (IMS-qPCR), direct culture and IMS-coupled culture. Positive urine cultures were additionally confirmed by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to molecularly characterize isolates obtained from positive cultures. Overall, 36 urine samples (15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-20.9) showed positive results. Eighteen (7.8%, 95% CI 4.9-12.1), 30 (13%, 95% CI 9.2-18), 3 (1.3%, 0.3-3.9) and 4 cats (1.7%; 95% CI 0.5-4.5) were positive in qPCR, IMS-qPCR, conventional culture, and IMS-coupled culture, respectively. MLST results of 7 culture-positive cats revealed sequences that could be assigned to sequence type 17 (6 cats) and sequence type 27 (1 cat) corresponding to L. interrogans (Pathogenic Leptospira Subgroup 1). Shedding of pathogenic Leptospira spp. by cats might be an underestimated source of infection for other species including humans. The present study is the first one reporting growth of leptospires from feline urine in culture in naturally infected cats in South-America and characterisation of culture-derived isolates. So far, very few cases of successful attempts to culture leptospires from naturally infected cats are described worldwide.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/patologia , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Leptospirose/veterinária , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Urina/microbiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15417, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963280

RESUMO

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a commensal bacterium in humans and other animals that can cause serious infections. The aim of this research was to estimate the frequency of S. lugdunensis in pet cats and to characterize the S. lugdunensis isolates obtained. The prevalence of S. lugdunensis was 0.77% (4/523) in healthy cats and 1.23% (1/81) in sick cats. The isolates (N = 5), which colonized conjunctival sacs, nares, and the anus, were almost fully phenotypically sensitive to antibiotics, but harbored resistance genes to four chemotherapeutic groups. Their sequence types (STs) included ST2, ST3, ST9, and ST15. There was detected a far lower prevalence of S. lugdunensis in pet cats than is reported in the human population. Nevertheless, the phenotypic and genotypic properties of S. lugdunensis isolates found in the current study were very similar to those described previously in isolates of human origin.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/genética
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 356-360, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) and Leptospira interrogans sensu lato (Lisl) and their possible concurrence in domestic cats living in variable conditions in South Moravia in the district of Brno and its environs. Additional objectives were to discover possible differences in seroprevalence between groups of cats living in different living conditions, and to determine the spectrum of Leptospira serogroups in cats in the same places. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 360 blood sera from domestic cats of 3 different sets were collected during the period 2013-2015. All samples were examined using ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Bbsl, and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the detection of antibodies against 8 serogroups of Lisl. RESULTS: The ELISA method determined 15.8%, 4.8% and 10.3% IgM anti-Borrelia antibodies in the patient group, shelter cats and street cats, respectively. IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in 6.2%, 9.5%, 5.2%, respectively. Antibodies specific for 5 Leptospira serogroups were detected by the use of MAT in 8.8%, 9.5% and 10.3% of cats from the investigated groups. The total positivity of all examined cats for anti-Borrelia antibodies was 18.0% and for anti-Leptospira - 9.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Cats can be infected with both Bbsl and Lisl. The obtained results are exclusive to the city of Brno and its environs, and are comparable to the limited previous studies. There is a need for further studies of clinical signs of both infections and the possible transmission of Leptospira by ticks.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008330, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609739

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix species, of which the main aetiological agents are S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa. Infection occurs after a traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules in mammals' skin and can follow either a classic route through traumatic inoculation by plant debris (e.g., S. schenckii and S. globosa) or an alternative route through zoonotic transmission from animals (e.g., S. brasiliensis). Epizootics followed by a zoonotic route occur in Brazil, with Rio de Janeiro as the epicenter of a recent cat-transmitted epidemic. DNA-based markers are needed to explore the epidemiology of these Sporothrix expansions using molecular methods. This paper reports the use of amplified-fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP) to assess the degree of intraspecific variability among Sporothrix species. We used whole-genome sequences from Sporothrix species to generate 2,304 virtual AFLP fingerprints. In silico screening highlighted 6 primer pair combinations to be tested in vitro. The protocol was used to genotype 27 medically relevant Sporothrix. Based on the overall scored AFLP markers (97-137 fragments), the values of polymorphism information content (PIC = 0.2552-0.3113), marker index (MI = 0.002-0.0039), effective multiplex ratio (E = 17.8519-35.2222), resolving power (Rp = 33.6296-63.1852), discriminating power (D = 0.9291-0.9662), expected heterozygosity (H = 0.3003-0.3857), and mean heterozygosity (Havp = 0.0001) demonstrated the utility of these primer combinations for discriminating Sporothrix. AFLP markers revealed cryptic diversity in species previously thought to be the most prevalent clonal type, such as S. brasiliensis, responsible for cat-transmitted sporotrichosis, and S. globosa responsible for large sapronosis outbreaks in Asia. Three combinations (#3 EcoRI-FAM-GA/MseI-TT, #5 EcoRI-FAM-GA/MseI-AG, and #6 EcoRI-FAM-TA/MseI-AA) provide the best diversity indices and lowest error rates. These methods make it easier to track routes of disease transmission during epizooties and zoonosis, and our DNA fingerprint assay can be further transferred between laboratories to give insights into the ecology and evolution of pathogenic Sporothrix species and to inform management and mitigation strategies to tackle the advance of sporotrichosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sporothrix/classificação , Esporotricose/epidemiologia , Esporotricose/veterinária , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Epidemiologia Molecular , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/microbiologia
7.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101005, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522404

RESUMO

The epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of pythiosis in cats in northeastern Brazil are described. From January 2000 to December 2018 the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of the Federal University of Campina Grande received 1928 tissue samples of cats, three of which were diagnosed as pythiosis. Grossly, the cats showed a multinodular mass in the oral cavity associated with facial deformity (case 1), a large multinodular mass thickening the jejunum wall (case 2), and an ulcerated nodule in the skin at the base of the tail (case 3). Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation and necrosis, with intralesional predominantly negatively stained hyphae, were observed in all cases. Immunohistochemistry for Pythium insidiosum revealed strong immunolabelling of the hyphae. The diagnosis of pythiosis was based on the epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological findings, and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Although uncommon in cats, pythiosis should be readily considered as a differential diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous infections of the gastrointestinal tract and skin, especially in endemic areas, where the disease is often diagnosed in other animal species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Assimetria Facial/microbiologia , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Assimetria Facial/veterinária , Feminino , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Pitiose/microbiologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Pythium/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Vet Ital ; 56(1)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343095

RESUMO

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic disease, caused predominantly by Bartonella henselae and transmitted to humans through a scratch or bite of the cat. Cat represents the principal reservoir and healthy carrier of Bartonella, which is mainly transmitted, among cats, by the flea Ctenocephalides felis. During 2014, fifty­two samples of whole blood and sera were collected randomly from cats in Abruzzo region and were examined by real-time PCR and IFAT tests, respectively. Seven samples out of fifty­two (13.5%) resulted positive for Bartonella spp. in both tests, while six specimens (11.5%) resulted real-time PCR negative but IgG positive; thirty­nine were instead both real-time PCR and IFAT negative (75%). Sequence analysis of a fragment of DNA identified B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in four and in two real­time PCR positive samples, respectively.


Assuntos
Bartonella henselae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Animais , Bartonella henselae/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Itália/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 116, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline vector-borne pathogens (FeVBPs) have been increasingly investigated for their impact on cat health and their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of FeVBPs and haemoplasmas in cats across Italy and to identify potential risk factors linked to their occurrence. METHODS: Blood samples from 958 owned cats living in the North (n = 556), Centre (n = 173) and South (n = 229) of Italy were tested for Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and filarioids by conventional PCR (cPCR) and for haemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. by SYBR green real-time PCR. Cats included in the study represent a sub-sample from a larger number of animals enrolled in a previous study, which were selected based on the geographical origin. Data on cats' positivity for Leishmania infantum, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), available from the previous study, were included and examined. Potential risk factors for pathogen infection were assessed in relationship to categorical variables including sex, geographical origin, breed, neutering status and age of cats. RESULTS: Out of the 958 cats, 194 (20.2%) were positive for at least one of the tested pathogens, 89 (16%) from the North, 32 (18.5%) from the Centre and 73 (31.9%) from the South of Italy. A high prevalence of FeVBPs was detected in male cats (n = 125, 27.8%), living in the southern part of the country (n = 73, 31.9%), younger than 18 months of age (n = 24, 22.4%) and not neutered (n = 39; 27.5%). In particular, 24 cats (2.5%) tested PCR-positive for Bartonella spp., of which 1.6% for B. henselae and 0.9% for B. clarridgeiae. A total of 111 cats scored PCR-positive for haemoplasmas (11.6%), specifically "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 95, 9.9%), M. haemofelis (n = 14, 1.5%) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 2, 0.2%). Moreover, 39, 31 and 8 cats were positive for FeLV (4.1%), L. infantum (3.2%) and FIV (0.8%), respectively. Co-infections were registered for 19 (9.8%) cats. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the occurrence of haemoplasmas and FeVBPs throughout Italy. Preventive measures to protect both animal and human health should be carried out also for owned cats, even if no health status of animals has been assessed in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Geografia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155209

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases and can infect both humans and animals worldwide. Healthy cat, as a potential source of exposure to humans, are likely underestimated owing to the lack of overt clinical signs associated with Leptospira spp. infection in this species. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure, shedding, and carrier status of leptospires in shelter cats in Malaysia by using serological, molecular, and bacteriological methods. For this study, 82 healthy cats from two shelters were sampled. The blood, urine, and kidneys were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and bacterial culture. On the basis of serological, molecular, and/or culture techniques, the total detection of leptospiral infection was 29.3% (n = 24/82). Through culture techniques, 16.7% (n = 4/24) of the cats that tested positive were carriers with positive kidney cultures, and one cat was culture positive for both urine and kidney. The Leptospira spp. isolates were identified as pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Bataviae through serological and molecular methods. Through serological techniques, 87.5% (n = 21/24) had positive antibody titers (100-1600) and most of the Bataviae serogroup (n = 19/21). Using PCR, 16.7% (n = 4/24) of cats were shown to have pathogenic Leptospira spp. DNA in their urine. Furthermore, three out of four culture positive cats were serology negative. The present study reports the first retrieval of pathogenic leptospires from urine and kidneys obtained from naturally infected cats. The results provide evidence of the potential role of naturally infected cats in the transmission of leptospires. Additionally, leptospiral infection occurs sub-clinically in cats. The culture isolation provides evidence that healthy cats could be reservoirs of leptospiral infection, and this information may promote the development of disease prevention strategies for the cat population.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/urina , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/urina
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168354

RESUMO

Antimicrobial Resistance is a global crisis that veterinarians contribute to through their use of antimicrobials in animals. Antimicrobial stewardship has been shown to be an effective means to reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospital environments. Effective monitoring of antimicrobial usage patterns is an essential part of antimicrobial stewardship and is critical in reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to describe how frequently antimicrobials were used in veterinary consultations and identify the most frequently used antimicrobials. Using VetCompass Australia, Natural Language Processing techniques, and the Australian Strategic Technical Advisory Group's (ASTAG) Rating system to classify the importance of antimicrobials, descriptive analysis was performed on the antimicrobials prescribed in consultations from 137 companion animal veterinary clinics in Australia between 2013 and 2017 (inclusive). Of the 4,400,519 consultations downloaded there were 595,089 consultations where antimicrobials were prescribed to dogs or cats. Antimicrobials were dispensed in 145 of every 1000 canine consultations; and 38 per 1000 consultations involved high importance rated antimicrobials. Similarly with cats, 108 per 1000 consultations had antimicrobials dispensed, and in 47 per 1000 consultations an antimicrobial of high importance rating was administered. The most common antimicrobials given to cats and dogs were cefovecin and amoxycillin clavulanate, respectively. The most common topical antimicrobial and high-rated topical antimicrobial given to dogs and cats was polymyxin B. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the antimicrobial usage patterns in Australia using methods that can be automated to inform antimicrobial use surveillance programs and promote antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Registros , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108601, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated cephalosporinases (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates are now reported worldwide in humans, animals, and in the environment. We identified the determinants of resistance to ß-lactams and associated resistance genes as well as phylogenetic diversity of 53 ESBL- or pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs and cats in Europe. MATERIALS/METHODS: Of a collection of 842 Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were recovered in 2013 and 2014 from 842 diseased and untreated dogs and cats, for 242 ampicillin or amoxicillin resistant isolates (MIC ≥ 16 mg/L), cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftazidime (CAZ) MICs were determined. Isolates with CTX and/or CAZ MIC ≥ 1 mg/L (n = 63) were selected, and their genomes were fully sequenced using Illumina Technology. Genomic data were explored to identify the resistance determinants, the plasmid incompatibility groups, and the sequence types (STs). Plasmid location of blaESBL and blaAmpC was evaluated for all isolates based on the co-localization of resistance and plasmid incompatibility group genes on the same contig. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using core-genome MLST. RESULTS: Of the 63 sequenced isolates, 53 isolates harbored a blaESBL or blaAmpC gene. Ten CTX and/or CAZ non-wild type isolates had neither blaESBL nor blaAmpC. Among the 63 isolates, 44 (69.8 %) were Escherichia coli, 11 (17.5 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8 (12.7 %) were Proteus mirabilis. Fifty-one (80.9 %) isolates originated from dogs and 12 (19.1 %) from cats. Isolates were sampled from urinary tract (n = 36), skin and soft tissue (n = 22) and respiratory tract infections (n = 5). Thirty-two isolates (32/53, 60.4 %) carried blaESBL genes, including blaCTX-M-15 (n = 12), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 6), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 5), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 3), blaSHV-28 (n = 4), blaSHV-12 (n = 2), and blaVEB-6 (n = 1). Four isolates of K. pneumoniae had both blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-28. Twenty-one isolates (21/53, 39.6 %) carried genes encoding pAmpC, including blaCMY-2 (n = 19) and blaDHA-1 (n = 2). Thirteen E. coli isolates harbored both blaESBL or blaAmpC genes and plasmids of incompatibility groups IncIB (9/13), IncI1 (8/13), and IncFII (6/13). In addition to the reduced susceptibility to CTX and/or CAZ, reduced susceptibility or evidence of acquired resistance to at least one other relevant class of antibiotics was observed for all 63 isolates. E. COLI: isolates clustered in 23 STs, including B2 virulent clones from humans such as ST131 (n = 5), K. pneumoniae isolates mostly clustered in 3 STs: ST11 (n = 4), ST307 (n = 3), and ST16 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis identified the spread of E. coli ST131 blaCTX-M-27, and of K. pneumoniae ST307 harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-28 or ST11 blaCTX-M-15. CONCLUSIONS: We report here a 6.3 % prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in diseased dogs and cats. This EU survey confirms that dogs and cats can be infected with epidemic multidrug resistant clones that may also spread in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Prevalência
14.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 162(3): 141-151, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are of increasing importance in human and veterinary medicine. Also, small animal clinics and practices are facing patients carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. What risk do these animals pose for animal owners? How can the risk of transmission to humans be reduced? A working group of human and veterinary medicine experts developed a guide for dog or cat owners with pets carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The guide contains background information on the most important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in dogs and cats, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococci and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Measures are listed to reduce the risk of transmission to humans. This review explains the pathophysiology, occurrence and risk factors of these bacteria in dogs, cats and humans. Recommended measures are outlined.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos
15.
Anaerobe ; 62: 102164, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151948

RESUMO

The occurrence and characteristics of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic cats was investigated. Apparently healthy animals were more likely to be positive for C. perfringens type A (p = 0.009). Two isolates (0.7%), one each from a diarrheic and an apparently healthy cat, were positive for the enterotoxin-encoding gene but negative for the NetF-encoding gene. Six toxigenic C. difficile isolates were isolated, all RT106 and ST42, which is commonly reported in humans with C. difficile infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , /genética , Clostridium perfringens/classificação , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia
16.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105416, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105667

RESUMO

Q fever is considered one of the most important zoonoses in Australia. Whilst ruminants are the primary reservoirs for Coxiella burnetii, and the major source of human infection, human cases have also been reported following contact with pet dogs and cats. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of seropositivity to, and bacterial shedding of, C. burnetii by pet dogs and cats in a region with a high human Q fever incidence and explore risk factors for C. burnetii exposure. Samples (serum, whole blood, reproductive tissue, reproductive swabs) and questionnaires (completed by the pet's owner) were collected from dogs and cats from eight communities across remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Overall 86/330 dogs (26.1%, 95% CI 21.3-30.8%) and 19/145 cats (13.1%, 95% CI 7.6-18.6%) were seropositive to C. burnetii. Seroprevalence varied significantly between communities and was highest in communities within 150 km of a 2015 human Q fever outbreak. Feeding raw kangaroo was identified as a risk factor for seropositivity (adjusted OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.21-9.43). Coxiella burnetii DNA was not detected from any dog or cat whole blood, reproductive tissue or vaginal/preputial swab using qPCR targeting the IS1111 and com1 genes. Our findings suggest that companion animals are frequently exposed to C. burnetii in western NSW. Geographical variation in C. burnetii seroprevalence amongst companion animals - which corresponds with a human Q fever outbreak - suggests a shared environmental source of infection is likely with important consequences for public and animal health. The lack of detection of C. burnetii DNA from healthy companion animals suggests that pet dogs and cats are not an important reservoir for human Q fever infection outside a narrow periparturient window.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Ração Animal , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(2): 783-789, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is the gold standard diagnostic for determining bacterial urinary tract infection. Transport of samples to external reference laboratories is common practice in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVE: To compare bacterial culture and susceptibility results from clinical urine samples when streak plate inoculation is performed immediately after sample collection versus after transport to a reference laboratory. To determine the clinical implications of discrepant culture results. ANIMALS: One hundred and ninety-four canine and 45 feline urine samples that were submitted for urinalysis and urine culture and susceptibility testing. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Streak plate inoculations were performed on urine samples immediately after collection and also after transport to a reference laboratory. Samples were stored in plain sterile tubes and refrigerated up to 24 hours before transport. Culture results were compared, and discordant results were evaluated for clinical relevance. Signalment, comorbidities, lower urinary tract signs, and antimicrobial history were recorded. RESULTS: Kappa coefficient for agreement between plating methods was 0.884. Twenty-two (71%) of 31 discrepant results were determined to have no clinical impact. Though 35% of clean midstream samples had discrepant culture results, only 8% of these had clinical impact. Conversely, 8.6% from cystocentesis were discrepant, but 41% of these had clinical impact. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Provided urine samples are stored and transported appropriately, the immediate preplating of urine for culture and susceptibility testing is unnecessary in the majority of cases. Despite more discrepancies in plating methods for midstream samples, the minority were of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/urina , Doenças do Cão/urina , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Urina/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Urinálise/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/urina
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(2): 381-383, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961309

RESUMO

We report isolation of a New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-5-producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 167 from companion animals in the United States. Reports of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in companion animals are rare. We describe a unique cluster of blaNDM-5-producing E. coli in a veterinary hospital.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Gatos , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(2): 188-198, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Devising effective, targeted approaches to prevent recurrent meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infection requires an understanding of factors driving MRSA acquisition. We comprehensively defined household longitudinal, strain-level S aureus transmission dynamics in households of children with community-associated MRSA skin and soft tissue infection. METHODS: From 2012-15, otherwise healthy paediatric patients with culture-confirmed, community-onset MRSA infections were recruited for the Household Observation of MRSA in the Environment (HOME) prospective cohort study from hospitals and community practices in metropolitan St Louis (MO, USA). Children with health-care-related risk factors were excluded, as determined by evidence of recent hospital admission, an invasive medical device, or residence in a long-term care facility. Household contacts (individuals sleeping in the home ≥four nights per week) and indoor dogs and cats were also enrolled. A baseline visit took place at the index patient's primary home, followed by four quarterly visits over 12 months. At each visit, interviews were done and serial cultures were collected, to detect S aureus from three anatomic sites of household members, two anatomic sites on dogs and cats, and 21 environmental surfaces. Molecular typing was done by repetitive-sequence PCR to define distinct S aureus strains within each household. Longitudinal, multivariable generalised mixed-effects logistic regression models identified factors associated with S aureus acquisition. FINDINGS: Across household members, pets, and environmental surfaces, 1267 strain acquisition events were observed. Acquisitions were driven equally by 510 introductions of novel strains into households and 602 transmissions within households, each associated with distinct factors. Frequent handwashing decreased the likelihood of novel strain introduction into the household (odds ratio [OR] 0·86, credible interval [CrI] 0·74-1·01). Transmission recipients were less likely to own their homes (OR 0·77, CrI 0·63-0·94) and were more likely to share bedrooms with strain-colonised individuals (OR 1·33, CrI 1·12-1·58), live in homes with higher environmental S aureus contamination burden (OR 3·97, CrI 1·96-8·20), and report interval skin and soft tissue infection (OR 1·32, CrI 1·07-1·64). Transmission sources were more likely to share bath towels (OR 1·25, CrI 1·01-1·57). Pets were often transmission recipients, but rarely the sole transmission source. INTERPRETATION: The household environment plays a key role in transmission, a factor associated with skin and soft tissue infection. Future interventions should inclusively target household members and the environment, focusing on straightforward changes in hand hygiene and household sharing behaviours. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Children's Discovery Institute, Burroughs Wellcome Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/transmissão , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Características da Família , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
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