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1.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 17-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infant boys have worse outcomes than girls. In twins, the 'male disadvantage' has been reported to extend to female co-twins via a 'masculinising' effect. We studied the association between sex pairing and neonatal outcomes in extremely preterm twins. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Eleven countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of Neonates. PATIENTS: Liveborn twins admitted at 23-29 weeks' gestation in 2007-2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined in-hospital mortality, grades 3/4 intraventricular haemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia (IVH/PVL), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment and a composite outcome (mortality or any of the outcomes above). RESULTS: Among 20 924 twins, 38% were from male-male pairs, 32% were from female-female pairs and 30% were sex discordant. We had no information on chorionicity. Girls with a male co-twin had lower odds of mortality, IVH/PVL and the composite outcome than girl-girl pairs (reference group): adjusted OR (aOR) (95% CI) 0.79 (0.68 to 0.92), 0.83 (0.72 to 0.96) and 0.88 (0.79 to 0.98), respectively. Boys with a female co-twin also had lower odds of mortality: aOR 0.86 (0.74 to 0.99). Boys from male-male pairs had highest odds of BPD and composite outcome: aOR 1.38 (1.24 to 1.52) and 1.27 (1.16 to 1.39), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-related disparities in outcomes exist in extremely preterm twins, with girls having lower risks than boys and opposite-sex pairs having lower risks than same-sex pairs. Our results may help clinicians in assessing risk in this large segment of extremely preterm infants.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leucomalácia Periventricular/mortalidade , Masculino , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Gêmeos
2.
Laryngoscope ; 131(2): 417-422, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study a case series of preterm and extremely preterm infants, comparing their decannulation and survival rates after tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a single-institution longitudinal study of preterm infants with a tracheostomy. Infants were categorized as premature (born > 28 weeks and < 37 weeks) and extremely premature (born ≤ 28 weeks). Decannulation and survival rates were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Neurocognitive quality of life (QOL) was reported as normal, mild/moderately, and severely impaired. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: This study included 240 patients. Of those, 111 were premature and 129 were extremely preterm. The median age (interquartile range) at tracheostomy was 4.8 months (0.4). Premature infants were more likely than extremely preterm to have airway obstruction (54% vs. 32%, P < .001); whereas extremely preterm infants were more likely to have bronchopulmonary dysplasia (68% vs. 15%, P < .001) and to be ventilation-dependent (68% vs. 54%, P < .001). The 5-year decannulation rate for premature infants was 46% and for extremely preterm was 64%. The 5-year survival rate post-tracheostomy for preterm was 79% and for extremely preterm was 73%. The log-rank test of equality showed that decannulation and survival were similar (P > .05) for both groups, even after controlling for potentially confounding factors like race, age, gender, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. For neurocognitive QOL, 47% of patients survived with severely impaired QOL after tracheostomy. Preterm had 56% with severely impaired QOL and extremely preterm had 40% with severely impaired QOL (P = .03). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the time to decannulation and the likelihood of survival did not vary among premature and extremely premature infants even when controlling for other confounding variables. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3b Laryngoscope, 131:417-422, 2021.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/cirurgia , Doenças do Prematuro/cirurgia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Traqueostomia/mortalidade , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/mortalidade , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(S 02): S5-S9, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898875

RESUMO

Despite continued advances and developments in neonatal medicine, neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Sepsis accounts for mortality for almost 50% of global children under 5 years of age.Over the past 50 years, there have been many advances in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of neonatal infections. The diagnostic advances include better culture techniques that permit more rapid confirmation of the diagnosis, advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly diagnose viral infections, use of biologic markers indicating evidence of infection, and a better understanding of immunoglobulin markers of infection. From a therapeutic stand point, there have been a variety of antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral agents, better approaches to prevent sepsis, specific immunotherapy, for example, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); bundled approach to prevention of deep-line infection and better antibiotic stewardship, leading to earlier discontinuation of antibiotic therapy.Hand hygiene remains the benchmark and gold standard for late-onset sepsis prevention. The challenge has been that each decade, newer resistant bacteria dominate as the cause of sepsis and newer viruses emerge, for example, human immunodeficiency virus, zika virus, and novel coronavirus disease 2019.Future treatment options might include stem cell therapy, other antimicrobial protein and peptides, and targeting of pattern recognition receptors in an effort to prevent and/or treat sepsis in this vulnerable population. Also, the microbiome of premature infants has a smaller proportion of beneficial bacteria and higher numbers of pathogenic bacteria compared with term infants, likely owing to higher frequencies of cesarean sections, antibiotic use, exposure to the hospital environment, and feeding nonhuman milk products. Modifying the microbiome with more mother's milk and shorter duration of antibiotics in noninfected babies should be a goal. KEY POINTS: · Neonatal sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality.. · Challenges include bacterial resistance and newer viruses.. · Future treatments may include newer antibiotics/antivirals and stem cell therapy..


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sepse Neonatal/mortalidade , Sepse Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in survival without major morbidity and its individual components among very low birth weight infants across California and assess remaining gaps that may be opportune targets for improvement efforts. METHODS: The study population included infants born between 2008 and 2017 with birth weights of 401 to 1500 g or a gestational age of 22 to 29 weeks. Risk-adjusted trends of survival without major morbidity and its individual components were analyzed. Survival without major morbidity was defined as the absence of death during birth hospitalization, chronic lung disease, severe peri-intraventricular hemorrhage, nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity or related surgery, and cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Variations in adjusted rates and/or interquartile ranges were examined. To assess opportunities for additional improvement, all hospitals were reassigned to perform as if in the top quartile, and recalculation of predicted numbers were used to estimate potential benefit. RESULTS: In this cohort of 49 333 infants across 142 hospitals, survival without major morbidity consistently increased from 62.2% to 66.9% from 2008 to 2017. Network variation decreased, with interquartile ranges decreasing from 21.1% to 19.2%. The largest improvements were seen for necrotizing enterocolitis and nosocomial infection. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates did not change significantly. Over the final 3 years, if all hospitals performed as well as the top quartile, an additional 621 infants per year would have survived without major morbidity, accounting for an additional 6.6% annual improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Although trends are promising, bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a common and persistent major morbidity, remaining a target for continued quality-improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
5.
J Pediatr ; 225: 97-102.e3, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide comprehensive, contemporary information on the actuarial survival of infants born at 22-25 weeks of gestation in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we included data from preterm infants of 22-25 weeks of gestation admitted to neonatal intensive care units participating in the Canadian Neonatal Network between 2010 and 2017. Infants with major congenital anomalies were excluded. We calculated gestational age using in vitro fertilization date, antenatal ultrasound dating, last menstrual period, obstetrical estimate, or neonatal estimate (in that order). Infants were followed until either discharge or death. Each day of gestational age was considered a category except for births at 22 weeks, where the first 4 days were grouped into one category and the last 3 days were grouped into another category. For each day of life, an actuarial survival rate was obtained by calculating how many infants survived to discharge out of those who had survived up to that day. RESULTS: Of 4335 included infants, 85, 679, 1504, and 2067 were born at 22, 23, 24, and 25 weeks of gestation, respectively. Survival increased from 32% at 22 weeks to 83% at 254-6/7 weeks. Graphs of actuarial survival developed for the first 6 weeks after birth in male and female children indicated a steep increase in survival during the first 7-10 days postnatally. CONCLUSIONS: Survival increased steadily with postnatal survival and was dependent on gestational age in days and sex of the child.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
J Pediatr ; 225: 44-50.e1, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in mortality, major morbidity, and perinatal care practices of very low birth weight infants born at NEOCOSUR Neonatal Network centers from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2016. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from all inborn infants with a birthweight of 500-1500 g and 23-35 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We examined data for 13 987 very low birth weight infants with a mean birth weight of 1081 ± 281 g and a gestational age of 28.8 ± 2.9 weeks. Overall mortality was 26.8% without significant changes throughout the study period. Decreases in early onset sepsis from 6.3% to 2.8% (P <.001), late onset sepsis from 21.1% to 19.5% (P = .002), retinopathy of prematurity from 21.3% to 13.8% (P <.001), and hydrocephalus from 3.8% to 2.4% (P <.001), were observed. The incidence for bronchopulmonary dysplasia decreased from 17.3% to 16% (P = .043), incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage was 10.4%, necrotizing enterocolitis 11.1%, and periventricular leukomalacia 3.8%, and did not change over the study period. Administration of antenatal corticosteroids increased from 70.2% to 82.3% and cesarean delivery from 65.9% to 75.4% (P <.001). The use of conventional mechanical ventilation decreased from 67.7% to 63.9% (P <.001) and continuous positive airway pressure use increased from 41.3% to 64.3% (P <.001). Survival without major morbidity increased from 37.4% to 44.5% over the study period (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Progress in perinatal and neonatal care at network centers was associated with an improvement in survival without major morbidity of very low birth weight infants during a 16-year period. However, overall mortality remained unchanged.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal/tendências , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Cesárea , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/mortalidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Hidrocefalia/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Idade Materna , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pediatr ; 224: 51-56.e5, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between mortality or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-24 months of corrected age and the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS) score on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in extremely premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of extremely premature infants (inborn and outborn) born at 22-28 weeks of gestational age and admitted to NICUs in the Canadian Neonatal Network between April 2009 and September 2011. TRIPS scores and clinical data were collected from the Canadian Neonatal Network database. Follow-up data at 18-24 months of corrected age were retrieved from the Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network database. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Edition III. The primary outcome was death or significant neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-24 months of corrected age. The secondary outcomes were individual components of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Edition III assessment. RESULTS: A total of 1686 eligible infants were included. A TRIPS score of ≥20 on admission to the NICU was significantly associated with mortality (aOR 2.71 [95% CI, 2.02-3.62]) and mortality or significant neurodevelopmental impairment (aOR 1.91 [95% CI, 1.52-2.41]) at 18-24 months of corrected age across all gestational age groups of extremely premature infants. CONCLUSION: The TRIPS score on admission to the NICU can be used as an adjunctive, objective tool for counselling the parents of extremely premature infants early after their admission to the NICU.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 1-9, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, case-fatality rate and pathogen distribution of late-onset sepsis (LOS) among preterm infants in China. To investigate risk factors and short-term outcomes associated with LOS caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. METHODS: This cohort study included all infants born at <34 weeks' gestation and admitted to 25 tertiary hospitals in 19 provinces in China from May, 2015 to April, 2018. Infants were excluded who died or were discharged within 3 days of being born. RESULTS: A total of 1199 episodes of culture-positive LOS were identified in 1133 infants, with an incidence of 4.4% (1133/25,725). Overall, 15.4% (175/1133) of infants with LOS died and 10.0% (113/1133) of infants died within 7 days of LOS onset. Among 1214 isolated pathogens, Gram-negative bacteria were the most common (51.8%, 629/1214) and fungi accounted for 17.1% (207/1214). Use of central lines, longer duration of antibiotics and previous carbapenem exposure were related to increased risk of fungal LOS compared with Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria LOS was independently associated with increased risk of death, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Fungal LOS was independently associated with increased risk of periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and necrotizing enterocolitis. CONCLUSIONS: Late-onset sepsis was a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Chinese neonatal intensive care units, with a distinct pathogen distribution from industrial countries. Clinical guidelines on the prevention and treatment of LOS should be developed and tailored to these LOS characteristics in Chinese neonatal intensive care units.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/microbiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/mortalidade
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 40, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Canada alone, almost 3000 VLBW infants are born and treated annually with almost 1200 going onto death or survival with severe brain injury, chronic lung disorders, aggressive retinopathy of prematurity, late-onset sepsis, or significant necrotizing enterocolitis. Lactoferrin is an antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory iron-carrying, bifidogenic glycoprotein found in all vertebrates and in mammalian milk, leukocytes and exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin aids in creating an environment for growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, thus reducing colonization with pathogenic bacteria. It is hypothesized that oral bovine lactoferrin (bLF), through its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, will reduce the rate of mortality or major morbidity in very low birth weight preterm infants. METHOD: Lactoferrin Infant Feeding Trial_Canada (LIFT_Canada) is a multi-centre, double-masked, randomized controlled trial with the aim to enroll 500 infants whose data will be combined with the data of the 1542 infants enrolled from Lactoferrin Infant Feeding Trial_Australia/New Zealand (LIFT_ANZ) in a pooled intention-to-treat analysis. Eligible infants will be randomized and allocated to one of two treatment groups: 1) a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bLF in breast/donor human milk or formula milk until 34 weeks corrected gestation or for a minimum of 2 weeks, whichever is longer, or until discharge home or transfer, if earlier; 2) no bLF with daily feeds. The primary outcome will be determined at 36 weeks corrected gestation for the presence of neonatal morbidity and at discharge for survival and treated retinopathy of prematurity. The duration of the trial is expected to be 36 months. DISCUSSION: Currently, there continues to be no clear answer related to the benefit of bLF in reducing mortality or any or all of the significant neonatal morbidities in very low birth weight infants. LIFT_Canada is designed with the hope that the pooled results from Australia, New Zealand, and Canada may help to clarify the situation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.Gov, Identifier: NCT03367013, Registered December 8, 2017.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Leite Humano
11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(3): 233-243, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose erythropoietin has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in preclinical models of neonatal brain injury, and phase 2 trials have suggested possible efficacy; however, the benefits and safety of this therapy in extremely preterm infants have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of high-dose erythropoietin, we assigned 941 infants who were born at 24 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to receive erythropoietin or placebo within 24 hours after birth. Erythropoietin was administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 U per kilogram of body weight every 48 hours for a total of six doses, followed by a maintenance dose of 400 U per kilogram three times per week by subcutaneous injection through 32 completed weeks of postmenstrual age. Placebo was administered as intravenous saline followed by sham injections. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of postmenstrual age. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as severe cerebral palsy or a composite motor or composite cognitive score of less than 70 (which corresponds to 2 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: A total of 741 infants were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis: 376 received erythropoietin and 365 received placebo. There was no significant difference between the erythropoietin group and the placebo group in the incidence of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age (97 children [26%] vs. 94 children [26%]; relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.32; P = 0.80). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rates of retinopathy of prematurity, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or death or in the frequency of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose erythropoietin treatment administered to extremely preterm infants from 24 hours after birth through 32 weeks of postmenstrual age did not result in a lower risk of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death at 2 years of age. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; PENUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01378273.).


Assuntos
Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritropoetina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
12.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 56-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe ethnic and socioeconomic variation in cause-specific infant mortality of preterm babies by gestational age at birth. DESIGN: National birth cohort study. SETTING: England and Wales 2006-2012. SUBJECTS: Singleton live births at 24-36 completed weeks' gestation (n=256 142). OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted rate ratios for death in infancy by cause (three groups), within categories of gestational age at birth (24-27, 28-31, 32-36 weeks), by baby's ethnicity (nine groups) or area deprivation score (Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles). RESULTS: Among 24-27 week births (5% of subjects; 47% of those who died in infancy), all minority ethnic groups had lower risk of immaturity-related death than White British, the lowest rate ratios being 0.63 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.80) for Black Caribbean, 0.74 (0.64 to 0.85) for Black African and 0.75 (0.60 to 0.94) for Indian. Among 32-36 week births, all minority groups had higher risk of death from congenital anomalies than White British, the highest rate ratios being 4.50 (3.78 to 5.37) for Pakistani, 2.89 (2.10 to 3.97) for Bangladeshi and 2.06 (1.59 to 2.68) for Black African; risks of death from congenital anomalies and combined rarer causes (infection, intrapartum conditions, SIDS and unclassified) increased with deprivation, the rate ratios comparing the most with the least deprived quintile being, respectively, 1.54 (1.22 to 1.93) and 2.05 (1.55 to 2.72). There was no evidence of socioeconomic variation in deaths from immaturity-related conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Gestation-specific preterm infant mortality shows contrasting ethnic patterns of death from immaturity-related conditions in extremely-preterm babies, and congenital anomalies in moderate/late-preterm babies. Socioeconomic variation derives from congenital anomalies and rarer causes in moderate/late-preterm babies. Future research should examine biological origins of extremely preterm birth.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , País de Gales/epidemiologia
13.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(2): 158-163, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences and trends of outcomes of preterm boys and girls born at <29 weeks' gestation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network. PATIENTS: Neonates born at <29 weeks' gestation between January 2007 and December 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined rate differences in mortality, major morbidities (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe brain injury, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotising enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis) and care practices (antenatal steroids, magnesium sulfate, maternal antibiotics, ventilation and surfactant administration) between boys and girls and evaluated trends in these rate differences over the study period. Our primary outcome was a composite of mortality and any one of the five morbidities. RESULTS: Our study included 8219 boys and 6934 girls with median gestational age of 26 (IQR 25-28) weeks. The composite of death or major morbidity was more common in boys (adjusted risk ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.10) and remained higher in boys over the study period. The gap between boys and girls for mortality, however, decreased over time: the slope for boys was -0.043 (95% CI -0.071 to -0.015) and for girls was -0.012 (95% CI -0.045 to 0.020) (p=0.04). All other morbidities remained higher in boys. Care practices changed at similar rates between the sexes. CONCLUSION: The difference between the mortality rates for boys and girls decreased over the study period but the difference between rates of the major morbidities was unchanged. More research is needed to understand biological differences and outcome disparities.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Canadá , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(2): 145-150, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend and risk factors for severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) among infants <32 weeks gestation. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Australia and New Zealand. PATIENTS: All preterm infants <32 weeks gestation in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) from 1995 to 2012. INTERVENTIONS: Comparison of IVH incidence between 6-year epochs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall IVH and severe IVH incidence. RESULTS: A total of 60 068 infants were included, and overall survival to discharge increased from 89% to 93% over the three epochs. As the percentage of infants with IVH decreased from 23.6% to 21.3% and 21.4% (p<0.001) from epoch 1 to 3, respectively, fewer survivors had severe IVH (4.0%, 3.3% and 2.8%, respectively, p<0.001). Over time, there were fewer antenatal complications, higher antenatal steroid usage and more caesarean-section births. Fewer infants were intubated at birth, had low 5 min Apgar score, had sepsis or pneumothorax needing drainage. Adjusted for perinatal confounders, there was significant reduction in odds of severe IVH from epoch 1 to 3 (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Factors associated with development of severe IVH include no antenatal steroids (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9), male (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), 5 min Apgar score <7 (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.2), intubated at birth (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.2), extremely low gestational age (AOR 4.0, 95% CI 3.7 to 4.4), outborn (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.8) and vaginal delivery (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Along with increased survival among infants born <32 weeks gestation, the incidence of severe IVH has decreased over the 18 years, especially in the most recent period. This coincided with reduction in rates of risk factors for severe IVH development.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Austrália , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Seizure ; 75: 7-17, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal seizures (NS) are associated with increased mortality and risk of cerebral palsy, epilepsy and intellectual disability. We performed a systematic review with the primary objective to delineate the rate of these outcomes following NS in preterm infants from studies published in the 2000's and the secondary objective to identify risk factors. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: original articles published between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2018, written in English, evaluating newborns ≤37 weeks of gestational age and suffering from NS, in which at least one of these was evaluated: epilepsy, cerebral palsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, normal outcome, death. RESULTS: Twenty-two papers were selected and all were observational, with a retrospective design in 15. Three were population-based and twenty-one have a comparison. It has been found a 22-80 % of mortality, 11.3-38.9 % of epilepsy, 12-84.6 % of cerebral palsy, and 20-42.7 % of intellectual disability/developmental delay rate. An increased risk for all outcomes considered was reported. Risk factors for specific outcomes were provided by a minority of studies. However, inclusion criteria, definition of NS and measured outcomes, follow-up lengths differed considerably between studies. DISCUSSION: Results of the selected studies are only partially comparable or generalizable because of differences in study design. They have a risk for potential biases, although they provide (if analyzed) readily available prognostic factors, easy to apply in clinical practice. Prospective, population-based studies with EEG-defined NS are warranted in order to produce evidence-based guidance for management of preterm newborns with seizures.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Paralisia Cerebral/mortalidade , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/mortalidade , Epilepsia/mortalidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Deficiência Intelectual/mortalidade
16.
Dan Med J ; 66(12)2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Survival has improved among very preterm born infants, but improved treatment strategies might be associated with increasing rates of neonatal morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess survival and major morbidities among very and extremely preterm born infants treated in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) < 32 weeks) born between year 2000 and 2013. Because of changes in three standard treatments from 2008, we aimed to compare survival and major neonatal morbidity between two birth-year periods: 2000-2007 and 2008-2013. RESULTS: The overall survival rate increased from 81.6% to 85.0%. In GA group 26-27 weeks, survival increased from 65% to 89% (p = 0.02). A total of 31/412 (7.5%) in the first time period and 30/280 (10.7%) in the second time period were diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. No difference was found for necrotising entrocolitis or intraventricular haemorhage. Antibiotic treatment was similar in the two time periods, though antibiotic treatment for suspected clinical infection increased in the second time period (35.1% versus 44.1%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant increase in the survival rate in GA group 26-27 weeks, but no significant increase in any major morbidity when comparing the two time periods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. FUNDING: none.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19863, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882629

RESUMO

This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the prevalence, morbidity, mortality and the maternal/neonatal care of preterm neonates and the perinatal risk factors for mortality. We included data on 13,701 preterm neonates born in 15 hospitals for the period 2013-2014 in China. Results showed a prevalence of preterm neonates of 9.9%. Most infants at 24-27 weeks who survived more than 12 hours were mechanically ventilated (56.1%). Few infants born before 28 weeks received CPAP without first receiving mechanical ventilation (8.1%). Few preterm neonates received antenatal steroid(35.8% at 24-27 weeks, 57.9% at 28-31 weeks, 57.0% at 32-33 weeks and 32.7% at 34-36 weeks). Overall mortality was 1.9%. Most of the deaths at 24-27 weeks of gestation occurred within 12 hours after birth, accounting for 68.1%(32/47), and within 12-72 hours after birth at 28-36 weeks of gestation, accounting for 47.4%(99/209). Rates of survival to discharge increased from 68.2% at 24-27 weeks, 93.3% at 28-31 weeks, 99.2% at 32-33 weeks to 99.4% at 34-36 weeks. The smaller of the GA, there was a greater risk of morbidities due to prematurity. Preterm birth weight (OR = 0.407, 95% CI 0.346-0.478), antenatal steroid (OR = 0.680, 95% CI 0.493-0.938), and neonatal asphyxia (OR = 3.215, 95% CI 2.180-4.741) proved to significantly influence the odds of preterm neonatal death. Overall, our results support that most of the preterm neonates at 28-36 weeks of gestation survived without major morbidity. Rate of survival of GAs less than 28 weeks was still low. Maternal and infant care practices need to be improved in the very preterm births.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
JAMA ; 322(19): 1877-1886, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742630

RESUMO

Importance: Umbilical cord milking as an alternative to delayed umbilical cord clamping may provide equivalent benefits to preterm infants, but without delaying resuscitation. Objective: To determine whether the rates of death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage differ among preterm infants receiving placental transfusion with umbilical cord milking vs delayed umbilical cord clamping. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority randomized clinical trial of preterm infants (born at 23-31 weeks' gestation) from 9 university and private medical centers in 4 countries were recruited and enrolled between June 2017 and September 2018. Planned enrollment was 750 per group. However, a safety signal comprising an imbalance in the number of severe intraventricular hemorrhage events by study group was observed at the first interim analysis; enrollment was stopped based on recommendations from the data and safety monitoring board. The planned noninferiority analysis could not be conducted and a post hoc comparison was performed instead. Final date of follow-up was December 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomized to umbilical cord milking (n = 236) or delayed umbilical cord clamping (n = 238). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage to determine noninferiority of umbilical cord milking with a 1% noninferiority margin. Results: Among 540 infants randomized, 474 (88%) were enrolled and completed the trial (mean gestational age of 28 weeks; 46% female). Twelve percent (29/236) of the umbilical cord milking group died or developed severe intraventricular hemorrhage compared with 8% (20/238) of the delayed umbilical cord clamping group (risk difference, 4% [95% CI, -2% to 9%]; P = .16). Although there was no statistically significant difference in death, severe intraventricular hemorrhage was statistically significantly higher in the umbilical cord milking group than in the delayed umbilical cord clamping group (8% [20/236] vs 3% [8/238], respectively; risk difference, 5% [95% CI, 1% to 9%]; P = .02). The test for interaction between gestational age strata and treatment group was significant for severe intraventricular hemorrhage only (P = .003); among infants born at 23 to 27 weeks' gestation, severe intraventricular hemorrhage was statistically significantly higher with umbilical cord milking than with delayed umbilical cord clamping (22% [20/93] vs 6% [5/89], respectively; risk difference, 16% [95% CI, 6% to 26%]; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: In this post hoc analysis of a prematurely terminated randomized clinical trial of umbilical cord milking vs delayed umbilical cord clamping among preterm infants born at less than 32 weeks' gestation, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of a composite outcome of death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage, but there was a statistically significantly higher rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in the umbilical cord milking group. The early study termination and resulting post hoc nature of the analyses preclude definitive conclusions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03019367.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Constrição , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Cordão Umbilical , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez
19.
BMJ ; 367: l5678, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if postnatal transfer or birth in a non-tertiary hospital is associated with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with propensity score matching. SETTING: National health service neonatal care in England; population data held in the National Neonatal Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: Extremely preterm infants born at less than 28 gestational weeks between 2008 and 2015 (n=17 577) grouped based on birth hospital and transfer within 48 hours of birth: upward transfer (non-tertiary to tertiary hospital, n=2158), non-tertiary care (born in non-tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=2668), and controls (born in tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=10 866). Infants were matched on propensity scores and predefined background variables to form subgroups with near identical distributions of confounders. Infants transferred between tertiary hospitals (horizontal transfer) were separately matched to controls in a 1:5 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, severe brain injury, and survival without severe brain injury. RESULTS: 2181 infants, 727 from each group (upward transfer, non-tertiary care, and control) were well matched. Compared with controls, infants in the upward transfer group had no significant difference in the odds of death before discharge (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.61) but significantly higher odds of severe brain injury (2.32, 1.78 to 3.06; number needed to treat (NNT) 8) and significantly lower odds of survival without severe brain injury (0.60, 0.47 to 0.76; NNT 9). Compared with controls, infants in the non-tertiary care group had significantly higher odds of death (1.34, 1.02 to 1.77; NNT 20) but no significant difference in the odds of severe brain injury (0.95, 0.70 to 1.30) or survival without severe brain injury (0.82, 0.64 to 1.05). Compared with infants in the upward transfer group, infants in the non-tertiary care group had no significant difference in death before discharge (1.10, 0.84 to 1.44) but significantly lower odds of severe brain injury (0.41, 0.31 to 0.53; NNT 8) and significantly higher odds of survival without severe brain injury (1.37, 1.09 to 1.73; NNT 14). No significant differences were found in outcomes between the horizontal transfer group (n=305) and controls (n=1525). CONCLUSIONS: In extremely preterm infants, birth in a non-tertiary hospital and transfer within 48 hours are associated with poor outcomes when compared with birth in a tertiary setting. We recommend perinatal services promote pathways that facilitate delivery of extremely preterm infants in tertiary hospitals in preference to postnatal transfer.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Salas de Parto , Doenças do Prematuro , Transferência de Pacientes , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Salas de Parto/classificação , Salas de Parto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Tunis Med ; 97(1): 1-13, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe trends of gross and specific mortality rates for all five countries of the Great Maghreb and to identify the typology and the main causes of death during the period 1990-2015. METHODS: This is an observational and descriptive study of causes of death in the Great Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania and Libya) using the database Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Causes of death were categorized according to the IHME into three categories: "Communicable Diseases", "Non Communicable Diseases" and "Trauma". These following tracer years (1995, 2005, 2015) were considered in the study of global and specific causes of death by country, disease group, sex and age group. RESULTS: During the period 1990-2015, the general trend in gross mortality rates was going down, reaching in 2015 rates that varied from 547/100 000 inhabitants in Tunisia to 437/100 000 inhabitants in Algeria. The trend in specific mortality from Communicable Diseases has been declining, particularly in Mauritania. Among the "Top 10" list of causes of death, four to eight were "Non Communicable Diseases" including ischemic heart disease, which was ranked first in the Maghreb except Mauritania. For children under 5 years old, prematurity was the leading cause of death in the five Maghreb countries in 2015. CONCLUSION: This analysis of causes of death in the Great Maghreb confirmed the similarity of the epidemiological transition and health priorities. Hence the urgency of developing common North African strategies for monitoring, training and intervention in public health.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argélia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Líbia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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