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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 331-357, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866094

RESUMO

Fungal rhinosinusitis, including sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) and sino-orbital aspergillosis (SOA), is the most common type of aspergillosis encountered in cats. Other focal forms of aspergillosis including disseminated invasive aspergillosis occur less frequently. SOA is an invasive mycosis that is increasingly recognized and is most commonly caused by Aspergillus felis, a close relative of Aspergillus fumigatus. SNA can be invasive or noninvasive and is most commonly caused by A fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Molecular methods are required to correctly identify the fungi that cause SNA and SOA. SNA has a favorable prognosis with treatment, whereas the prognosis for SOA remains poor.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Sinusite/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/microbiologia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 311-329, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879130

RESUMO

The etiology of feline chronic rhinitis is incompletely understood and often is a diagnosis of exclusion. History, clinical signs, and investigations performed to reach this diagnosis are discussed. Several treatment options are provided, although cure of this frustrating disease is rarely achieved.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Rinite/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos , Prognóstico , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/etiologia , Rinite/terapia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 519, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Troglostrongylus brevior is a lungworm of wild felids that recently has been recognized as agent of severe respiratory disease in domestic cats in Mediterranean and Balkan countries. Nevertheless, the information on treatment options for feline troglostrongylosis is still poor. The aim of this pilot field trial was to evaluate the efficacy of the spot-on formulation containing 1% w/v moxidectin and 10% w/v imidacloprid (Advocate® spot-on solution for cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH) in the treatment of T. brevior infection in naturally infected cats in Greece. METHODS: The trial was a negative control, multicentre, clinical efficacy study conducted according to the standards of Good Scientific Practice (GSP). Sixteen cats in two study sites, naturally infected with T. brevior, were allocated to an untreated control group (G1, n = 8) or a treatment group (G2, n = 8), according to a randomization list. Animals assigned to G2 were treated with Advocate® for cats on days 0 and 28 at the recommended dose rate and animals assigned to G1 received a rescue treatment with the same product on days 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed on days 28 and 56 in G2 and on days 84 and 112 in G1 by faecal larval counts. The primary efficacy criterion was the absence of T. brevior first-stage larvae (L1) following treatment. Other efficacy parameters were the quantitative comparison of L1 presence before (baseline) and after one or two treatments in both groups. RESULTS: All G2 cats were negative for T. brevior L1 at the first post-treatment evaluation (100% efficacy) while G1 cats were persistently shedding L1. The difference of the mean number of L1 per gram between G2 and G1 was statistically significant (P < 0.001). All G1 cats were negative (100% efficacy) for T. brevior L1 at the first post-rescue-treatment evaluation. Therefore, treatment efficacy at study completion was 100% in both groups in terms of stopping the L1 shedding in the faeces of the animals. No adverse effects were observed during the study. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Advocate® spot-on solution for cats represents an option for treating cats naturally infected with T. brevior.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Metastrongyloidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Grécia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 337, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flea bite is considered to be the main cause of allergic dermatitis in cats. There is a need for treatments able to control clinical signs of allergic dermatitis associated with flea bite in cats. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment clinical field study. All cats included in the study presented pruritus, skin lesions or other evidence compatible with flea infestation. Skin lesions were assessed (using SCORFAD) at days 0, 28, 56 and 84 whereas pruritus severity was assessed (using PVAS) at days 0, 15, 28, 56 and 84. On day 0, The fluralaner (280 mg/ml) product (Bravecto® spot-on for cats) was supplied in pipettes containing 0.4, 0.89 and 1.79 ml for cats of 1.2-2.8 kg, > 2.8-6.25 kg and > 6.25-12.5 kg body weight, respectively. The other animals living in the same household also received fluralaner. Based on cytological examination at day 0, oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for 21 days if indicated. For cats presenting intense pruritus and discomfort at day 0, oral prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg was prescribed for 3 days. RESULTS: During the study all cats, except for one (cat number 10), improved significantly. Post-treatment median SCORFAD scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment score on day 0 (P values < 0.002 for all three post treatment examination days) with a score reduction of 49% on day 28, 79% on day 56 and 87% on day 84. The PVAS score decreased significantly over the study period for all cats but one (cat number 10). Post-treatment median PVAS scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment PVAS score on day 0 (P value < 0.002 for all four post-treatment days) with a reduction of 46% on day 15, 67% on day 28, 82% on day 56 and 92% on day 84. No adverse reaction or other health issue was reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single topical treatment with fluralaner results in a significant reduction of flea bite allergic dermatitis clinical signs in cats over the subsequent 12 weeks without any additional environmental treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Ctenocephalides , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Masculino , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 511-513, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterial diseases of humans and animals can be caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). The transmission of the infection primarily occurs via the respiratory or oral routes, but also via a damaged skin barrier. MOTT have high resistance to external factors; therefore, infected, undiagnosed animals can pose a risk for public health. CASE REPORT: The case study describes mycobacterial skin infection in a domestic cat. The correct diagnosis was reached four months after the appearance of the first clinical signs. Those were purulent, granulomatous lesions and fistulas, which could potentially act as a source of the infection for the owners and the veterinarian who cared for the animal. CONCLUSION: Despite using advanced diagnostic techniques, establishing the final cause of the cat's illness was a lengthy process. The skin lesions could contribute to the transmission of the bacteria in the environment. Non-targeted treatments could also cause antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/veterinária , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Masculino , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 760-763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483035

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Sifonápteros , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2117-2123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urethral obstruction (UO) is a common complication of feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). Robust treatment recommendations to prevent its recurrence are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meloxicam treatment for prevention of clinical recrudescence in male cats with obstructive FIC. ANIMALS: Fifty-one client-owned cats. METHODS: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Every male cat with FIC-associated UO was deemed eligible for the study and was recruited during hospitalization. After discharge, cats were treated with phenoxybenzamine and alprazolam for 2 weeks, with (24 cats) or without (27 cats) low-dose meloxicam (0.025 mg/kg/day PO) and monitored for 6 months. RESULTS: Cumulative number (%) of cats with recurrent UO at 10 days, 1-, 2-, and 6-months after discharge was 1 (2%), 2 (4%), 4 (8%), and 8 (16%), respectively. Overall, 12 (24%) cats experienced signs of recurrent FIC within 6 months, with (8 cats) or without (4 cats) concurrent UO. No difference in the cumulative incidence of UO within 6 months was detected with addition of meloxicam (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.63 [0.13-2.97]; P = .70). All cats were alive at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: No clinical benefit was detected with the addition of low-dose meloxicam to phenoxybenzamine and alprazolam treatment for 2 weeks after discharge. Nevertheless, this study was underpowered to identify potential differences, and its findings must be corroborated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Cistite/veterinária , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Alprazolam/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Protocolos Clínicos , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/prevenção & controle , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fenoxibenzamina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Obstrução Uretral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Uretral/prevenção & controle
8.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 578-584, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol and 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions in decreasing intracranial pressure (ICP) in animals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective uncontrolled interventional study. SETTING: Veterinary university teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two cats and 1 dog with TBI with a modified Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8 after hemodynamic stabilization, and with brain magnetic resonance imaging changes suggestive of intracranial hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were surgically instrumented for direct ICP measurement, then randomly treated with iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol or 3% NaCl. Direct ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were recorded both before treatment and for 120 minutes following drug administration. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Direct ICP and CPP were recorded both before treatment and at 5 additional time points following administration over the subsequent 120 minutes. Case 1 received 3% NaCl without any response to therapy; refractory posttraumatic hypertension was suspected. Case 2 was treated with 3% NaCl; ICP decreased by 40.7% and CPP increased by 15%; however, these effects were transient. Case 3 received 18% mannitol, and ICP decreased by 19% and CPP increased to normal. However, there was a rebound increase in ICP that was higher than pretreatment values, and CPP decreased slightly before it gradually increased to normal values towards the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Both mannitol and hypertonic saline decrease ICP and improve CPP, but the effect observed in this pilot study suggests that there might be differences in the duration of these effects. Appropriately designed studies in a larger and homogeneous population are warranted to further investigate these findings.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos/lesões , Diuréticos Osmóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães/lesões , Hemorragias Intracranianas/veterinária , Manitol/uso terapêutico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Diuréticos Osmóticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intracraniana , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem
9.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 243-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284346

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection in cats reared in Daegu, Republic of Korea and 2) to assess the efficacy and safety of a topical emodepside/praziquantel formulation for cats with parasitic infections. The gastrointestinal parasite infections were examined microscopically using the flotation method. Of 407 cats, 162 (39.8%) were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite, including Toxocara cati (63.0%), Toxascaris leonina (31.5%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.7%), and Cystoisospora felis (1.9%). None of the infected animals had multiple infections. When the data were analyzed according to sex, age, and type of cat, stray cats showed statistically higher prevalence than companion cats (P<0.05). On the 5th day after treatment, no parasitic eggs were detected using microscopic examination. In addition, no adverse effects, such as abnormal behaviors and clinical symptoms, were observed in the cats treated with the drug. These results quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cats in Daegu, Republic of Korea, and show that topical emodepside/praziquantel is a safe and effective choice for treating the parasitic infections in cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , República da Coreia , Taenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/fisiologia , Toxascaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxascaris/fisiologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 743-755, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic effects of short-term administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone to systemically normal cats. ANIMALS: 10 cats with allergic dermatitis and 10 healthy control cats. PROCEDURES: Cats with allergic dermatitis were randomly allocated to 2 groups and received 2 dosages of prednisolone (1 and 2 mg/kg/d, PO, for 7 days) in a crossover design followed by 9-day tapering and 14-day washout periods. Each prednisolone-treated cat was matched to a healthy control cat on the basis of sex, neuter status, age (± 1 year), and body weight (± 10%). Control cats received no treatment during the 35-day observation period. Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline (day 0) and predetermined times during and after prednisolone administration and compared within and between the 2 treatment groups. RESULTS: Prednisolone-treated cats had expected clinicopathologic alterations (mild increases in neutrophil and monocyte counts and serum concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides) but systolic arterial blood pressure; blood glucose, serum potassium, and cardiac biomarker concentrations; urinary sodium excretion; and echocardiographic variables did not differ significantly from baseline at any time. Statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increases in blood glucose and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were observed between baseline and the prednisolone pharmacokinetic steady state (7 days after initiation) only when the 2-mg/kg dosage was administered. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone did not cause relevant hemodynamic, echocardiographic, or diabetogenic effects in systemically normal cats with allergic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Gatos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Prednisolona/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/veterinária , Ecocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101945, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228586

RESUMO

Three different Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) species have been described infecting domestic cats in Europe (i.e. H. felis, H. canis and H. silvestris), however, reports on clinical hepatozoonosis are uncommon and treatment protocols are not clearly defined. A six-year-old male European short-hair cat from Austria presented poor general condition, lethargy, anorexia, icterus, a painful abdomen, fever, ruffled hair and a tick infestation, and it had never left Austria. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and increased serum levels of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and bilirubin. In May Grünwald-Giemsa-stained blood smears, structures resembling Hepatozoon gamonts were observed inside neutrophil granulocytes. A PCR targeting a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and DNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of H. felis-DNA in blood samples. The cat was treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6 mg/kg body weight, repeated after 14 days) and doxycycline monohydrate (5 mg/kg body weight twice a day, p.o., for four weeks) and recovered completely. A broad haematological and biochemical laboratory control after six months showed all evaluated parameters under normal ranges. Coinfection with other feline pathogens (i.e. feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline Coronavirus, Leishmania and Dirofilaria immitis) could not be detected. This study reveals the presence of H. felis in Austria and provides more evidence on the geographical distribution and pathogenicity of this parasite for domestic cats. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first autochthonous case of feline hepatozoonosis in Central Europe.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Eucoccidiida/genética , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S58-S63, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182302

RESUMO

The efficacy of three consecutive monthly treatments with a novel topical product (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) containing selamectin in combination with the isoxazoline, sarolaner, was compared with that of another topical isoxazoline, fluralaner [Bravecto® (fluralaner topical solution) for Cats, Merck] against Ixodes scapularis ticks on cats. Twenty-four cats were ranked by pre-treatment tick counts to form groups of three and were randomly allocated to be treated with placebo, the minimum label dosage of Revolution® Plus (6 mg/kg selamectin plus 1 mg/kg sarolaner) or the minimum label dosage of Bravecto® for Cats (40 mg/kg fluralaner) within the groups. On Days 0, 30, and 60, each cat in the placebo and Revolution® Plus-treated groups was treated topically, whereas cats in the Bravecto® for Cats-treated group were treated topically once on Day 0 with fluralaner and, subsequently, these animals were treated with the placebo on Days 30 and 60 to maintain masking. Doses were calculated based on weight to provide the minimum label dosage for each product; the calculated volume of product to be administered was rounded off to the nearest 0.1 mL. The selamectin plus sarolaner-treated cats received effective dosages of 5.29-7.12 mg/kg selamectin and 0.88-1.19 mg/kg sarolaner, while the fluralaner cats received dosages of 35.21-43.16 mg/kg fluralaner. Cats were infested with approximately 50 unfed viable adult I. scapularis ticks on Days 5, 12, 26, 40, 54, 68, 82, and 88. Efficacy was assessed at 48 h after each infestation. There were no adverse reactions to any treatment during the study. The placebo-treated cats maintained adequate tick infestations throughout the study. Three monthly treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus) resulted in high and consistent efficacy against I. scapularis for up to 30 days after each treatment. Based on geometric means, efficacy was ≥99.1% at all time points assessed. Treatment with fluralaner (Bravecto® for Cats) provided high and consistent efficacy of ≥99.3% up to Day 70. On Day 84, efficacy was 90.1%; however, cats from which ticks were recovered on Day 84 had received approximately 4%-12% less than the minimum dosage of 40 mg/kg fluralaner. Three consecutive monthly treatments with Revolution® Plus or a single treatment with Bravecto® for Cats provided >90% control of I. scapularis ticks over a 12-week time period.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(5): 967-979, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176458

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment represents a key obstacle for the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. Electrochemotherapy involves the systemic or local delivery of lipophobic drugs such as bleomycin and cisplatin, with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This greatly enhances the uptake of these drugs by an estimated factor of 700-fold for bleomycin and 4 to 8 times for cisplatin. Because of its efficacy and limited morbidity, this therapeutic option is becoming more and more available in veterinary oncology either as an adjuvant to surgery or as first line of treatment with palliative or curative purposes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroquimioterapia/veterinária , Neoplasias/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Eletroquimioterapia/métodos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Veterinária
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(6): 1052-1062, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115163

RESUMO

Resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a common problem in the treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals, including cats. There is thus an urgent need to develop new treatments. Molecularly targeted therapies hold the promise of high specificity and significant cancer-killing effects. Accumulating evidence shows that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair proteins, which function in Ku-dependent non-homologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), are potential target molecules for next-generation cancer therapies. Although cancer radioresistance in cats has been previously described, there are no reports on feline Ku-dependent NHEJ. Here, we cloned and sequenced feline XLF cDNA and characterized X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4-like factor (XLF), which is one of the core NHEJ proteins. We demonstrated that feline XLF localizes to the nuclei of feline cells and that feline XLF immediately accumulates at laser-induced DSB sites in a Ku-dependent manner. Amino acid sequence alignment analysis showed that feline XLF has only 80.9% identity with human XLF protein, while the predicted nuclear localization signal and putative 14-3-3-binding motif are perfectly conserved among human, cat, dog, chimpanzee, and mouse. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that regulation of subcellular localization is important for the function of XLF. Furthermore, these findings may be useful in clarifying the mechanisms underlying feline Ku-dependent DSB repair and feline cell radioresistance, and possibly facilitate the development of new molecularly targeted therapies that target common proteins in human and feline cancers.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células HCT116 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Autoantígeno Ku/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/veterinária , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Animais de Estimação/genética , Fosforilação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transfecção
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 259, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation of fluralaner plus moxidectin has been designed to provide long-term protection against fleas and ticks, prevent heartworm disease and treat gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this product against fleas collected from a household with repeated fipronil failures following owner-administered treatments. METHODS: Thirty cats were randomized to three equal groups: (A) untreated controls; (B) to receive a single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus) at 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively; and (C) three applications at one month intervals with a spot-on formulation of fipronil and (S)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus) at 0.5 ml manufacturer recommended dose. Flea challenges were completed on Days -6 (for randomization), -1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 77, 84 and 91. Flea counts were completed 48 hours after initial treatment and 48 hours following each subsequent challenge. RESULTS: Fleas were found on all control and all fipronil and (S)-methoprene treated cats at every assessment. From Day 2 to Day 93, all cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were flea-free, with one exception (Day 58; three fleas counted on one cat); control group flea counts ranged between 34-109, and fipronil and (S)-methoprene group counts ranged between 1-79. At each assessment after Day 0, compared to the control group, geometric mean flea counts were significantly lower in the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P ≤ 0.04) and in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group (P < 0.001), and mean flea counts in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were significantly lower than those of the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin, based on geometric means, was 100% at each assessment post-Day 0 except on Day 58 when efficacy was 99.7%. In the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group efficacy ranged between 30.6-65.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate complete efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin against a flea isolate that was not controlled by fipronil and (S)-methoprene. This study provides confirmation of the consistent, sustained efficacy of topically applied fluralaner in the treatment and control of flea infestations in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1677-1685, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenems are a class of antimicrobials reserved for resistant infections or systemically ill people, yet the extent and context in which they are prescribed in the small animals is understudied. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To describe cases in dogs and cats treated with carbapenems to establish baseline data regarding the types of infections, outcomes, and resistance profiles of target infections. We hypothesize that prescribing practices for carbapenems at a veterinary tertiary care hospital would not comply with the recommended use guidelines in human medicine. METHODS: Retrospective study of veterinary medical records from all dogs and cats prescribed carbapenems between May 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 81 infections (71 in dogs and 10 in cats) representing 68 animals (58 dogs and 10 cats) involving carbapenem use were identified. Cultures were performed in 65/81 (80%) infections, and antimicrobial use was de-escalated or discontinued in 10/81 (12%) infections. The average duration of treatment was 27.5 days and ranged from 1 to 196 days. Resistance to more than 3 antimicrobial classes was present in 57/115 (50%) isolates. Resistance to carbapenems was found in 2/64 (3%) of the bacterial isolates with reported carbapenem susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The majority of carbapenem use at a veterinary tertiary care hospital was prescribed in conjunction with culture and sensitivity determination, with de-escalation performed in a minority of cases, and treatment durations longer than typically recommended in human medicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Feminino , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 137, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oclacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) 1 enzyme inhibitor and blocks JAK1-dependent cytokines and is used to control pruritus. Studies available in cats are very limited and as there is a potential role for oclacitinib in the control of pruritus in this specie, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of oral oclacitinib maleate in healthy cats. RESULTS: Thirty mixed-breed cats weighing from 2.1 to 5.3 kg each were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of 10 animals each. Cats in two groups received oclacitinib at 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg q 12 h orally for 28 days. Cats in the third group were given placebo tablets (cornstarch) q 12 h orally for 28 days. Oclacitinib maleate was well tolerated during the study and few adverse events were observed in treated cats. Clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any animals treated at 1 mg/kg. Gastrointestinal clinical signs observed in the 2 mg/kg group included vomiting in two of the 10 cats and soft stools in two cats. One cat treated with placebo also exhibited soft stools. No significant differences were observed between the groups for hematologic analyses performed during the study. There was a slight increase in neutrophils and monocytes and a decrease in eosinophil mean counts in treated cats. Mean renal and liver enzymes remained normal throughout the entire study. A small, but significant increase in fructosamine levels was observed for both treated groups compared with placebo; however, values remained within the normal reference range. There were no significant difference between treated groups and the placebo group for urine specific gravity, pH, or urine protein to creatinine ratio mean values. CONCLUSIONS: Oclacitinib maleate was well tolerated by cats at 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg and appeared to be safe for this species when administered orally twice daily for 28 days. More studies would be needed to demonstrate if oclacitinib maleate may be a suitable alternative to treat pruritic cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 203, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs and cats can transmit zoonotic helminths to humans, e.g. Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis. Strategic deworming may help minimize this risk. Studies in several European countries have shown that pets are dewormed less frequently against roundworms and tapeworms than recommended by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP). The objective of this study was to identify percentages of dogs and cats falling into the different risk categories defined by the German ESCCAP guidelines and to evaluate whether deworming frequency and parasite monitoring in Germany follows these guidelines. RESULTS: According to questionnaire results from 500 dog and 500 cat owners, deworming of dogs in Germany averages 2.07 times/year while for cats this average is 1.72 times/year. In contrast, evaluation of risk factors placed only 2% (10/500) of dogs in ESCCAP category A with a recommended deworming/examination frequency of 1-2 times per year, while 4.8% (24/500) were placed in category B (4 treatments/examinations per year recommended), 30.8% (154/500) in category C (12 treatments/examinations per year against tapeworms and 4 treatments/examinations per year against roundworms recommended) and 62.4% (312/500) in category D (12 treatments/examinations per year recommended). All cats were placed either in risk group A [52.8% (264/500)] or D [47.2% (236/500)]. Generalized linear models indicated that risk group D cats were treated significantly more often against helminths than risk group A cats. There were no significant differences in deworming frequency between risk groups in dogs. The most important factor influencing deworming frequency was the frequency of veterinary visits. Dogs and cats were treated significantly more often if owners visited their veterinarian more than once yearly. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage distribution of risk groups considerably varied between dogs and cats. Nevertheless, 62% of dogs and 47% of cats were assigned to category D for which monthly treatments/examinations are recommended by the ESCCAP guidelines. Veterinarians play a key role in instructing pet owners with regard to helminthoses and their prevention, and should take the time for adequate risk assessments. The reported low deworming frequencies despite the high potential parasite infection risk suggests that pet owner advice through veterinarians needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S52-S57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133494

RESUMO

In a controlled laboratory study, the efficacy against fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, of a single treatment of fluralaner topical solution (Bravecto® for Cats, Merck) was compared with that of three consecutive monthly topical treatments with selamectin and sarolaner (Revolution® Plus, Zoetis). Twenty-four domestic short hair cats were ranked based on host suitability flea counts to form groups of three and were randomly assigned within group to one of three treatments. The first group received a topical treatment with (a) placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 0, 30, and 60, (b) 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner on Days 0, 30, and 60, or (c) 40 mg/kg fluralaner on Day 0 and placebo (vehicle control for Revolution® Plus) on Days 30 and 60. Because doses were rounded off, the selamectin plus sarolaner-treated cats received effective dosages of 5.25-6.60 mg/kg selamectin and 0.88-1.10 mg/kg sarolaner, while the fluralaner-treated cats received dosages of 34.71-43.08 mg/kg fluralaner. All cats were infested with 100 (±5) fleas on Day -1 and at biweekly intervals after that, from Day 13 to Day 89. Flea comb counts were conducted 24 hours after treatment or after re-infestation. There were no adverse events related to treatment during the study. Except for a single cat from which 20 fleas were recovered on Day 90, all other placebo-treated cats had at least 48 fleas at each count, indicating adequacy of infestation of the controls. Based on geometric mean live flea counts, three consecutive monthly treatments with Revolution® Plus resulted in consistent and high efficacy of ≥98.6% compared with placebo throughout the study. A single treatment with Bravecto® for Cats provided consistent and high efficacy of ≥94.6% on all count days during a period of 12 weeks, the approved duration of efficacy for the product. Based on the efficacy results of the study, both products were equivalent in their ability to control fleas on cats. Use of Bravecto® for Cats every 12 weeks or the consecutive monthly use of Revolution® Plus is expected to provide extended high residual kill over the respective labeled durations of efficacy of the two products.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
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