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1.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499363

RESUMO

Felid herpesvirus-1 (FeHV-1) is an important respiratory and ocular pathogen of cats and current vaccines are limited in duration and efficacy because they do not prevent infection, viral nasal shedding and latency. To address these shortcomings, we have constructed FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- deletion mutants (gE-TK- and PK-) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mutagenesis and shown safety and immunogenicity in vitro. Here, we compare the safety and efficacy of a prime boost FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- vaccination regimen with commercial vaccination in cats. Cats in the vaccination groups were vaccinated at 3-week intervals and all cats were challenge infected 3 weeks after the last vaccination. Evaluations included clinical signs, nasal shedding, virus neutralizing antibodies (VN), cytokine mRNA gene expression, post-mortem histology and detection of latency establishment. Vaccination with gE-TK- and PK- mutants was safe and resulted in significantly reduced clinical disease scores, pathological changes, viral nasal shedding, and viral DNA in the trigeminal ganglia (the site of latency) following infection. Both mutants induced VN antibodies and interferons after immunization. In addition, after challenge infection, we observed a reduction of IL-1ß expression, and modulation of TNFα, TGFß and IL10 expression. In conclusion, this study shows the merits of using FeHV-1 deletion mutants for prevention of FeHV-1 infection in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Varicellovirus/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/veterinária , Masculino , Varicellovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 660-663, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496650

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 readily transmits between domestic cats. We found that domestic cats that recover from an initial infection might be protected from reinfection. However, we found long-term persistence of inflammation and other lung lesions after infection, despite a lack of clinical symptoms and limited viral replication in the lungs.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Gatos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 427-438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389172

RESUMO

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) was listed as an endangered species under the Wildlife Conservation Act in Taiwan in 2009. However, no study has evaluated the possible direct or indirect effects of pathogens on the Taiwanese leopard cat population. Here, we targeted viral pathogens, including carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (genus Protoparvovirus), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), coronaviruses (CoVs), and canine distemper virus (CDV), through molecular screening. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the target pathogens were evaluated. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we clarified the phylogenetic relationship of viral pathogens isolated from leopard cats and domestic carnivores. Samples from 23 live-trapped leopard cats and 29 that were found dead were collected from 2015 to 2019 in Miaoli County in northwestern Taiwan. Protoparvoviruses and CoVs were detected in leopard cats, and their prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 63.5% (50.4%-76.6%) and 8.8% (0%-18.4%), respectively. Most of the protoparvovirus sequences amplified from Taiwanese leopard cats and domestic carnivores were identical. All of the CoV sequences amplified from leopard cats were identified as feline CoV. No spatial or temporal aggregation of protoparvovirus infection in leopard cats was found in the sampling area, indicating a wide distribution of protoparvoviruses in the leopard cat habitat. We consider sympatric domestic carnivores to be the probable primary reservoir for the identified pathogens. We strongly recommend management of protoparvoviruses and feline CoV in the leopard cat habitat, particularly vaccination programs and population control measures for free-roaming dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan/epidemiologia
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2322-2332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028154

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats. Cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel cats were introduced. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC. Viral RNA was not detected in blood but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats. Serology showed that both, principals and sentinels, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. All animals were clinically asymptomatic during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels. The results of this study are critical for understanding the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e71, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major and highly infectious pathogen in cats worldwide. However, there have been limited studies about the status of FCV infections in Korea. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the current status of FCV infections in stray cats in Korea. METHODS: A novel reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed based on the conserved nucleotide sequences of reported FCV strains. Field swab samples were collected from 122 cats (2 hospital admitted cats and 120 stray cats) in 2016 and 2017. All the samples were tested by virus isolation and 2 different RT-PCRs, including the novel RT-PCR, for the detection of FCV. RESULTS: The novel RT-PCR assay showed no cross-reactivity to the nucleic acids of the other feline pathogens tested, and the limit of detection was calculated as 10° TCID50/mL based on an in vitro assessment. The novel RT-PCR assay detected 5 positive samples from the 122 field samples, which showed perfect agreement with the results of the virus isolation method. In contrast, another RT-PCR assay used in a previous study in Korea detected no positive samples. The prevalence of FCV infection in stray cats was 2.5% (3/120) based on the results of virus isolation and the novel RT-PCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the first report of the detection and prevalence of FCV in stray cats in Korea. The novel RT-PCR assay developed in this study showed high sensitivity and specificity, which indicates a useful diagnostic assay to identify FCV infection in cats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Calicivirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
7.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911718

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence and potential risk factors of feline coronavirus (FCoV) shedding. Four consecutive fecal samples of 179 cats from 37 German breeding catteries were analyzed for FCoV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Prevalence of shedding was calculated using different numbers of fecal samples per cat (1-4) and different sampling intervals (5-28 days). Information on potential risk factors for FCoV shedding was obtained by a questionnaire. Risk factor analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Most cats (137/179, 76.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.8-82.2) shed FCoV at least at once. None of the tested 37 catteries was free of FCoV. Prevalence calculated including all four (76.5%, 95% CI 69.8-82.2) or the last three (73.7%, 95% CI 66.8-79.7) samples per cat was significantly higher than the prevalence calculated with only the last sample (61.5%, 95% CI 54.2-68.3; p = 0.0029 and 0.0175, respectively). Young age was significantly associated with FCoV shedding while the other factors were not. For identification of FCoV shedders in multi-cat households, at least three fecal samples per cat should be analyzed. Young age is the most important risk factor for FCoV shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
8.
J Virol Methods ; 286: 113979, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979406

RESUMO

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) are members of the alphacoronavirus genus that are further characterized by serotype (types I and II) based on the antigenicity of the spike (S) protein and by pathotype based on the associated clinical conditions. Feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) are associated with the vast majority of infections and are typically asymptomatic. Within individual animals, FECV can mutate and cause a severe and usually fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), the leading infectious cause of death in domestic cat populations. There are no approved antiviral drugs or recommended vaccines to treat or prevent FCoV infection. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) traditionally employed to assess immune responses and to screen therapeutic and vaccine candidates is time-consuming, low-throughput, and typically requires 2-3 days for the formation and manual counting of cytolytic plaques. Host cells are capable of carrying heavy viral burden in the absence of visible cytolytic effects, thereby reducing the sensitivity of the assay. In addition, operator-to-operator variation can generate uncertainty in the results and digital records are not automatically created. To address these challenges we developed a novel high-throughput viral microneutralization assay, with quantification of virus-infected cells performed in a plate-based image cytometer. Host cell seeding density, microplate surface coating, virus concentration and incubation time, wash buffer and fluorescent labeling were optimized. Subsequently, this FCoV viral neutralization assay was used to explore immune correlates of protection using plasma from naturally FECV-infected cats. We demonstrate that the high-throughput viral neutralization assay using the Celigo Image Cytometer provides a robust and efficient method for the rapid screening of therapeutic antibodies, antiviral compounds, and vaccines. This method can be applied to various viral infectious diseases to accelerate vaccine and antiviral drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/veterinária , Citometria por Imagem/métodos , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/diagnóstico , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Citometria por Imagem/veterinária , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Carga Viral
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785525

RESUMO

Cats are less susceptible to Dirofilaria immitis infection than dogs. Although rare, the feline disease can be fatal even with low parasitic loads. The infection is often asymptomatic or has non-specific symptoms that are mainly associated with the death of immature worms. Microfilaremia is rare and transient. Normally, microfilaremia, when present, lasts for not more than 33 days. This study describes a feline case presenting with non-specific clinical signs and prolonged microfilaremia. Case: a random bred cat infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) that was found to be microfilaremic by chance. The infection was detected by the presence of microfilariae in a blood smear and was confirmed by antigen test (SNAP Feline Triple Test, Idexx®) and echocardiogram.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Infecções por Retroviridae , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Dirofilariose/sangue , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Infecções por Retroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768223

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Gatos/virologia , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2079-2082, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627058

RESUMO

We evaluated the seroprevalence of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in dogs and cats in Córdoba, Argentina. Monotypic and heterotypic serological patterns were differentiated by means of a neutralization test. The SLEV seroprevalence in dogs was 14.6% (44/302; 100% monotypic). Two out of 94 (2.1%, 100% monotypic) cats were positive for WNV only. Four dogs (1.3%) exhibited neutralizing antibody titers against SLEV and WNV. During the study, three dogs seroconverted to SLEV. Our study demonstrates that pets were useful for detecting viral activity and could be considered as sentinels in the local surveillance of SLEV and WNV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Argentina , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite de St. Louis/sangue , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/virologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 710-713, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525853

RESUMO

On April 22, CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported cases of two domestic cats with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These are the first reported companion animals (including pets and service animals) with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States, and among the first findings of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic companion animals reported worldwide. These feline cases originated from separate households and were epidemiologically linked to suspected or confirmed human COVID-19 cases in their respective households. Notification of presumptive positive animal test results triggered a One Health* investigation by state and federal partners, who determined that no further transmission events to other animals or persons had occurred. Both cats fully recovered. Although there is currently no evidence that animals play a substantial role in spreading COVID-19, CDC advises persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to restrict contact with animals during their illness and to monitor any animals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and separate them from other persons and animals at home (1).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses
13.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e43, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia (FPV) cause severe intestinal disease and leukopenia. OBJECTIVES: In Korea, there have been a few studies on Korean FPV and CPV-2 strains. We attempted to investigate several genetic properties of FPV and CPV-2. METHODS: Several FPV and CPV sequences from around world were analyzed by Bayesian phylo-geographical analysis. RESULTS: The parvoviruses strains were newly classified into FPV, CPV 2-I, CPV 2-II, and CPV 2-III genotypes. In the strains isolated in this study, Gigucheon, Rara and Jun belong to the FPV, while Rachi strain belong to CPV 2-III. With respect to CPV type 2, the new genotypes are inconsistent with the previous genotype classifications (CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c). The root of CPV-I strains were inferred to be originated from a USA strain, while the CPV-II and III were derived from Italy strains that originated in the USA. Based on VP2 protein analysis, CPV 2-I included CPV-2a-like isolates only, as differentiated by the change in residue S297A/N. Almost CPV-2a isolates were classified into CPV 2-III, and a large portion of CPV-2c isolates was classified into CPV 2-II. Two residue substitutions F267Y and Y324I of the VP2 protein were characterized in the isolates of CPV 2-III only. CONCLUSIONS: We provided an updated insight on FPV and CPV-2 genotypes by molecular-based and our findings demonstrate the genetic characterization according to the new genotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/fisiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/fisiologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 454-457, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274976

RESUMO

An 8-y-old castrated male, outdoor European shorthair cat was presented with a history of hindlimb weakness and paralysis. Disease progression was continuous from the onset; deep algesia disappeared at the final stage. Radiography of the vertebral column was unremarkable; along with patient history and physical examination results, magnetic resonance imaging suggested inflammatory lesions in the spinal cord, although neoplasia could not be ruled out. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) positivity was confirmed by a serum ELISA prior to euthanasia. Upon postmortem examination, hemorrhages were present in the spinal cord at the level of vertebrae T7-8. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the spinal cord with multifocal myelomalacia and hemorrhages. To determine the presence of a pathogen within the lesion, we developed a novel in situ hybridization protocol for FeLV (RNAscope). The reaction revealed large amounts of FeLV viral RNA in the tumor cells.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Linfoma de Células B/veterinária , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Células B/virologia , Masculino , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Retroviridae/patologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
20.
J Virol ; 94(8)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024777

RESUMO

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare but frequently lethal disease of certain cloven-hoofed animals. At least 10 different viruses, all members of the Macavirus genus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, are known as causative agents of MCF. Among these, ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the most frequent and economically most important MCF agent. Phenotypically, MCF is characterized by severe lymphocytic arteritis-periarteritis, which leads to the accumulation of activated lymphocytes accompanied by apoptosis and necrosis in a broad range of tissues. However, a viral factor that might be responsible for tissue damage has not yet been identified. We have studied a seemingly intergenic locus on the OvHV-2 genome, which was previously shown to be transcriptionally highly active in MCF-affected tissue. We identified by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) a conserved, double-spliced transcript that encoded a 9.9-kDa hydrophobic protein. The newly detected gene, Ov8.25, and its splicing pattern were conserved among OvHV-2 strains of different origins. Upon transient expression of synthetic variants of this gene in various cell types, including bovine lymphocytes, the protein (pOv8.25) was shown to target mitochondria, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis and necrosis. Notably, a deletion mutant of the same protein lost these abilities. Finally, we detected pOv8.25 in brain-infiltrating lymphocytes of cattle with MCF. Thus, the cell death-causing properties of pOv8.25 in affected cells may be involved in the emergence of typical MCF-associated apoptosis and necrosis. Thus, we have identified a novel OvHV-2 protein, which might contribute to the phenotype of MCF-related lesions.IMPORTANCE Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) circulates among sheep without causing disease. However, upon transmission to cattle, the same virus instigates a frequently lethal disease, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). While the cause of death and pathogenesis of tissue lesions are still poorly understood, MCF is characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes in various tissues, associated with vasculitis and cell death. As infectious virus is hardly present in these lesions, the cause of cell death cannot be explained simply by viral replication. The significance of our research is in identifying and characterizing a previously overlooked gene of OvHV-2 (Ov8.25), which is highly expressed in animals with MCF. Its encoded protein targets mitochondria, causing apoptosis and necrosis, thus contributing to an understanding of the source and nature of cell death. As the corresponding genetic locus is also active in the context of MCF due to a different macavirus, we may have detected a common denominator of the disease phenotype.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Gammaherpesvirinae/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Linfócitos , Febre Catarral Maligna/patologia , Febre Catarral Maligna/virologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Necrose/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
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