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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 798-802, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926509

RESUMO

Two methods for delivering a canarypox-vectored canine distemper vaccine to tigers (Panthera tigris) and domestic cats (Felis catus) were investigated. Eight tigers were divided randomly into two vaccination groups: subcutaneous injection or topical tonsillar application. Each tiger received 2 ml of canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine (Merial Ferret Distemper Vaccine). Blood was collected from tigers on days 0, 21, 35 or 37, and 112 post-initial vaccination (PIV). Domestic cats were divided randomly into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls), low- and high-dose oral, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Blood was collected from domestic cats on days 0, 7, 21, and 28 and 165 or 208 PIV. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All individuals were seronegative at the beginning of the study. One tiger vaccinated subcutaneously developed a titer of 32 by day 35, which reduced to 16 by day 112. Another tiger vaccinated by tonsillar application developed a titer of 8 on day 112. All other tigers remained seronegative. Cats that received saline injection or oral vaccination remained seronegative at each sampling time. Domestic cats vaccinated subcutaneously developed titers ranging from 4 to >128 by day 28, and those re-bled at day 166 had titers of 16 or 64. The disparity in response between domestic cats and tigers may be due to species differences or it may represent a dose-dependent effect. Subcutaneous vaccination with canarypox-vectored Purevax Ferret Distemper® is safe and elicits persistent antibody titers in domestic cats vaccinated parenterally.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Canários , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Tigres/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinas Sintéticas
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 480, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites in dogs and cats are a concern related to pet health and zoonotic risks. Several determinants may affect the endoparasite transmission and infection of dogs and cats such as pet's lifestyle or regional parasite distribution. Although different zoonotic endoparasites, such as Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus spp., have been identified in France, little information exists about the deworming behaviors of owners or the frequency of occurrence of risk factors associated with endoparasite infection or transmission. Deworming guidelines, such as those created by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP), recommend a deworming frequency according to the risk of infection of every pet and the potential risk for zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were to explore how lifestyles of dogs and cats from France were related to a particular risk of endoparasites and assess whether deworming frequencies complied with ESCCAP recommendations. METHODS: French data were extracted from a database created during a recent European pet owner survey regarding endoparasitic infection risk. Dogs and cats were grouped into risk categories based upon the ESCCAP guidelines. The compliance between the actual and recommended deworming frequencies were explored among the regions surveyed. RESULTS: The majority of dogs and cats were older than 6 months, had outdoor access, had contact with children or elderly people, and lived in rural and town areas. Most of the dogs were in contact with other dogs, snails or prey (83%), and ate slugs, snails, grass or dug in the garden (68%). Likewise, most of the cats hunted outside (57%) and caught prey animals (52%). Consequently, most of the dogs (89%) and cats (53%) were considered to be in the highest-risk category (D). However, independent of the region, the average deworming compliance for dogs was poor (6%). While deworming compliance for cats in category A (low-risk) was excellent (94%), for cats in category D it was poor (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Deworming compliance is needed to enhance pet health and reduce zoonotic risks. Future studies are warranted to thoroughly investigate the compliance and effectiveness of deworming protocols, and the risk factors associated with endoparasites in France.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
3.
J Vet Dent ; 36(2): 129-134, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental concerns are some of the most common health problems affecting companion animals. A variety of foods, treats, and chews comprising different mechanical and chemical technologies have been investigated as a means of promoting oral health. Here, we investigate the chemical technology, lactic acid added to a commercially available food, for its ability to inhibit dental plaque, calculus, and tooth stain accumulation in cats. METHODS: Two separate feeding trials assessed the utility of a nutritionally complete feline maintenance food supplemented with lactic acid to reduce oral substrate accumulation (dental plaque, calculus, and tooth stain) in cats. After a calibration study identified high and low dental plaque formers, 45 cats were randomized to 1 of 2 test groups (food with 1.2% lactic acid supplementation) or control (food without lactic acid supplementation) groups, stratified based on their calibration scores. Data were collected on a monthly basis for 3 months. The second study randomly assigned 24 cats to either the test or control groups for 1 year, with data collected at the 6- and 12-month time points. RESULTS: In the 3-month study, reductions in dental plaque, calculus, and tooth stain accumulations were observed at the 2-month assessment in both test groups compared with control (P < .05 for test group 2). The 1-year study showed that these reductions in oral substrate accumulation persisted through the 6- and 12-month time points (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these studies demonstrate that lactic acid supplemented at 1.2% in a feline maintenance food significantly inhibits oral substrate accumulation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Gengivite/veterinária , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Animais , Gatos , Corantes , Cálculos Dentários/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Dentários/veterinária , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gengivite/prevenção & controle
4.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2117-2123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urethral obstruction (UO) is a common complication of feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). Robust treatment recommendations to prevent its recurrence are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meloxicam treatment for prevention of clinical recrudescence in male cats with obstructive FIC. ANIMALS: Fifty-one client-owned cats. METHODS: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Every male cat with FIC-associated UO was deemed eligible for the study and was recruited during hospitalization. After discharge, cats were treated with phenoxybenzamine and alprazolam for 2 weeks, with (24 cats) or without (27 cats) low-dose meloxicam (0.025 mg/kg/day PO) and monitored for 6 months. RESULTS: Cumulative number (%) of cats with recurrent UO at 10 days, 1-, 2-, and 6-months after discharge was 1 (2%), 2 (4%), 4 (8%), and 8 (16%), respectively. Overall, 12 (24%) cats experienced signs of recurrent FIC within 6 months, with (8 cats) or without (4 cats) concurrent UO. No difference in the cumulative incidence of UO within 6 months was detected with addition of meloxicam (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.63 [0.13-2.97]; P = .70). All cats were alive at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: No clinical benefit was detected with the addition of low-dose meloxicam to phenoxybenzamine and alprazolam treatment for 2 weeks after discharge. Nevertheless, this study was underpowered to identify potential differences, and its findings must be corroborated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Cistite/veterinária , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Alprazolam/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Protocolos Clínicos , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/prevenção & controle , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fenoxibenzamina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Obstrução Uretral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Uretral/prevenção & controle
5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109888, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307673

RESUMO

Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) commonly infects the skin of domestic cats and has been associated with the development of skin cancer. In the present study, a FcaPV-2 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was produced and assessed for vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and impact on FcaPV-2 viral load. This is the first report of the use of a papillomavirus VLP vaccine in domestic cats. The FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine was given to ten adult cats that were naturally infected with FcaPV-2, and a further ten naturally infected cats were sham vaccinated as a control group. The rationale for vaccinating cats already infected with the virus was to induce neutralizing antibody titers that could prevent reinfection of new areas of skin and reduce the overall viral load, as has been demonstrated in other species. Reducing the overall FcaPV-2 viral load could reduce the risk for subsequent PV-associated cancer. The vaccine in this study was well-tolerated, as none of the cats developed any signs of local reaction or systemic illness. In the treatment group, the geometric mean anti-papillomavirus endpoint antibody titers increased significantly following vaccination from 606 (95% CI 192-1913) to 4223 (2023-8814), a 7.0-fold increase, although the individual antibody response varied depending on the level of pre-existing antibodies. Despite the immunogenicity of the vaccine, there was no significant change in FcaPV-2 viral load in the treatment group compared to the control group, over the 24 week follow-up period. A possible reason is that FcaPV-2 was already widespread in the basal skin layer of these adult cats and so preventing further cells from becoming infected had no impact on the overall viral load. Therefore, these results do not support the use of a FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine to reduce the risk for PV-associated cancer in cats in which FcaPV-2 infection is already well established. However, these results justify future studies in which the vaccine is administered to younger cats prior to FcaPV-2 infection becoming fully established.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Carga Viral , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
6.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(5): 387-e117, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline nonflea hypersensitivity dermatitis (NFHD) is a frequent cause of over-grooming, scratching and skin lesions. Multimodal therapy often is necessary. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in maintaining methylprednisolone-induced remission in NFHD cats. ANIMALS: Fifty-seven NFHD cats with nonseasonal pruritus were enrolled originally, of which 25 completed all study requirements to be eligible for analysis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cats were randomly assigned to PEA-um (15 mg/kg per os, once daily; n = 29) or placebo (n = 28) while receiving a 28 day tapering methylprednisolone course. Cats responding favourably to methylprednisolone were then administered only PEA-um (n = 21) or placebo (n = 23) for another eight weeks, followed by a four week long treatment-free period. Cats were maintained in the study until relapse or study end, whichever came first. Primary outcome was time to relapse. Secondary outcomes were pruritus Visual Analog Scale (pVAS), SCORing Feline Allergic Dermatitis scale (SCORFAD) and owner Global Assessment Score (GAS). RESULTS: Mean relapse time was 40.5 days (±7.8 SE) in PEA-um treated cats (n = 13) and 22.2 days (±3.7 SE) for placebo (n = 12; P = 0.04). On Day 28, the severity of pruritus was lower in the PEA-um treated cats compared to placebo (P = 0.03). Mean worsening of pruritus at the final study day was lower in the PEA-um group compared to placebo (P = 0.04), whereas SCORFAD was not different between groups. Mean owner GAS at the final study day was better in the PEA-um than the placebo-treated group (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide could represent an effective and safe option to delay relapse in NFHD cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Gatos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/prevenção & controle , Etanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Palmíticos/administração & dosagem
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 831-837, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection can result in serious morbidity and mortality, especially in kittens. Immunotherapy using liposome-toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand complexes (LTC) has been shown to activate innate immune responses. OBJECTIVES: To determine in kittens whether mucosal administration of LTC before FHV-1 inoculation would decrease severity of clinical signs and decrease quantities of FHV-1 DNA in materials collected on oropharyngeal swabs. ANIMALS: Nineteen, 14-week-old, purpose-bred kittens. METHODS: Pilot clinical trial with 2 groups of kittens allocated to either an LTC or control group. The LTC were administered into both nares and the oropharynx of the 12 LTC group kittens, and all 19 kittens were inoculated with FHV-1 24 hours later. Clinical scores were determined daily for 28 days, and oropharyngeal mucosal materials were collected every 7 days to assess FHV-1 DNA quantities for comparison between groups. RESULTS: Conjunctivitis was more common in kittens in the control group on Days 15-28 (P = .01) and Days 1-28 (P = .02). Total respiratory scores were higher in the LTC group on days 15-28 (P = .03). The LTC group had significantly decreased FHV-1 DNA on swabs when compared to the control group on some postinoculation days, using 2 methods of calculation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Administration of LTC to kittens was shown to decrease FHV-1 DNA and some manifestations of illness in kittens when administrated 24 hours before inoculation, suggesting clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Varicellovirus/imunologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Projetos Piloto , Varicellovirus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(3): 271-296, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900396

RESUMO

Oncological emergencies can occur at any time during the course of a malignancy and need to be recognized promptly to maximize successful outcomes. Emergencies are characterized as chemotherapy-induced, paraneoplastic syndromes, or directly related to the neoplasm. Prompt identification with treatment of these emergencies can prolong survival and improve quality of life, even in the setting of terminal illness. This review aims to educate the reader on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment of some of these emergencies, and to review the current veterinary literature to help educate veterinarians in primary and tertiary facilities to know how to diagnose and treat these serious conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Emergências/veterinária , Neoplasias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Oncologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
14.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 55(2): 49-69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776257

RESUMO

The 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats outline a comprehensive approach to support companion animal practices in improving the oral health and often, the quality of life of their canine and feline patients. The guidelines are an update of the 2013 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. A photographically illustrated, 12-step protocol describes the essential steps in an oral health assessment, dental cleaning, and periodontal therapy. Recommendations are given for general anesthesia, pain management, facilities, and equipment necessary for safe and effective delivery of care. To promote the wellbeing of dogs and cats through decreasing the adverse effects and pain of periodontal disease, these guidelines emphasize the critical role of client education and effective, preventive oral healthcare.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Animais , Gatos , Assistência Odontológica/normas , Odontologia/normas , Odontologia/veterinária , Cães , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Higiene Bucal , Odontopatias/prevenção & controle , Odontopatias/veterinária
15.
Gut Microbes ; 10(4): 521-539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709324

RESUMO

Reduction in antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS) in people co-administered probiotics is believed to result from shifts in the microbiome and metabolome. Amelioration of AAGS in cats secondary to synbiotic administration has recently been demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to characterize associated changes in the fecal microbiome and metabolome. Sixteen healthy research cats received clindamycin with food, followed 1 h later by either a placebo or synbiotic, daily for 21 days. Fecal samples were collected during baseline, antibiotic administration, and 6 weeks after antibiotic discontinuation. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was performed, and mass spectrometry was used to determine fecal metabolomic profiles. Results were compared using mixed-model analyses, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Alpha and beta diversity were altered significantly during treatment, with persistent changes in the Shannon and dysbiosis indices. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria (Adlercreutzia, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Slackia), Bacteroidia (Bacteroides, Prevotella), Ruminococcaceae (Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus), Veillonellaceae (Megamonas, Megasphaera, Phascolarctobacterium) and Erysipelotrichaceae ([Eubacterium]) decreased and relative abundance of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium) and Proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) increased during treatment, followed by variable return to baseline relative abundances. Derangements in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), bile acid, tryptophan, sphingolipid, polyamine, benzoic acid, and cinnaminic acid pathways occurred with significant group by time, group, and time interactions for 10, 5, and 106 metabolites, respectively. Of particular note were changes related to polyamine synthesis. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the role of these alterations in prevention of AAGS in cats, people, and other animals treated with synbiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Clindamicina/toxicidade , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Simbióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/veterinária , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in privately owned cats, was assessed in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: In March-May 2015 [Day 0 (D0)], 204 privately-owned cats from the Aeolian Islands (Sicily) were collared (G1, n = 104) or left as controls (G2, n = 100). The bacteraemia of Bartonella spp. was assessed at enrolment (D0) and study closure (D360) by PCR and DNA sequencing both prior to and after an enrichment step, using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM). RESULTS: A total of 152 cats completed the study with 3 in G1 and 10 in G2 being positive for Bartonella spp. Bartonella henselae genotype I ZF1 (1.35%) and genotype II Fizz/Cal-1 (6.76%) as well as B. clarridgeiae (5.41%) were detected in cats of G2. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the only species detected in G1. Based on the yearly crude incidence of Bartonella spp. infection (i.e. 3.85% in G1 and 13.51% in G2; P = 0.03) the Seresto® collar achieved a preventative efficacy of 71.54%. The incidence of Bartonella spp. infection was more frequent in flea-infested cats (6/33, 18.18%) than in uninfested ones (7/112, 5.88%) (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Cats living in the Aeolian Islands are exposed to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. The Seresto® collar provided significant risk reduction against Bartonella spp. infection in outdoor cats under field conditions. Such a preventative tool could be a key contribution for decreasing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in cats and thus ultimately to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sicília/epidemiologia
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 353-354, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666952

RESUMO

We performed a molecular survey for Cytauxzoon felis infection in 311 domestic cats in Yunnan Province, China, in 2016 and found a prevalence of 21.5%. C. felis infection in domestic and wild cats in other provinces should be investigated to determine parasite prevalence and genetic diversity among cats throughout China.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Piroplasmida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Feminino , Masculino , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(1): 1-7, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227970

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy has been used for many years in dogs and cats and is the only specific treatment of atopic dermatitis that changes the patho-mechanisms of disease by stimulating allergen tolerance. Subcutaneous administration of allergens is the most commonly used administration route, typically in increasing concentrations (induction period) followed by long-term injection of allergen extract (maintenance therapy). Rush protocols with an abbreviated induction period have been reported and shown to be safe in dogs. More recently, oro-mucosal and intralymphatic administration of allergens has been evaluated in dogs. Approximately two-thirds of patients show good to excellent improvement of clinical signs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Dessensibilização Imunológica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Gatos , Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Cães , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S45-S51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470638

RESUMO

A new topical formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated in the treatment and control of naturally occurring infections of Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Toxocara cati in cats presented as veterinary patients in the United States. Three thousand three hundred three (3303) cats were screened in 25 veterinary practices in 15 states and 153 hookworm-positive cats (A. tubaeforme and/or A. braziliense), mainly from Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Hawaii, were identified; 135 cats met all the criteria for enrollment and were included on study. The cats were randomly assigned to treatment with Revolution® (at the label dosage, to provide a minimum dosage of 6 mg/kg selamectin) or selamectin plus sarolaner (at a dosage of 6-12 mg/kg plus 1-2 mg/kg, respectively). Treatments were administered at the time of enrollment and repeated 30 days later. Fecal samples were collected for differential fecal egg count prior to the first treatment (Day 0), prior to the second treatment (Day 30), and approximately 30 days later (Day 60). Efficacy was based on the percentage reductions in geometric mean fecal egg count for A. tubaeforme on Day 30 and Day 60 compared with Day 0. Where cats were co-infected with T. cati, efficacy against this species was also evaluated. Efficacy data were evaluated for A. tubaeforme for 40 cats on both Day 30 and Day 60 for the group treated with the selamectin/sarolaner combination and reductions in geometric mean fecal egg counts of 99.4% and 99.7% were demonstrated for Day 30 and Day 60, respectively. For the group treated with selamectin alone, 44 and 40 cats were evaluated and percent reductions for Day 30 and Day 60 were 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively. For T. cati, 14 cats were evaluated in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group for Day 30 and for Day 60, and the reduction in geometric mean fecal egg count was 100% for both days. There were 11 and 9 cats evaluated for Day 30 and Day 60, respectively, for the selamectin-treated group and the reduction was again 100% for both days. The geometric mean fecal egg counts post-treatment were significantly lower than pre-treatment for both A. tubaeforme and T. cati, for both treatments, and for both periods of interest (P < 0.0001). No serious adverse events related to treatment with either product occurred during the study. Thus, both selamectin alone and the combination product of selamectin/sarolaner were safe and effective when administered on a monthly basis for the treatment and control of natural infections of A. tubaeforme and T. cati. The addition of sarolaner to the formulation did not interfere with the efficacy of selamectin against these nematodes.


Assuntos
Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ancylostoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ancilostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Ancilostomíase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S31-S37, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466895

RESUMO

Cytauxzoonosis, caused by infection with Cytauxzoon felis, is the most severe tick-borne disease of cats. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of selamectin (6.0 mg/kg) plus sarolaner (1.0 mg/kg) formulated in combination (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) applied topically once a month on cats for three months against induced infestations of Amblyomma americanum adults and to evaluate the effectiveness of the product in preventing the transmission of C. felis. This study was conducted in two phases. Sixteen cats were dosed with selamectin/sarolaner or a placebo (vehicle control) on Days 0, 28, and 56. In phase 1, each cat was infested with 50 (±5) unfed adult A. americanum on Day 4 and tick counts were conducted on Day 6 (48 h post infestation) and Day 7 (72 h post infestation) to evaluate acaricidal efficacy. In phase 2, to confirm acaricidal efficacy and evaluate prevention of C. felis transmission, each cat was infested on Day 60 with 50 (±5) adult A. americanum acquisition fed as nymphs on two C. felis-infected donor cats. Tick counts were conducted on Day 62 (48 h post infestation) and Day 63 (72 h post infestation). Blood samples were collected on Days -9, 60, 70, 76, and 90 and tested for infection with C. felis. Placebo cats were adequately infested on all count days, with least squares (geometric) mean live tick counts ranging from 34.0 (28.8) to 46.1 (46.0). Treatment reduced the least squares (geometric) mean counts compared to placebo by 27.1 (32.1)% and 90.4 (96.8)% on Days 6 and 7, respectively. The corresponding percent reductions were 56.4 (60.6)% and 94.7 (97.3)% on Days 62 and 63, respectively. Least squares mean counts were significantly lower in the treated group compared with the placebo group on all count days (P ≤ 0.0286). All cats were negative for C. felis by PCR prior to study start. In phase 2, seven cats in the control group and no cats in the selamectin/sarolaner group became infected with C. felis (P = 0.0017). Topical treatment with selamectin/sarolaner was >90% effective in reducing A. americanum tick counts 72 h after infestation and prevented the transmission of C. felis from infected ticks following the third of three monthly treatments. Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus offers an option for the control of A. americanum infestations on cats and for preventing the transmission of C. felis to cats.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Ninfa , Piroplasmida/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroplasmida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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