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1.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(4): 1281-1288, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486835

RESUMO

AIM: To examine how the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impacts child well-being and family functioning, particularly among children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. METHODS: Families of 73 typically developing children, 54 children born very preterm (VPT) and 73 children with congenital heart disease (CHD) from two prospective cohort studies were assessed prior to (mean age: 10.4 [SD: 1.2] years) and during (mean age: 12.8 [SD: 2.0] years) the pandemic, more specifically, in April/May 2020. Child well-being and family functioning were assessed with validated, parent-reported questionnaires and tested with linear mixed models. Group comparison of child distress and parental concerns related to medical implications of COVID-19 and homeschooling, assessed with 5-point Likert scales, was done with Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Children's psychological well-being and family functioning (both, p < 0.001) decreased significantly during the pandemic, irrespective of group. Children with CHD were reported to be more concerned about becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 than were others. Child distress due to homeschooling and parents' concerns about children's academic achievements were significantly higher in VPT and CHD children than in typically developing peers (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially impacts the whole family and leads to additional distress in families with children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. These families should receive individualised counselling and assistance from healthcare providers and schools during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419746

RESUMO

A 24+5-week preterm neonate with a severe scalp lesion was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after caesarean section due to maternal chorioamnionitis (MC). An Arabin pessary had been inserted in addition to a previous cervical cerclage due to cervix insufficiency at 21+5 weeks of pregnancy (wp). At 23+5 wp, preterm rupture of membranes was evidenced. Both devices were kept to provide fetal viability. On 24+4 wp, she developed MC. Urgent caesarean section was performed. Transvaginal manual manipulation was required during the procedure. On NICU, she presented severe shock which required high-dose vasopressors and blood products. Following surgical repair, a bilateral grade IV intracranial haemorrhage was evidenced. Subsequently, it was agreed to withdraw life support. We hypothesise that MC and local infection could have acted as predisposing factors, with the presence of a pessary in the setting causing uterine contractions and its manipulation acting as a precipitating factor.


Assuntos
Gangrena/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Couro Cabeludo/irrigação sanguínea , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Gangrena/patologia , Gangrena/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/patologia , Doenças do Prematuro/cirurgia , Isquemia/patologia , Isquemia/cirurgia
4.
Harefuah ; 159(10): 745-749, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause for morbidity and mortality among neonates, especially among low birth weight premature infants. Even though NEC has been highly investigated during the last few decades, understanding of the pathogenesis is still relatively poor. Throughout the years protective measures, as well as risk factors, were identified, but there is still no clear prevention strategy, and the percentage of neonates suffering of NEC was not changed. Moreover, the treatment approach is controversial in many circumstances other than a few clear surgical indications. The decision between conservative and surgical treatment in many situations is in the hands of the medical staff. Herein we present the story of a premature infant who suffered from feeding intolerance since birth, with major clinical deterioration after receiving packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusion. She was diagnosed with NEC and was treated conservatively, with clinical improvement and worsening alternately, until a colonic stricture was identified and treated surgically. We will provide a short review on risk factors, preventive measures, as well as the research regarding PRBCS transfusion and NEC development.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012362, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head position during care may affect cerebral haemodynamics and contribute to the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) in very preterm infants. Turning the head toward one side may occlude jugular venous drainage while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. It is suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the infant is cared for in the supine 'head midline' position. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether head midline position is more effective than other head positions for preventing (or preventing extension) of GM-IVH in very preterm infants (< 32 weeks' gestation at birth). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 September 2019), Embase (1980 to 12 September 2019), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 12 September 2019). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing caring for very preterm infants in a supine head midline position versus a prone or lateral decubitus position, or undertaking a strategy of regular position change, or having no prespecified position. We included trials enrolling infants with existing GM-IVH and planned to assess extension of haemorrhage in a subgroup of infants. We planned to analyse horizontal (flat) versus head elevated positions separately for all body positions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcomes were GM-IVH, severe IVH, and neonatal death. We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data; and mean, standard deviation (SD), and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Three RCTs, with a total of 290 infants (either < 30 weeks' gestational age or < 1000 g body weight), met the inclusion criteria. Two trials compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the cot flat. One trial compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the bed tilted at 30°. We found no trials that compared supine versus prone midline head position. Meta-analysis of three trials (290 infants) did not show an effect on rates of GM-IVH (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.56; I² = 0%) and severe IVH (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.33; I² = 0%). Neonatal mortality (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.93; I² = 0%; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01) and mortality until hospital discharge (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90; I² = 0%; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.02) were lower in the supine midline head position. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes because of limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates. We identified one ongoing study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found few trial data on the effects of head midline position on GM-IVH in very preterm infants. Although meta-analyses suggest that mortality might be reduced, the certainty of the evidence is very low and it is unclear whether any effect is due to cot tilting (a co-intervention in one trial). Further high-quality RCTs would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Cabeça , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Dorsal , Leitos , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/etiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Rotação
7.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069822

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory function is not only the foremost determinant of life after premature birth, but also a major factor of long-term outcomes. However, the path from placental disconnection to nutritional autonomy is enduring and challenging for the preterm infant and, at each step, will have profound influences on respiratory physiology and disease. Fluid and energy intake, specific nutrients such as amino-acids, lipids and vitamins, and their ways of administration -parenteral or enteral-have direct implications on lung tissue composition and cellular functions, thus affect lung development and homeostasis and contributing to acute and chronic respiratory disorders. In addition, metabolomic signatures have recently emerged as biomarkers of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other neonatal diseases, suggesting a profound implication of specific metabolites such as amino-acids, acylcarnitine and fatty acids in lung injury and repair, inflammation and immune modulation. Recent advances have highlighted the profound influence of the microbiome on many short- and long-term outcomes in the preterm infant. Lung and intestinal microbiomes are deeply intricated, and nutrition plays a prominent role in their establishment and regulation. There is an emerging evidence that human milk prevents bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants, potentially through microbiome composition and/or inflammation modulation. Restoring antibiotic therapy-mediated microbiome disruption is another potentially beneficial action of human milk, which can be in part emulated by pre- and probiotics and supplements. This review will explore the many facets of the gut-lung axis and its pathophysiology in acute and chronic respiratory disorders of the prematurely born infant, and explore established and innovative nutritional approaches for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/microbiologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia
9.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(5): 467-474, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes in obese and nonobese women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) ≥34 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: The present study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective cohort of singletons with PPROM from 2011 to 2017. Women with a delivery body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) were compared with women with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 (nonobese). Pregnancies were stratified based on delivery policies of expectant management until 35 weeks versus immediate delivery ≥34 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite neonatal outcome (neonatal sepsis, antibiotic administration for duration >72 hours after delivery or respiratory support). Univariate analysis and general estimating equations models including maternal age, delivery timing, mode of delivery, hospital, and gestational age were used with p < 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: Among 259 pregnancies, 47% were obese. Pregnant women with obesity had increased composite neonatal outcome versus nonobese pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.17]). Obesity was also associated with increased neonatal antibiotic administration for a duration >72 hours after delivery, respiratory support, ventilation, oxygen supplementation, and surfactant administration. When stratified by delivery policies there was no significant difference in perinatal outcomes based on obesity. CONCLUSION: Obese women with PPROM ≥34 weeks have an increased odds of adverse neonatal respiratory and infectious outcomes compared with nonobese women.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Obesidade Materna/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(2): 210-215, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if delayed cord clamping (DCC) is associated with a reduction in neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective single-center cohort study of 278 very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates was performed to compare the incidence of AKI in the following groups: immediate cord clamping (ICC), DCC, and umbilical cord milking. AKI was diagnosed by the modified neonatal Kidney Diseases and Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI in the first week was 20.1% with no difference between groups (p = 0.78). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds of developing AKI, following DCC, compared with ICC was 0.93 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-1.86) with no reduction in the stage of AKI between groups. CONCLUSION: In this study, DCC was not associated with a reduced rate of AKI in VLBW neonates. However, the data suggest that DCC is also not harmful to the kidneys, further supporting the safety of DCC in VLBW neonates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Constrição , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Cordão Umbilical , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Perinatol ; 40(3): 445-455, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term outcomes of very low birthweight (VBLW, <1500 g) neonates by maternal HIV status. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based cohort in Cape Town, South Africa. RESULTS: Of 1579 mothers, 316 (20%) were HIV-positive; 183/316 (58%) received ≥8 weeks of antenatal antiretrovirals. HIV-exposed neonates (HIVE, vs HIV-unexposed, HIVU) had increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC; OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.92) and invasive ventilation (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01-1.79). Extremely low birthweight (ELBW, <1000 g) modified the HIV-exposure-mortality relationship: among ELBW neonates, HIVE vs HIVU mortality OR 1.75 (95% CI 1.13-2.69); among non-ELBW, OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.54-1.49). Antiretrovirals (≥8 vs <8 weeks/none) reduced NEC (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.97) and invasive ventilation risks (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32-0.99). HIV-PCR results were available for 228/316 (72%) HIVE neonates; 11/228 (5%) tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: Among VLBW neonates, HIV-exposure was associated with increased risk of adverse short-term outcomes; antenatal antiretrovirals were protective.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul
12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 184-190, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886779

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether intact umbilical cord milking (I-UCM) can aggravate infection or result in other undesirable complications in preterm infants with premature prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM).Methods: Neonates vaginally delivered between 28 and 37 weeks' gestation and complicated by PPROM before birth were randomly divided into two groups according to the cord clamping procedure: I-UCM before clamping and immediate cord clamping (ICC). Various parameters of the study participants were compared between the two groups.Results: Of 102 preterm infants, 48 and 54 were randomly allocated to the I-UCM and ICC groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding hematological parameters (platelet count, white blood count, neutrophil ratio, and C-reactive protein) or neonatal outcomes (probable or certain neonatal infection, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage) (p > .05). However, preterm neonates in the I-UCM group had higher serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p < .05) and received fewer blood transfusions (p < .05) than those in the ICC group.Conclusion: Milking the umbilical cord to a preterm neonate with PPROM will not aggravate neonatal infection or result in other undesirable complications. This simple procedure will improve hemoglobin values and hematocrit levels and may lessen the need for transfusion during the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
13.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(6): 603-606, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A temporal relationship has been reported between necrotizing enterocolitis, anemia, and red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in preterm neonates. However, the mechanism underlying this association is not clearly defined. Intestinal (I-) and liver (L-) fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been proposed as plasma markers for the detection of acute intestinal injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anemia and RBCT on intestinal injury in preterm neonates by measuring serum I-FABP and L-FABP levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study including preterm neonates with gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1,500 g and requiring erythrocyte transfusions for anemia after day 15 of life was conducted. Stable growing preterm infants with hemoglobin values ≥ 10 g/dL were taken as controls. I-FABP and L-FABP levels of the neonates with anemia were compared with levels of the control group. In addition, pretransfusion I-FABP and L-FABP levels of the neonates with anemia were compared with posttransfusion levels. RESULTS: In total, 39 infants transfused for anemia and 20 controls were enrolled. L-FABP levels were significantly higher in neonates with anemia compared with controls (p < 0.001), whereas I-FABP (p = 0.695) was not different. L-FABP and I-FABP levels were similar before and after transfusion in neonates with anemia. L-FABP levels before transfusion were negatively correlated with pretransfusion hemoglobin levels (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anemia is associated with intestinal injury documented by increased L-FABP levels in preterm infants, and this injury is more severe with lower hemoglobin levels.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Anemia/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Perinatol ; 40(1): 138-148, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with development of early and late pulmonary hypertension (E/LPH) in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control observational study of preterm infants with BPD admitted to a level IV referral neonatal intensive care unit over 5 years. We compared pre- and postnatal characteristics between infants with or without BPD-associated EPH and LPH. RESULTS: Fifty-nine out of 220 infants (26.8%) had LPH, while 85 out of 193 neonates (44%) had EPH. On multiple logistic regression, novel factors associated with development of BPD-LPH included presence of maternal diabetes, EPH, tracheostomy, tracheitis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, grade ≥3) and systemic steroid use. For EPH, these were maternal diabetes, IVH grade ≥3, high frequency ventilator use, and absence of maternal antibiotics use. CONCLUSION: We identified novel factors and confirmed previously established factors with development of LPH and EPH, which can help develop a screening strategy in BPD patients.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Br J Haematol ; 188(3): 354-366, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588563

RESUMO

Pre-term infants have one of the highest transfusion requirements within the hospital-setting. The vast majority of blood transfusions performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) are for medically stable pre-term infants with anaemia of prematurity, with the aim of improving oxygen delivery to the vital organs during the crucial phase of growth and development. However, despite the frequency of transfusion in this population, the potential benefits and harms of 'top up' transfusion are not fully understood, leading to practice variation between clinicians, institutions and countries. Significant advances have been made in the prevention of anaemia of prematurity, with recent emphasis on optimising infants' circulatory volume at birth via placental transfusion and preserving infants' own blood volume through innovative minimal sampling techniques. More research is urgently needed to establish optimal transfusion thresholds for these high-risk pre-term infants, for whom benefits as well as adverse outcomes may have consequences that extend for decades throughout the recipients' life-course. In this review, we will discuss some of the consensus and controversies regarding optimal management of anaemia in pre-term infants and highlight potential areas for future research.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Anemia/etiologia , Constrição , Gerenciamento Clínico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Ligadura , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Cordão Umbilical
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18229, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between chorioamnionitis (CA) and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants remain controversial. The meta-analysis aims to evaluate the associations between CA and neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants. METHODS: All studies exploring the associations between CA and neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, OVID, EBSCO, ProQuest, CDSR, and CENTRAL. The NOS was used to evaluate the quality of the studies, RevMan was adopted to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 4267 preterm infants were included. The ORs across studies was 0.95 (P = .77, I = 51%) for cognitive deficits, 1.09 (P = .44, I = 10%) for psychomotor deficits, 1.21 (P = .08, I = 25%) for language deficits, 2.34 (P = .02, I = 0%) for performance intelligence quotient impairment and 2.81 (P = .03, I = 0%) for verbal intelligence quotient impairment. Subgroup analyses based on the severity of cognitive deficits indicated that CA might be correlated with severe cognitive deficits (P = .01, I = 0%) but not with mild cognitive deficits (P = .40, I = 19%). In terms of the CA category, clinical CA may be related to overall psychomotor deficits (P = .01, I = 25%) and overall language deficits (P < .00001, I = 23%) other than histological CA. CONCLUSION: In preterm infants, CA might be a risk factor for performance and verbal intelligence quotient impairment and severe cognitive deficits, and clinical CA might be a risk factor for overall psychomotor and language deficits.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224766, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816626

RESUMO

Newborns, especially preterm infants, have an immature immune system, which, in combination with the required medical interventions necessary for keeping the neonate alive may lead to an increased risk of infection. Even after reaching stability and adapting to the environment, preterm infants have adverse prognoses regarding infections and long-term outcomes compared to their full-term counterparts. The objective of this study was to research differences in the number and severity of infections between preterm and full-term infants during their first year of life. To answer this question, a monocentric prospective study was conducted in a pediatric practice in Vienna, including 71 full-term infants and 72 preterm infants who were observed during their first year of life regarding occurring infections. In respective samples, there was a significantly higher total number of infections in preterm (mean 6.01 ± 3.90) compared to full-term infants (3.85 ± 1.72) during the observation period of one year. Particularly the count of respiratory and severe infections was considerably higher in preterm infants. Otorhinolaryngeal infections were the most frequent of all types of infections in both groups. The pregnancy period, number of siblings, and length of the postnatal hospital stay, were observed as significantly influencing factors which affected the total number of infections. The group of early term infants (37+0 weeks to 38+6) was not significantly different to late term babies (>39+0). The acquired knowledge about the increased risk of infections should lead to a more extensive care for preterm infants, with the objective of reducing the rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable age group in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Infecções/etiologia , Áustria , Criança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feeding practices around the time of packed red blood cell transfusion have been implicated in the subsequent development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Specifically, it has been suggested that withholding feeds around the time of transfusion may reduce the risk of subsequent NEC. It is important to determine if withholding feeds around transfusion reduces the risk of subsequent NEC and associated mortality. OBJECTIVES: • To assess the benefits and risks of stopping compared to continuing feed management before, during, and after blood transfusion in preterm infants • To assess the effects of stopping versus continuing feeds in the following subgroups of infants: infants of different gestations; infants with symptomatic and asymptomatic anaemia; infants who received different feeding schedules, types of feed, and methods of feed delivery; infants who were transfused with different blood products, at different blood volumes, via different routes of delivery; and those who received blood transfusion with and without co-interventions such as use of diuretics • To determine the effectiveness and safety of stopping feeds around the time of a blood transfusion in reducing the risk of subsequent necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1966 to 14 November 2018); Embase (1980 to 14 November 2018); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 November 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared stopping feeds versus continuing feeds around the time of blood transfusion in preterm infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality, and extracted data from the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: The search revealed seven studies that assessed effects of stopping feeds during blood transfusion. However, only one RCT involving 22 preterm infants was eligible for inclusion in the review. This RCT had low risk of selection bias but high risk of performance bias, as care personnel were not blinded to the study allocation. The primary objective of this trial was to investigate changes in mesenteric blood flow, and no cases of NEC were reported in any of the infants included in the trial. We were unable to draw any conclusions from this single study. The overall GRADE rating for quality of evidence was very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised controlled trial evidence is insufficient to show whether stopping feeds has an effect on the incidence of subsequent NEC or death. Large, adequately powered RCTs are needed to address this issue.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17512, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affected by multiple factors such as infection and preterm birth. The role of sepsis in the development of ROP remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify the impact of sepsis on ROP. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using terms related to sepsis and ROP. Cohort or case-control studies that reported the association of sepsis and ROP were eligible. The odds ratios (ORs) together with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted from the studies or computed by authors if not provided. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that sepsis increased the risk for the development of any stage ROP (OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.65-2.82). Both early onset (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.97-3.18) and late-onset (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.22-1.55) sepsis were associated with severe ROP. Furthermore, both bacterial sepsis (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.21-2.50) and fungal sepsis (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 2.05-4.28) were also found to be associated with severe ROP. CONCLUSION: Sepsis increased the risk of any stage ROP, especially for the severe ROP. Further high-quality clinical studies are needed to eliminate heterogeneity and publication bias to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/etiologia , Sepse/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Razão de Chances
20.
BMJ ; 367: l5678, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if postnatal transfer or birth in a non-tertiary hospital is associated with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with propensity score matching. SETTING: National health service neonatal care in England; population data held in the National Neonatal Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: Extremely preterm infants born at less than 28 gestational weeks between 2008 and 2015 (n=17 577) grouped based on birth hospital and transfer within 48 hours of birth: upward transfer (non-tertiary to tertiary hospital, n=2158), non-tertiary care (born in non-tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=2668), and controls (born in tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=10 866). Infants were matched on propensity scores and predefined background variables to form subgroups with near identical distributions of confounders. Infants transferred between tertiary hospitals (horizontal transfer) were separately matched to controls in a 1:5 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, severe brain injury, and survival without severe brain injury. RESULTS: 2181 infants, 727 from each group (upward transfer, non-tertiary care, and control) were well matched. Compared with controls, infants in the upward transfer group had no significant difference in the odds of death before discharge (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.61) but significantly higher odds of severe brain injury (2.32, 1.78 to 3.06; number needed to treat (NNT) 8) and significantly lower odds of survival without severe brain injury (0.60, 0.47 to 0.76; NNT 9). Compared with controls, infants in the non-tertiary care group had significantly higher odds of death (1.34, 1.02 to 1.77; NNT 20) but no significant difference in the odds of severe brain injury (0.95, 0.70 to 1.30) or survival without severe brain injury (0.82, 0.64 to 1.05). Compared with infants in the upward transfer group, infants in the non-tertiary care group had no significant difference in death before discharge (1.10, 0.84 to 1.44) but significantly lower odds of severe brain injury (0.41, 0.31 to 0.53; NNT 8) and significantly higher odds of survival without severe brain injury (1.37, 1.09 to 1.73; NNT 14). No significant differences were found in outcomes between the horizontal transfer group (n=305) and controls (n=1525). CONCLUSIONS: In extremely preterm infants, birth in a non-tertiary hospital and transfer within 48 hours are associated with poor outcomes when compared with birth in a tertiary setting. We recommend perinatal services promote pathways that facilitate delivery of extremely preterm infants in tertiary hospitals in preference to postnatal transfer.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Salas de Parto , Doenças do Prematuro , Transferência de Pacientes , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Salas de Parto/classificação , Salas de Parto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
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