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1.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 482-487, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151116

RESUMO

Pain recognition and treatment in companion animals are important aspects of veterinary medicine, yet the teaching of these concepts may not be adequate at all academic institutions. This study was designed to evaluate veterinary students' ability to recall signs of pain and specific analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. We hypothesized that students in the fourth, or final, year of their veterinary curriculum would have a better understanding of pain recognition and be able to recall more analgesic options. A brief, voluntary, and anonymous open question survey was made available to all veterinary students, years 1 to 4, at our institution. The questions included, "How does a cat/dog show signs of pain?" and "What pain medications are used in cats/dogs?" Survey responses were collated according to the students' year in the curriculum, and the most common responses for signs of pain and analgesic medications recalled by the students in both the cat and dog were compared for significant differences. Results showed that students in the class of 2017 (seniors) had no superior recall of analgesic medications or recognition of pain in cats or dogs compared to the other classes. Vocalization was the most common sign of pain recalled with at least 50% responses from all classes. Carprofen was the most commonly recalled analgesic for dogs (the difference between classes, p = .04). Meloxicam was the most commonly recalled analgesic for cats (the difference among classes, p < .001). Based on these results, areas of improvement were identified for our analgesic curriculum.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Educação em Veterinária , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Estudantes
2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(12): 723-731, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe responses of cats prescribed a hydrolysed diet with or without concurrent medication for chronic vomiting and/or diarrhoea of undetermined aetiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anonymised records of 512,213 cats under UK veterinary care in 2016 from the VetCompass database were searched using relevant terms for hydrolysed diets. The records of 5000 (90%) of 5569 cats with evidence of receiving a hydrolysed diet were randomly reviewed for gastrointestinal indication, prior and concurrent medication and response after hydrolysed dietary intervention. A poor response was defined as evidence of receiving antibiotic or glucocorticoid treatment for vomiting/diarrhoea at visits after the onset of the diet or death from gastrointestinal signs for at least 6 months follow-up. RESULTS: Of 977 cats prescribed a hydrolysed diet for chronic vomiting/diarrhoea, 697 (71%) were first prescribed the diet without concurrent antibiotics or glucocorticoids while 280 (29%) first received the diet with these medications. Thirty-four per cent of cats in the former group and 61% in the latter had a poor response. Cats older than 6 years and cats prescribed antibiotic and/or glucocorticoid for vomiting/diarrhoea before and concurrently with the diet had higher odds of poor response. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although variations in our observations may reflect severity of signs or prescribing habits of primary-care veterinary surgeons, our study suggests there is merit in trialling a hydrolysed diet first as a sole therapy in cats with chronic vomiting/diarrhoea when diagnostic investigations do not reveal a cause, before resorting to antibiotic and/or glucocorticoid therapy for cases that respond poorly.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Vômito , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doença Crônica , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/veterinária
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15417, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963280

RESUMO

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a commensal bacterium in humans and other animals that can cause serious infections. The aim of this research was to estimate the frequency of S. lugdunensis in pet cats and to characterize the S. lugdunensis isolates obtained. The prevalence of S. lugdunensis was 0.77% (4/523) in healthy cats and 1.23% (1/81) in sick cats. The isolates (N = 5), which colonized conjunctival sacs, nares, and the anus, were almost fully phenotypically sensitive to antibiotics, but harbored resistance genes to four chemotherapeutic groups. Their sequence types (STs) included ST2, ST3, ST9, and ST15. There was detected a far lower prevalence of S. lugdunensis in pet cats than is reported in the human population. Nevertheless, the phenotypic and genotypic properties of S. lugdunensis isolates found in the current study were very similar to those described previously in isolates of human origin.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/genética
4.
Vet Surg ; 49(7): 1301-1306, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of incisional infections after gastrointestinal surgery in dogs and cats and describe the aerobic bacteria isolated from these infections. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 210) and cats (n = 66). METHODS: Records of dogs and cats that underwent gastrointestinal surgery at the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital at the University of Pennsylvania were reviewed for surgical procedures, presence of an infection, bacterial species isolated, perioperative antimicrobials administered, and outcome. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 14 days (4-35). Incisional infections were recorded in 7% (20/276) of cases. Among those 20 cases, culture results were available in 12 of 20 cases. The most common bacterial isolate cultured was Escherichia coli. The most common perioperative antimicrobials administered to treat incisional infection were cefazolin and cefoxitin. Only two of the bacterial isolates were susceptible to these antimicrobials. Bacteria isolated from incisional infections were most often susceptible to chloramphenicol, imipenem, and gentamicin. CONCLUSION: Bacterial isolates from incisional infections in this population consisted of native gastrointestinal flora, which was often resistant to the most commonly used perioperative antimicrobials. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Contamination at time of surgery is the most likely source of incisional infection after gastrointestinal surgery. This rate of infection justifies more rigorous intraoperative hygiene protocols and evaluation of the antimicrobials' susceptibility of causative bacteria to guide antimicrobial treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/veterinária , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
6.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(9): 554-560, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe infection in companion animals with the zoonotic pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and to determine its prevalence in clinically-affected and healthy animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical presentation and treatment of three cases of C. ulcerans infection is described. Two studies to determine C. ulcerans prevalence rates were undertaken: (a) a prospective study of nasal samples from healthy animals, 479 dogs and 72 cats; (b) a retrospective analysis of records of nasal samples collected over a 10-year period from 189 dogs and 64 cats affected by respiratory signs. RESULTS: Toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from four cats with nasal discharge while concurrent C. ulcerans and mecC methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection was detected in a dog suffering from chronic nasal discharge. Clinical features were not distinctive and all cases recovered following antimicrobial treatment. Multilocus sequence typing supported a common source for isolates from the shelter cats. Carriage rates of C. ulcerans in healthy animals were 0.42% (2/479) in dogs and 0.00% (0/72) in cats whereas in animals with signs of upper respiratory tract infection prevalence rates were 0.53% (1/189) in dogs and 6.25% (4/64) in cats. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should be aware that dogs and cats can be infected with (or carriers of) toxigenic C. ulcerans Considering the potential zoonotic risk, assistance from medical and public health colleagues should be sought in confirmed cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Corynebacterium , Doenças do Cão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Corynebacterium , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Can Vet J ; 61(6): 595-604, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675811

RESUMO

Evidence-based medical practice requires that clinical research be conducted to help guide veterinary recommendations. Unfortunately, clinical research on the treatment of feline urethral obstruction (UO) is limited. Over the past decade, a body of clinically relevant scientific literature related to the in-hospital management of feline UO has been published. This review of the literature from December 2007 to February 2019 encompasses management options, stabilization, anesthetic considerations, unblocking procedures, urinary bladder lavage, intravesical treatments, post-obstructive diuresis, urinary catheter management, catheter-associated bacterial complications, and oral medications. Studies are briefly summarized with respect to their main findings and limitations. Common recurring limitations observed include small sample sizes leading to insufficient power and potential type II errors, lack of standardized treatment protocols, and assessment of multiple inter-related confounding variables. The authors' intent is for this article to inform practitioners and inspire future clinical research initiatives which address these limitations, possibly with large-scale multicenter studies, standardized treatment protocols, and multivariate regression modeling.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Obstrução Uretral , Cateteres Urinários , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Hospitais , Pesquisa , Obstrução Uretral/terapia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Bexiga Urinária
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3099-3104, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627079

RESUMO

The first case of feline ocular Thelazia callipaeda infection and two new canine imported infections in West Germany are here described. The three animals had a history of recent travel to/from other countries. The young adult cat imported from Spain presented an intermittent unilateral ocular discharge. During in-depth ophthalmic examination, a single alive nematode was removed from the conjunctival compartment of the affected eye. Referring to the canine cases, an adult female dog originated from Kenya presented epiphora and mucous whitish-grey discharge of the right eye. During flushing of the nasolacrimal duct two small, thin and long nematodes were removed. Furthermore, a male Borzoi racing dog with regular visit to racing tracks in different countries presented ocular mucous discharge. At ophthalmologic examination, two transparent-whitish vital nematodes were removed. All nematode specimens of the three cases were morphologically identified as adult T. callipaeda parasites. The animals were treated orally with milbemycin oxime (2.0 mg/kg; cat) or milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (0.5 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg; dogs) twice with 1-week interval resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. The repeated introduction of patent T. callipaeda-infected animals, especially from southern and eastern endemic countries, will ease the establishment of ophthalmic thelaziosis in Northern Europe. The male fruit fly, Phortica variegata, an intermediate host of T. callipaeda, is endemic within European countries. Considering the clinical and zoonotic relevance of ophthalmic thelaziosis, enhanced disease awareness of European medical and veterinarian doctors and in-depth eye examination for proper detection of T. callipaeda are crucial for appropriate anthelmintic treatments and to limit spreading of the infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Alemanha , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Spirurida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/genética , Thelazioidea/fisiologia
9.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100432, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482285

RESUMO

Vitamin C is synthesized in the liver in most species, including dogs and cats, and is widely distributed through body tissues. Vitamin C has an important physiologic role in numerous metabolic functions including tissue growth and maintenance, amelioration of oxidative stress, and immune regulation. It is also a co-factor in the production of important substances such as catecholamines and vasopressin. Decreased vitamin C levels have been documented in a wide variety of diseases, and in critically ill human patients may be associated with increased severity of disease and decreased survival. Intravenous supplementation with vitamin C has been proposed as a potential life-saving treatment in conditions such as septic shock, and results of small some human trials are promising. Data in companion in animals is very limited, but the possible benefits and , seemingly low risk of adverse effects , and the low cost of this treatment make vitamin C therapy a promising area of future investigation in critically ill dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Gatos , Estado Terminal , Cães , Animais de Estimação
10.
Vet J ; 258: 105450, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564869

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used to treat cats with lymphoma, carcinomas and sarcomas. However, no clear consensus exists regarding the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral cyclophosphamide in cats. Toxicities are rarely reported at published oral dosages of cyclophosphamide (200-300 mg/m2). The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine the MTD of oral cyclophosphamide in tumour-bearing cats via a modified phase I trial. A secondary aim was to define any toxicity. Forty-six client-owned tumour-bearing cats were enrolled. The cyclophosphamide dosage was escalated by approximately 10% (300, 330, 360, 400, 440, 460 and 480 mg/m2) in cohorts of at least six cats. The MTD of oral cyclophosphamide in this study was 460 mg/m2 with an inter-treatment interval of two to three weeks. Haematology is recommended 7 and 14 days after first cyclophosphamide treatment, and immediately before each subsequent dosage of cyclophosphamide or any potentially myelosuppressive chemotherapy agent. The dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenia with nadir at 7-21 days. This higher dosage was considered safe in combination with prednisolone and L-asparaginase. However, the higher dose of oral cyclophosphamide has not been evaluated in combination with other chemotherapy agents and thus should not be administered with these agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/toxicidade , Gatos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e40, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476314

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from companion animals. A total of 931 clinical specimens were collected from diseased pets. The detection of mupirocin-resistant bacteria and plasmid-mediated mupirocin resistance genes were evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing analysis. Four-hundred and six (43.6%) bacteria were isolated and 17 (4.2%), including 14 staphylococci and 3 Corynebacterium were high-level mupirocin-resistant (MICs, ≥ 1,024 ug/mL) harboring mupA. Six staphylococci of HLMR strains had plasmid-mediated mupA-IS257 flanking regions. The results show that HLMR bacteria could spread in veterinary medicine in the near future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 227, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner were evaluated for the treatment and control of natural flea infestations on cats in two non-randomised, multi-centre clinical trials conducted in 8 different locations in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: One hundred and four cats from 65 different households were enrolled across the two studies. Demographic characteristics of cats in the two studies were similar. The new spot-on formulation of selamectin and sarolaner was administered topically once a month for 3 consecutive months at a minimum dosage of 6 mg/kg selamectin (dose range 6-12 mg/kg) plus 1 mg/kg sarolaner (dose range 1-2 mg/kg). Cats were dosed on Days 0 (pre-treatment), 30 and 60 and physical examinations and flea counts were conducted on Days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Efficacy assessments were based on the percentage reduction in live flea counts post-treatment compared to Day 0. RESULTS: In Study A, at enrolment, primary cats had flea counts ranging from 6 to 107 (arithmetic mean 21.0). The selamectin and sarolaner spot-on formulation resulted in arithmetic mean efficacy of 98.0%, 100% and 100% on Days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. In Study B, at enrolment, primary cats had flea counts ranging from 6 to 22 (arithmetic mean 10.0). The selamectin and sarolaner spot-on formulation resulted in arithmetic mean efficacy of 99.7%, 100% and 100% on Days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner topically administered at monthly intervals at the minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and highly effective against natural infestations of fleas under a range of geographical conditions, representative of both tropical and subtropical regions of Australia.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários , Gatos/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Austrália , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(12): 1342-1346, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459587

RESUMO

Amitraz is presently the only FDA-approved treatment for demodicosis in dogs in the United States. Amitraz treatment involves a protracted course of administration and risks of severe adverse effects such as sedation, bradycardia, and respiratory depression, which are caused by activation of α2-adrenergic receptors. Other treatment options include macrocyclic lactones and lime sulfur, but these products have varied efficacy and high risks of adverse effects. Several recent studies have indicated that isoxazolines are capable of reducing Demodex mite counts in canine and feline patients with demodicosis by ≥ 99% in as little as 1 month with few adverse effects. This article reviews the status of isoxazolines in regard to labeled uses in dogs and cats in the United States, extralabel clinical use for treatment of demodicosis in these species, and safety of orally administered formulations of these drugs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Administração Oral , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária
14.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 162(4): 223-234, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The oral treatment of feline hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs often results in gastrointestinal side effects (10-20%). To date only oral formulations are approved although the oral application is not tolerated by all cats. Transdermal therapy can be an alternative. Nanocarriers could be used to ensure adequate transport of active agents through the skin. The present pilot study investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel dermal formulation of thiamazole for the treatment of feline hyperthyroidism. For the first time, amphiphilic dendritic core-multishell-nanocarriers were used. Cats with T4 values ≥ 4.0 µg/dl or a T4 value from 3.0-4.0 µg/dl and defined clinical findings were recruited. The euthyroid range for the T4 value was defined from ≥ 0.8 and ≤ 4.0 µg/dl. A total of 24 hyperthyroid cats were included and treated with thiamazole ointment for three weeks (24 cats) up to eight weeks (12 cats). The treatment success was 50% after three weeks and 41,7% after eight weeks. Cats that were within the euthyroid range required after three weeks a mean total dose of 1,09 mg/kg/d (0,68-1,7 mg/kg/d, 12/24) and after eight weeks 1,65 mg/kg/d (1,49-2,04 mg/kg/d, 5/12). No side effects were observed during the three resp. eight-week study period. Variations of the T4 value in companion cats in the same household were comparable to those of an independent control group. Thiamazole ointment based on nanocarriers is suitable for the treatment of feline hyperthyroidism.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antitireóideos/administração & dosagem , Gatos , Portadores de Fármacos , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Nanotecnologia , Pomadas/química , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(5): 546-552, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188801

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of atenolol on left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) function in healthy cats and investigate the relationship between atenolol administration and LA enlargement (LAE) in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In study 1, nine experimental cats were used to assess the effects of atenolol in healthy subjects. Cats were administered one of three medication protocols for 7 days: atenolol 6.25 mg/cat twice daily, 12.5 mg/cat twice daily, or placebo (biofermin) 1 tab/cat twice daily. In study 2, cats with HCM were retrospectively recruited and divided into four groups according to atenolol administration [(control group (Cont) or atenolol administration group (Ate)] and the presence or absence of LAE as follows: Cont LAE (-) group (n=42), Cont LAE (+) group (n=20), Ate LAE (-) group (n=17), and Ate LAE (+) group (n=12). LV and LA functions were compared in both studies. LV and LA functions were decreased by atenolol administration in study 1. In study 2, the peak myocardial velocity during early diastole (E') was significantly decreased in the Cont LAE (+), Ate LAE (-), and Ate LAE (+) groups compared to that in the Cont LAE (-) group, but there were no significant differences between LAE (+) groups. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that atenolol administration was not associated with LAE. Diastolic dysfunction may be associated with LAE; however, atenolol administration did not affect LAE in cats with HCM.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Função do Átrio Esquerdo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/veterinária , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Remodelamento Atrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168354

RESUMO

Antimicrobial Resistance is a global crisis that veterinarians contribute to through their use of antimicrobials in animals. Antimicrobial stewardship has been shown to be an effective means to reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospital environments. Effective monitoring of antimicrobial usage patterns is an essential part of antimicrobial stewardship and is critical in reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to describe how frequently antimicrobials were used in veterinary consultations and identify the most frequently used antimicrobials. Using VetCompass Australia, Natural Language Processing techniques, and the Australian Strategic Technical Advisory Group's (ASTAG) Rating system to classify the importance of antimicrobials, descriptive analysis was performed on the antimicrobials prescribed in consultations from 137 companion animal veterinary clinics in Australia between 2013 and 2017 (inclusive). Of the 4,400,519 consultations downloaded there were 595,089 consultations where antimicrobials were prescribed to dogs or cats. Antimicrobials were dispensed in 145 of every 1000 canine consultations; and 38 per 1000 consultations involved high importance rated antimicrobials. Similarly with cats, 108 per 1000 consultations had antimicrobials dispensed, and in 47 per 1000 consultations an antimicrobial of high importance rating was administered. The most common antimicrobials given to cats and dogs were cefovecin and amoxycillin clavulanate, respectively. The most common topical antimicrobial and high-rated topical antimicrobial given to dogs and cats was polymyxin B. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the antimicrobial usage patterns in Australia using methods that can be automated to inform antimicrobial use surveillance programs and promote antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Registros , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
17.
Complement Med Res ; 27(3): 163-173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the natural multicomponent, multitarget therapy SUC (Solidago compositum ad us. vet., Ubichinon compositum and Coenzyme compositum, Heel GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany) to the well-known angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril in a prospective, observational, nonrandomized, two-arm cohort study of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective was to assess the tolerability and the effectiveness of SUC in cats with CKD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six cats were screened for CKD, and 70 cats were eligible for the study. Thirty-three cats were assigned to the SUC treatment, and 35 cats received benazepril. All cats were diagnosed with CKD. The follow-up period was 168 days. Response was assessed as an improved or stable serum creatinine from baseline to the end of the study. Additionally, a clinical summary score, as measure of quality of life, was evaluated. RESULTS: Serum creatinine remained close to baseline in both study groups with slightly improved values in the SUC group. The clinical summary score improved significantly in the SUC group on days 3, 7, 28, 56 and 112, but not on day 168. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the study, the results carry implications for the usefulness of SUC as an interesting new treatment option for feline CKD. The results indicate that SUC might be more effective if given at least twice weekly.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(2): 783-789, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is the gold standard diagnostic for determining bacterial urinary tract infection. Transport of samples to external reference laboratories is common practice in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVE: To compare bacterial culture and susceptibility results from clinical urine samples when streak plate inoculation is performed immediately after sample collection versus after transport to a reference laboratory. To determine the clinical implications of discrepant culture results. ANIMALS: One hundred and ninety-four canine and 45 feline urine samples that were submitted for urinalysis and urine culture and susceptibility testing. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Streak plate inoculations were performed on urine samples immediately after collection and also after transport to a reference laboratory. Samples were stored in plain sterile tubes and refrigerated up to 24 hours before transport. Culture results were compared, and discordant results were evaluated for clinical relevance. Signalment, comorbidities, lower urinary tract signs, and antimicrobial history were recorded. RESULTS: Kappa coefficient for agreement between plating methods was 0.884. Twenty-two (71%) of 31 discrepant results were determined to have no clinical impact. Though 35% of clean midstream samples had discrepant culture results, only 8% of these had clinical impact. Conversely, 8.6% from cystocentesis were discrepant, but 41% of these had clinical impact. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Provided urine samples are stored and transported appropriately, the immediate preplating of urine for culture and susceptibility testing is unnecessary in the majority of cases. Despite more discrepancies in plating methods for midstream samples, the minority were of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/urina , Doenças do Cão/urina , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Urina/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Urinálise/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/urina
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(2): 734-741, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Tritrichomonas foetus is considered the most sensitive means for diagnosis of infection but results could be influenced by fecal collection technique and prior use of antimicrobial drugs. OBJECTIVES: To establish any association between fecal collection technique or treatment history and results of fecal PCR testing for T. foetus. ANIMALS: Fecal samples from 1717 cats submitted by veterinarians between January 2012 and December 2017. METHODS: This study used a retrospective analysis. T. foetus PCR test results from 1808 fecal samples submitted for diagnostic testing were examined for their association with method of fecal collection and prior antimicrobial treatments. Data were collected from sample submission form. RESULTS: Positive T. foetus PCR test results were obtained for 274 (16%) cats. Fecal samples collected via fecal loop had increased probability of positive PCR test results (odds ratio [OR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-3.17, P = .002) compared to samples collected by colonic flush. There was no association between PCR test results and treatment history, treatment type, or prior treatment with ronidazole. After an initial positive PCR test, 4/19 (21%; 95% CI 2.7%-39.4%) cats treated with ronidazole had a second positive test result. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Results of this study support that fecal samples collected by loop might be better for PCR diagnosis of T. foetus infection. Lack of association of ronidazole with PCR test results and a 21% all-potential-causes failure rate of ronidazole in cats with preconfirmed infection are important limitations to use of this drug.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ronidazole/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
20.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(3): 302-307, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case series of systemic lime sulfur toxicosis secondary to topical administration in 2 cats. CASE SUMMARY: Two cats from the same household that were being previously treated for Microsporum canis were presented following topical administration of an incorrectly diluted lime sulfur dip. A 30% solution was used rather than the recommended 3% solution, resulting in a 10-fold concentration overdose. The cats presented to the emergency service 1 hour after dermal application of the lime sulfur product at home. The first cat, a 2-year-old female, intact Cornish Rex, had severe hypotension, bradycardia, and hypothermia. Chemical burns were also present on the ventrum and paws. Clinicopathological data revealed profound acid-base disturbances, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and azotemia. After aggressive fluid resuscitation, electrolyte supplementation, and treatment, the patient was stabilized and discharged after 5 days of hospitalization; full recovery was later reported. The second littermate, also a 2-year-old female, intact Cornish Rex, presented the following day with similar clinical signs, physical examination findings, and clinicopathological findings. After supportive care and 2 days of hospitalization, the patient was also discharged and reported to fully recover. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This case series is the first to report systemic toxicosis secondary to dermal exposure of lime sulfur. As lime sulfur is commonly used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ectoparasites, veterinary professionals should be aware of the significant signs of poisoning that can be seen as a result of iatrogenic dosing errors by pet owners or veterinary professionals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Microsporum , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico
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