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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(9): 542-546, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypothermia (< 36°C) has been associated with both neonatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To develop a multifactorial approach to reduce the incidence of neonatal hypothermia at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: The approach involved a detailed quality improvement (QI) plan, which included the use of occlusive wrapping and exothermic mattresses as well as higher delivery and operating room environmental temperatures. The improvement plan was implemented over a 10-month period. Retrospective comparison to the same 10-month period during the previous year assessed the effectiveness of the approach in reducing the incidence of admission hypothermia. RESULTS: The QI project included 189 patients. These patients were compared to 180 patients during the control period. The characteristics of the patient groups were similar and included preterm infants, who were subsequently analyzed as a subgroup. We found a significant reduction in the incidence of hypothermia, which was most profound for the subgroup of premature infants born at < 32 weeks gestation. Neonatal hyperthermia was identified as an unintended consequence of the project, and subsequently improved after initiating simple preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Occlusive wrapping, exothermic mattresses, and higher delivery and operating room environmental temperature may be successful in reducing admission neonatal hypothermia.


Assuntos
Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22166, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925782

RESUMO

We aim to summarize the evidence focusing on the effects of various doses of human milk on the risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The eligible articles in the study were those investigating the association between human milk and NEC published before June 26, 2019, in the PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, VIP database, CNKI database, and Wangfang database. The included criteria were as follows: premature infants of <37 weeks; randomly controlled trials (RCTs); those fed by mother's own milk or donor human milk; studies focused on the comparison of human milk and formula milk, involving various breast milk doses; and NEC-related studies. Compared with the exclusive formula, the incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower. The incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower than that of partial human milk [risk ratio (RR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36-0.79, P < .05]. The incidence of NEC in the infants fed mainly by human milk was significantly lower than that of mainly fed by formula. Incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower than that of any formula (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P < .05). In summary, this meta-analysis was based on the RCTs involving the prevention of NEC using human milk. Exclusive human milk and partial human milk reduced the incidence of NEC in premature infants, especially in the those fed by high proportion of human milk. In addition, more RCTs are needed to further validate such conclusion.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bancos de Leite , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(S 02): S5-S9, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898875

RESUMO

Despite continued advances and developments in neonatal medicine, neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Sepsis accounts for mortality for almost 50% of global children under 5 years of age.Over the past 50 years, there have been many advances in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of neonatal infections. The diagnostic advances include better culture techniques that permit more rapid confirmation of the diagnosis, advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly diagnose viral infections, use of biologic markers indicating evidence of infection, and a better understanding of immunoglobulin markers of infection. From a therapeutic stand point, there have been a variety of antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral agents, better approaches to prevent sepsis, specific immunotherapy, for example, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); bundled approach to prevention of deep-line infection and better antibiotic stewardship, leading to earlier discontinuation of antibiotic therapy.Hand hygiene remains the benchmark and gold standard for late-onset sepsis prevention. The challenge has been that each decade, newer resistant bacteria dominate as the cause of sepsis and newer viruses emerge, for example, human immunodeficiency virus, zika virus, and novel coronavirus disease 2019.Future treatment options might include stem cell therapy, other antimicrobial protein and peptides, and targeting of pattern recognition receptors in an effort to prevent and/or treat sepsis in this vulnerable population. Also, the microbiome of premature infants has a smaller proportion of beneficial bacteria and higher numbers of pathogenic bacteria compared with term infants, likely owing to higher frequencies of cesarean sections, antibiotic use, exposure to the hospital environment, and feeding nonhuman milk products. Modifying the microbiome with more mother's milk and shorter duration of antibiotics in noninfected babies should be a goal. KEY POINTS: · Neonatal sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality.. · Challenges include bacterial resistance and newer viruses.. · Future treatments may include newer antibiotics/antivirals and stem cell therapy..


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sepse Neonatal/mortalidade , Sepse Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico
4.
J Pediatr ; 224: 57-65.e4, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of mother's own milk supplemented with donor milk vs mother's own milk supplemented with formula for infants of very low birth weight in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 319 infants with very low birth weight born before (January 2011-December 2012, mother's own milk + formula, n = 150) and after (April 2013-March 2015, mother's own milk + donor milk, n = 169) a donor milk program was implemented in the NICU. Data were retrieved from a prospectively collected research database, the hospital's electronic medical record, and the hospital's cost accounting system. Costs included feedings and other NICU costs incurred by the hospital. A generalized linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the impact of feeding era on NICU total costs, controlling for neonatal and sociodemographic risk factors and morbidities. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each morbidity that differed significantly between feeding eras. RESULTS: Infants receiving mother's own milk + donor milk had a lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) than infants receiving mother's own milk + formula (1.8% vs 6.0%, P = .048). Total (hospital + feeding) median costs (2016 USD) were $169 555 for mother's own milk + donor milk and $185 740 for mother's own milk + formula (P = .331), with median feeding costs of $1317 and $936, respectively (P < .001). Mother's own milk + donor milk was associated with $15 555 lower costs per infant (P = .045) and saved $1812 per percentage point decrease in NEC incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The additional cost of a donor milk program was small compared with the cost of a NICU hospitalization. After its introduction, the NEC incidence was significantly lower with small cost savings per case. We speculate that NICUs with greater NEC rates may have greater cost savings.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Bancos de Leite/economia , Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/economia , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012362, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head position during care may affect cerebral haemodynamics and contribute to the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) in very preterm infants. Turning the head toward one side may occlude jugular venous drainage while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. It is suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the infant is cared for in the supine 'head midline' position. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether head midline position is more effective than other head positions for preventing (or preventing extension) of GM-IVH in very preterm infants (< 32 weeks' gestation at birth). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 September 2019), Embase (1980 to 12 September 2019), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 12 September 2019). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing caring for very preterm infants in a supine head midline position versus a prone or lateral decubitus position, or undertaking a strategy of regular position change, or having no prespecified position. We included trials enrolling infants with existing GM-IVH and planned to assess extension of haemorrhage in a subgroup of infants. We planned to analyse horizontal (flat) versus head elevated positions separately for all body positions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcomes were GM-IVH, severe IVH, and neonatal death. We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data; and mean, standard deviation (SD), and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Three RCTs, with a total of 290 infants (either < 30 weeks' gestational age or < 1000 g body weight), met the inclusion criteria. Two trials compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the cot flat. One trial compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90° with the bed tilted at 30°. We found no trials that compared supine versus prone midline head position. Meta-analysis of three trials (290 infants) did not show an effect on rates of GM-IVH (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.56; I² = 0%) and severe IVH (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.33; I² = 0%). Neonatal mortality (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.93; I² = 0%; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01) and mortality until hospital discharge (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90; I² = 0%; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.02) were lower in the supine midline head position. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes because of limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates. We identified one ongoing study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found few trial data on the effects of head midline position on GM-IVH in very preterm infants. Although meta-analyses suggest that mortality might be reduced, the certainty of the evidence is very low and it is unclear whether any effect is due to cot tilting (a co-intervention in one trial). Further high-quality RCTs would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Cabeça , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Dorsal , Leitos , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/etiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Rotação
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9535, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533019

RESUMO

After preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), antibiotics and antenatal steroids are effective evidence-based interventions, but the use of tocolysis is controversial. We investigated whether a unit policy of tocolysis use after PPROM is associated with prolonged gestation and improved outcomes for very preterm infants in units that systematically use these other evidence-based treatments. From the prospective, observational, population-based EPICE cohort study (all very preterm births in 19 regions from 11 European countries, 2011-2012), we included 607 women with a singleton pregnancy and PPROM at 24-29 weeks' gestation, of whom 101, 195 and 311 were respectively managed in 17, 32 and 45 units with no-use, restricted and liberal tocolysis policies for PPROM. The association between unit policies and outcomes (early-onset sepsis, survival at discharge, survival at discharge without severe morbidity and survival at two years without gross motor impairment) was investigated using three-level random-intercept logistic regression models, showing no differences in neonatal or two-year outcomes by unit policy. Moreover, there was no association between unit policies and prolongation of gestation in a multilevel survival analysis. Compared to a unit policy of no-use of tocolysis after PPROM, a liberal or restricted policy is not associated with improved obstetric, neonatal or two-year outcomes.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Tocólise/métodos
7.
J Pediatr ; 222: 59-64.e1, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of probiotic administration in infants born preterm over time, as well as the association between probiotic administration and select adverse outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a multicenter cohort study of infants 23-29 weeks of gestational age admitted to 289 neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2016. We evaluated the type of probiotics given and prevalence of exposure to probiotics over time and by site. We matched infants exposed to probiotics by several factors to unexposed infants receiving enteral feeds on the same postnatal day. We performed conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between probiotics exposure and adverse outcomes, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), bloodstream infections, meningitis, and death. RESULTS: Of 78 076 infants, 3626 (4.6%) received probiotics. Probiotic use increased over the study period and varied among neonatal intensive care units. We matched 2178 infants exposed to probiotics to 33 807 without exposure. Probiotic administration was associated with a decrease in NEC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48-0.80) and death (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.70), an increase in Candida infection (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29-3.85), but no increase in bloodstream infection (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or meningitis (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.40-3.46). CONCLUSIONS: Probiotic use increased over time and was associated with decreased odds of NEC and death. Prospective, randomized-controlled studies of specific probiotic products are needed to further investigate the safety and efficacy of probiotics in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate nutritional intake in premature infants may be responsible for postnatal growth restriction (PGR) and adverse long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of an updated nutrition protocol on very premature infants' longitudinal growth and morbidity, and secondly the compliance to this new protocol. DESIGN: All infants born between 26-32 weeks gestation (GA) were studied retrospectively during two 6-month periods before (group 1) and after (group 2) the introduction of an optimized nutrition protocol, in a longitudinal comparative analysis. RESULTS: 158 infants were included; 72 before and 86 after the introduction of the protocol (Group 1: (mean±SD) birthweight (BW) 1154±276 g, GA 29.0±1.4 weeks; Group 2: BW 1215±332 g, GA 28.9±1.7 weeks). We observed growth improvement in Group 2 more pronounced in males (weight z-score) at D42 (-1.688±0.758 vs. -1.370±0.762, p = 0.045), D49 (-1.696±0.776 vs. -1.370±0.718, p = 0.051), D56 (-1.748±0.855 vs. -1.392±0.737, p = 0.072), D63 (-1.885±0.832 vs. -1.336±0.779 p = 0.016), and D70 (-2.001±0.747 vs. -1.228±0.765 p = 0.004). There was no difference in females or in morbidities between the groups. We observed low compliance to the protocol in both groups: similar energy intake but higher lipid intake in Group 1 and higher protein intake in Group 2. CONCLUSION: The quality of nutritional care with a strictly-defined protocol may significantly improve weight gain for very preterm infants. As compliance remained low, an educational reinforcement is needed to prevent PGR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This retrospective study was registered by ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT03217045, and by the CNIL (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés) under study number R2015-1 for the Maternity of the CHRU of Nancy.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apoio Nutricional , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007137, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates. Secondarily, we assessed the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds on the duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to update our search. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 20 January 2020), PREMEDLINE (1996 to 20 January 2020), Embase (1980 to 20 January 2020), and CINAHL (1982 to 20 January 2020). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: In our search, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating enteral lactoferrin supplementation at any dose or duration to prevent sepsis or NEC in preterm neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data from twelve randomized controlled trials showed that lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds decreased late-onset sepsis (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI, -0.06, -0.02; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50; 12 studies, 5425 participants, low-certainty evidence) and decreased length of hospital stay (MD -2.38, 95% CI, -4.67, -0.09; 3 studies, 1079 participants, low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis including only good methodological certainty studies suggested a decrease in late-onset sepsis with enteral lactoferrin supplementation (typical RR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78, 0.97; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI, -0.05, -0.0; 9 studies, 4702 participants, low-certainty evidence). There were no differences in NEC stage II or III (typical RR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.41; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.02, 0.01; 7 studies, 4874 participants; low-certainty evidence) or 'all-cause mortality' (typical RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69, 1.17; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.01, 0.01; 11 studies, 5510 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). One study reported no differences in neurodevelopmental testing by Mullen's or Bayley III at 24 months of age after enteral lactoferrin supplementation (one study, 292 participants, low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with probiotics decreased late-onset sepsis (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.46; RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.08; NNTB 8, 95% CI 6 to 13; 3 studies, 564 participants; low-certainty evidence) and NEC stage II or III (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.62; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.03; NNTB 20, 95% CI 12.5 to 33.3; 1 study, 496 participants; very low-certainty evidence), but not 'all-cause mortality' (very low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with or without probiotics had no effect on CLD, duration of mechanical ventilation or threshold retinopathy of prematurity (low-certainty evidence). Investigators reported no adverse effects in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence from studies of good methodological quality that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds decreases late-onset sepsis but not NEC ≥ stage II or 'all cause mortality' or neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of age in preterm infants without adverse effects. Low- to very low-certainty evidence suggests that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds in combination with probiotics decreases late-onset sepsis and NEC ≥ stage II in preterm infants without adverse effects, however, there were few included studies of poor methodological quality. The presence of publication bias and small studies of poor methodology that may inflate the effect size make recommendations for clinical practice difficult.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 1022-1031, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during infancy is suggested to cause long-term wheeze. In turn, wheeze has been associated with bacterial dysbiosis of the respiratory tract. We investigated the effects of RSV prophylaxis with palivizumab in otherwise healthy preterm infants on respiratory microbiota composition at 1 year and 6 years of age. METHODS: In a multicentre, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (the MAKI trial), infants born between 32-35 weeks of gestation, in one university and in 15 regional hospitals in the the Netherlands, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive palivizumab or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life. Intramuscular injections of palivizumab 15 mg/kg or placebo were given during one RSV season: either from Oct 1, or from discharge from the neonatal unit until March 10 (minimun of 2 and maximum of 5 injections were given). Children were 6 months old or younger at the start of the RSV season; exclusion criteria included congenital heart disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Down's syndrome, or other serious congenital disorders, use of mechanical ventilation at birth, treatment with surfactant, or physician-diagnosed wheeze before the start of the RSV season. Children were followed up for clinical symptoms until 6 years of age. For this subanalysis, we obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 1 year and 6 years and analysed them using 16S-rRNA sequencing. At 6 years we also measured reversible airway obstruction. The primary outcome was the effect of palivizumab during infancy on the respiratory microbiota composition at age 1 year and 6 years (intention-to-treat analysis). The trial is registered in the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN73641710. FINDINGS: From April 1, 2008, to Dec 31, 2010, 429 infants were enrolled in the MAKI trial (n=214 to the palivizumab group; n=215 to the placebo group). At 1 year, we collected swabs and sequenced DNA from 170 (40%) of 429 children, of which 145 (85%) samples had high-quality DNA. The overall microbiota composition was significantly different (R2 1·3%; p=0·0185) between the palivizumab group and the placebo group at 1 year of life; children in the palivizumab group had a significantly lower abundance of the Staphylococcus-dominated cluster (odds ratio 0·28 [95% CI 0·11-0·68]; p=0·00394), an increased abundance of biomarker species, such as Klebsiella, and a more diverse set of oral taxa, including Streptococcus spp, compared with children in the placebo group. At 6 years, we collected swabs and sequenced DNA from 349 (88%) of 395 children who completed follow-up, of which 342 (98%) samples had high-quality DNA. The overall microbiota composition was not significantly different between groups at 6 years (R2 0·6%; p=0·0575); however, children in the palivizumab group had a significantly increased abundance of Haemophilus spp and lower abundance of Moraxella and Neisseriaceae spp compared with children in the placebo group. Absence of PCR-confirmed RSV infection at 1 year was significantly associated with a higher abundance of Haemophilus spp at age 6 years and a significantly lower abundance of Moraxella and Neisseriaceae than children with RSV infection at 1 year. Reversible airway obstruction at 6 years was also positively associated with Haemophilus abundance and negatively associated with the abundance of health-associated taxa, such as Moraxella, Corynebacterium, Dolosigranulum, and Staphylococcus, even after correction for RSV immunoprophylaxis (all: p<0·05). Additionally, reversible airway instruction was associated with significantly higher Streptococcus pneumoniae abundance. INTERPRETATION: Palivizumab in infancy in otherwise healthy preterm infants is associated with persistent effects on the abundance of specific, potentially pathogenic, microbial taxa in the respiratory tract. Several of the palivizumab-associated biomarker species were associated with reversible airway obstruction at age 6 years. These results warrant further studies to establish the long-term ecological effects and health consequences of palivizumab in infancy. FUNDING: MedImmune.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Palivizumab/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Países Baixos , Método Simples-Cego
11.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093194

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis, a potentially fatal intestinal inflammatory disorder affecting primarily premature infants, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. While the etiology of the disease is, as yet, unknown, a number of risk factors for the development of necrotizing enterocolitis have been identified. One such risk factor, formula feeding, has been shown to contribute to both increased incidence and severity of the disease. The protective influences afforded by breastfeeding are likely attributable to the unique composition of human milk, an extremely potent, biologically active fluid. This review brings together knowledge on the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis and current thinking on the instrumental role of one of the more prominent classes of bioactive components in human breast milk, glycosaminoglycans.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Glicosaminoglicanos/farmacologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Aleitamento Materno , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/patologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD001239, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates are at higher risk of infection due to immuno-incompetence. Maternal transport of immunoglobulins to the fetus mainly occurs after 32 weeks' gestation, and endogenous synthesis begins several months after birth. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides immunoglobulin G (IgG) that can bind to cell surface receptors, provide opsonic activity, activate complement, promote antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and improve neutrophilic chemo-luminescence. Theoretically, infectious morbidity and mortality could be reduced by the administration of IVIG. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of IVIG on mortality and morbidity caused by suspected or proven infection at study entry in neonates. To assess in a subgroup analysis the effects of IgM-enriched IVIG on mortality from suspected infection. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, trial registries, Web of Science, reference lists of identified studies, meta-analyses and personal files were searched in 2013. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving newborn infants (< 28 days old); IVIG for treatment of suspected or proven bacterial or fungal infection compared with placebo or no intervention; and where one of the following outcomes was reported, mortality, length of hospital stay or psychomotor development at follow-up. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analyses included typical risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), weighted mean difference (WMD), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or an additional harmful outcome (NNTH), all with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and the I2 statistic to examine for statistical heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: The updated search identified one published study that was previously ongoing. A total of 9 studies evaluating 3973 infants were included in this review. Mortality during hospital stay in infants with clinically suspected infection was not significantly different after IVIG treatment (9 studies (n = 2527); typical RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.13; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI - 0.04 to 0.02; I2 = 23% for RR and 29% for RD). Death or major disability at 2 years corrected age was not significantly different in infants with suspected infection after IVIG treatment (1 study (n = 1985); RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.09; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.03). Mortality during hospital stay was not significantly different after IVIG treatment in infants with proven infection at trial entry (1 trial (n = 1446); RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.21; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.03). Death or major disability at 2 years corrected age was not significantly different after IVIG treatment in infants with proven infection at trial entry (1 trial (n = 1393); RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.18; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.06). Mortality during hospital stay in infants with clinically suspected or proven infection at trial entry was not significantly different after IVIG treatment (1 study (n = 3493); RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.16; RD 0.00, 95% CI - 0.02 to 0.03). Death or major disability at 2 years corrected age was not significantly different after IVIG treatment in infants with suspected or proven infection at trial entry (1 study (n = 3493); RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.09; RD -0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.03). Length of hospital stay was not reduced for infants with suspected or proven infection at trial entry (1 study (n = 3493); mean difference (MD) 0.00 days, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.61). No significant difference in mortality during hospital stay after administration of IgM-enriched IVIG for suspected infection at trial entry was reported in 4 studies (n = 266) (typical RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.20; RD -0.06, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.02; I2 = 17% for RR and 53% for RD). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The undisputable results of the INIS trial, which enrolled 3493 infants, and our meta-analyses (n = 3973) showed no reduction in mortality during hospital stay, or death or major disability at two years of age in infants with suspected or proven infection. Although based on a small sample size (n = 266), this update provides additional evidence that IgM-enriched IVIG does not significantly reduce mortality during hospital stay in infants with suspected infection. Routine administration of IVIG or IgM-enriched IVIG to prevent mortality in infants with suspected or proven neonatal infection is not recommended. No further research is recommended.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Infecções/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD000361, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. Preterm infants are deficient in immunoglobulin G (IgG); therefore, administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have the potential of preventing or altering the course of nosocomial infections. OBJECTIVES: To use systematic review/meta-analytical techniques to determine whether IVIG administration (compared with placebo or no intervention) to preterm (< 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) at birth) or LBW (< 2500 g birth weight) infants or both is effective/safe in preventing nosocomial infection. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov and PAS Abstracts2view were searched in May 2013. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which a group of participants to whom IVIG was given was compared with a control group that received a placebo or no intervention for preterm (< 37 weeks' gestational age) and/or LBW (< 2500 g) infants. Studies that were primarily designed to assess the effect of IVIG on humoral immune markers were excluded, as were studies in which the follow-up period was one week or less. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen studies enrolling approximately 5000 preterm and/or LBW infants met inclusion criteria. No new trials were identified in May 2013. When all studies were combined, a significant reduction in sepsis was noted (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.98; typical risk difference (RD) -0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to -0.05; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 33, 95% CI 20 to infinity), and moderate between-study heterogeneity was reported (I2 54% for RR, 55% for RD). A significant reduction of one or more episodes was found for any serious infection when all studies were combined (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.06; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50), and moderate between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 50% for RR, 62% for RD). No statistically significant differences in mortality from all causes were noted (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.05; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.01), and no heterogeneity for RR (I2 = 21%) or low heterogeneity for RD was documented (I2 = 28%). No statistically significant difference was seen in mortality from infection; in incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or in length of hospital stay. No major adverse effects of IVIG were reported in any of these studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: IVIG administration results in a 3% reduction in sepsis and a 4% reduction in one or more episodes of any serious infection but is not associated with reductions in other clinically important outcomes, including mortality. Prophylactic use of IVIG is not associated with any short-term serious side effects. The decision to use prophylactic IVIG will depend on the costs and the values assigned to the clinical outcomes. There is no justification for conducting additional RCTs to test the efficacy of previously studied IVIG preparations in reducing nosocomial infections in preterm and/or LBW infants.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Deficiência de IgG/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/imunologia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 40, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Canada alone, almost 3000 VLBW infants are born and treated annually with almost 1200 going onto death or survival with severe brain injury, chronic lung disorders, aggressive retinopathy of prematurity, late-onset sepsis, or significant necrotizing enterocolitis. Lactoferrin is an antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory iron-carrying, bifidogenic glycoprotein found in all vertebrates and in mammalian milk, leukocytes and exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin aids in creating an environment for growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, thus reducing colonization with pathogenic bacteria. It is hypothesized that oral bovine lactoferrin (bLF), through its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, will reduce the rate of mortality or major morbidity in very low birth weight preterm infants. METHOD: Lactoferrin Infant Feeding Trial_Canada (LIFT_Canada) is a multi-centre, double-masked, randomized controlled trial with the aim to enroll 500 infants whose data will be combined with the data of the 1542 infants enrolled from Lactoferrin Infant Feeding Trial_Australia/New Zealand (LIFT_ANZ) in a pooled intention-to-treat analysis. Eligible infants will be randomized and allocated to one of two treatment groups: 1) a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bLF in breast/donor human milk or formula milk until 34 weeks corrected gestation or for a minimum of 2 weeks, whichever is longer, or until discharge home or transfer, if earlier; 2) no bLF with daily feeds. The primary outcome will be determined at 36 weeks corrected gestation for the presence of neonatal morbidity and at discharge for survival and treated retinopathy of prematurity. The duration of the trial is expected to be 36 months. DISCUSSION: Currently, there continues to be no clear answer related to the benefit of bLF in reducing mortality or any or all of the significant neonatal morbidities in very low birth weight infants. LIFT_Canada is designed with the hope that the pooled results from Australia, New Zealand, and Canada may help to clarify the situation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.Gov, Identifier: NCT03367013, Registered December 8, 2017.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Leite Humano
15.
Biol Res Nurs ; 22(2): 188-196, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Due to physiological and metabolic immaturity, prematurely born infants are at increased risk because of maternal separation in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The stress induced from maternal-infant separation can lead to well-documented short-term physiologic instability and potentially lifelong neurological, sociological, or psychological sequelae. Based on previous studies of kangaroo mother care (KMC) that demonstrated improvement in physiologic parameters, we examined the impact of KMC on physiologic measures of stress (abdominal temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation, perfusion index, near-infrared spectrometry), oxidative stress, and energy utilization/conservation in preterm infants. METHODS: In this randomized, stratified study of premature neonates, we compared the effects on urinary concentrations of biomarkers of energy utilization and oxidative stress of 1 hr of KMC versus incubator care on Day 3 of life in intervention-group babies (n = 26) and control-group babies (n = 25), respectively. On Day 4, both groups received 1 hr of KMC. Urinary samples were collected 3 hr before and 3 hr after intervention/incubator care on both days. Energy utilization was assessed by measures of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation (i.e., hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid). Oxidative stress was assessed using urinary allantoin. Mixed-models analysis was used to assess differences in purine/allantoin. RESULTS: Mean allantoin levels over Days 3 and 4 were significantly lower in the KMC group than in the control group (p = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Results provide preliminary evidence that KMC reduces neonatal oxidative stress processes and that urinary allantoin could serve as an effective noninvasive marker for future studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Método Canguru , Relações Mãe-Filho , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino
16.
N Engl J Med ; 382(3): 233-243, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose erythropoietin has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in preclinical models of neonatal brain injury, and phase 2 trials have suggested possible efficacy; however, the benefits and safety of this therapy in extremely preterm infants have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of high-dose erythropoietin, we assigned 941 infants who were born at 24 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to receive erythropoietin or placebo within 24 hours after birth. Erythropoietin was administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 U per kilogram of body weight every 48 hours for a total of six doses, followed by a maintenance dose of 400 U per kilogram three times per week by subcutaneous injection through 32 completed weeks of postmenstrual age. Placebo was administered as intravenous saline followed by sham injections. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of postmenstrual age. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as severe cerebral palsy or a composite motor or composite cognitive score of less than 70 (which corresponds to 2 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: A total of 741 infants were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis: 376 received erythropoietin and 365 received placebo. There was no significant difference between the erythropoietin group and the placebo group in the incidence of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age (97 children [26%] vs. 94 children [26%]; relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.32; P = 0.80). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rates of retinopathy of prematurity, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or death or in the frequency of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose erythropoietin treatment administered to extremely preterm infants from 24 hours after birth through 32 weeks of postmenstrual age did not result in a lower risk of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death at 2 years of age. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; PENUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01378273.).


Assuntos
Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritropoetina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
17.
Neonatal Netw ; 39(1): 6-15, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919288

RESUMO

The goal of the NEC-Zero project is to reduce the burden of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by increasing access to evidence-based tools to help clinicians and parents integrate evidence into daily care. It involves (a) human milk feeding with prioritized mother's own milk; (b) use of a unit-adopted standardized feeding protocol; (c) a unit-adopted strategy for timely recognition that integrates risk awareness and a structured communication tool when symptoms develop; and (d) stewardship of empiric antibiotics and avoidance of antacids. A toolkit for caregivers and parents was developed to make implementation consistent. For clinicians the toolkit includes: the GutCheckNEC risk score, a structured communication tool, the "Avoiding NEC" checklist, and the NEC-Zero website. For parents, NEC-Zero tools include the website, three educational brochures in English and Spanish, and a collaborative care video produced with the NEC Society. This article describes the toolkit and how it has been accessed and used.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Melhoria de Qualidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Masculino , Defesa do Paciente , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 184-190, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886779

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether intact umbilical cord milking (I-UCM) can aggravate infection or result in other undesirable complications in preterm infants with premature prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM).Methods: Neonates vaginally delivered between 28 and 37 weeks' gestation and complicated by PPROM before birth were randomly divided into two groups according to the cord clamping procedure: I-UCM before clamping and immediate cord clamping (ICC). Various parameters of the study participants were compared between the two groups.Results: Of 102 preterm infants, 48 and 54 were randomly allocated to the I-UCM and ICC groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding hematological parameters (platelet count, white blood count, neutrophil ratio, and C-reactive protein) or neonatal outcomes (probable or certain neonatal infection, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage) (p > .05). However, preterm neonates in the I-UCM group had higher serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p < .05) and received fewer blood transfusions (p < .05) than those in the ICC group.Conclusion: Milking the umbilical cord to a preterm neonate with PPROM will not aggravate neonatal infection or result in other undesirable complications. This simple procedure will improve hemoglobin values and hematocrit levels and may lessen the need for transfusion during the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
19.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 283-288, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898632

RESUMO

Objective: This study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the pulmonary regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) of premature infants. The oxygenation state of the lung tissue was also evaluated, which provided preliminary evidence regarding the application of NIRS in oxygen therapy for premature infants.Methods: NIRS was used to measure the pulmonary rSO2 of 26 premature infants (gestational age <32 weeks). The correlations between pulmonary rSO2 and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were analyzed. The diagnostic value of NIRS was evaluated via both Pearson's correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses.Results: Pulmonary rSO2 was positively correlated with both PO2 and SaO2; the linear correlation coefficients (r) were 0.544 (p = .004) and 0.515 (p = .007), respectively. No significant correlation was found between rSO2 and SpO2 (p = .098). SpO2 was positively correlated with PO2 (r = 0.402, p = .042) and SaO2 (r = 0.625, p = .001). NIRS could be used to predict hypoxemia (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.843; Youden's index =0.654) when the pulmonary rSO2 was 62.39%, the sensitivity was 88.9%, and the specificity was 23.5% (p = .005) as well as predict hyperoxemia (AUC = 0.775; Youden's index = 0.65) when the pulmonary rSO2 was 61.99%, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 35% (p = .045). SpO2 predicted hypoxemia (AUC = 0.784, p = .019) but not hyperoxemia (AUC = 0.7, p = .144).Conclusion: NIRS objectively reflects the changes in oxygenation in the lung tissue. This study provides evidence for the clinical application of NIRS.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/sangue , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Gasometria/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(6): 982-986, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122071

RESUMO

Background: Preterm delivery <32-week gestation is associated with significant neurodevelopmental morbidity ranging from mild delay to profound disability. Several randomized trials have shown that magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is an effective neuroprotectant, demonstrating reduced rates of cerebral palsy, death, and gross motor dysfunction for the neonate or infant. Dosing was not consistent among the major trials and the onus was placed on institutions by ACOG to develop and implement protocols with respect to MgSO4 as a neuroprotectant. A recent study demonstrated that MgSO4 exposure <12 h prior to delivery was associated with a decrease in CP compared to more remote exposure.Objective: To assess impact of dosing schedule on uptake of neuroprotective MgSO4 in patients delivering <32 weeks gestational age.Study design: A retrospective cohort study of all deliveries occurring <32 weeks' gestation at a single academic center between March-December 2014 and March-December 2015 was conducted. Institutional policy shifted in 2015 from MgSO4 bolus with continuous infusion based on the BEAM trial to a single bolus dose based on the PREMAG trial. Patients with preeclampsia, known fetal anomalies, and/or stillbirth were excluded from this analysis. Patients were identified through query of the Medical University of South Carolina Perinatal Information System (PINS) database with respect to whether or not they had received MgSO4 within 12 h of delivery. Chi-squared analysis was performed to compare the overall rate of MgSO4 exposure and MgSO4 exposure <12 h prior to delivery between groups. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate maternal, obstetric, and neonatal variables among those receiving MgSO4 within 12 h of delivery in each cohort. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to control for co-linear or potential confounding variables.Results: A total of 224 patients were identified, 115 delivered between March-December 2014 and 109 delivered between March-December 2015. With respect to MgSO4 exposure prior to delivery, 27 (23.5%) received MgSO4 in the 2014 cohort compared to 44 (40.4%) in the 2015 cohort (OR: 2.2, p < .01). Of those being exposed within 12 h of delivery, there were 16 (13.9%) maternal exposures in the 2014 cohort versus 28 (26.7%) in the 2015 cohort (OR: 2.15, p = .02). Of the 18 neonates delivered in 2014 there were four cases of grade III or IV intraventricular hemorrhage versus one case among the 36 neonates (2.7%) born in 2015 (0.04). This finding holds after controlling for race, preterm labor, gestational age, corticosteroid, birthweight, and indomethacin exposure.Conclusions: Dosing of neuroprotective MgSO4 according to PREMAG trial specifications was associated with a significantly greater percentage of patients having received neuroprotective magnesium at any point prior to delivery or within the 12 h prior to delivery when compared to dosing according to BEAM trial specifications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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