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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 180: 105030, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447153

RESUMO

Responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have included travel bans and social distancing with "shelter in place" orders, resulting in sudden changes in human activity and subsequent effects on the global and national economy. We speculate that animal health will likely be impacted by COVID-19 through the immediate consequences of sudden human confinement and inactivity, and through the long-term consequences of the upcoming economic crisis on farmer livelihoods and veterinary service capacities. We expect the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent economic crisis to impact negatively on the control of diseases that are already present in Europe, as well as on the European capacity to prevent and respond in a timely manner to new and emerging animal diseases. We also expect an increased attention to the animal health implications of coronavirus infections in animals. Mechanisms explaining these outcomes include increased wildlife-livestock contacts due to human confinement; disruption of ongoing testing schemes for endemic diseases; lower disease surveillance efforts; and lower capacity for managing populations of relevant wildlife reservoirs. The main mitigation action consists in adapting animal health management strategies to the available resources.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Agricultura/economia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Recessão Econômica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Isolamento Social , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008117, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130210

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses pose a substantial threat to wildlife populations and to public health in Africa. Evolutionary analyses of virus genome sequences can contribute significantly to elucidate the origin of new outbreaks, which can help guide surveillance efforts. The reconstructed between-outbreak evolutionary history of Zaire ebolavirus so far has been highly consistent. By removing the confounding impact of population growth bursts during local outbreaks on the free mixing assumption that underlies coalescent-based demographic reconstructions, we find-contrary to what previous results indicated-that the circulation dynamics of Ebola virus in its animal reservoir are highly uncertain. Our findings also accentuate the need for a more fine-grained picture of the Ebola virus diversity in its reservoir to reliably infer the reservoir origin of outbreak lineages. In addition, the recent appearance of slower-evolving variants is in line with latency as a survival mechanism and with bats as the natural reservoir host.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , África , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/genética , Genótipo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008113, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210439

RESUMO

Despite proactive measures to prevent raccoon rabies entering Canada from the United States, several incursions of this disease have occurred. The largest outbreak, first reported in December 2015 in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, has resulted in the reporting of 449 animal cases as of December 31, 2018. Initial phylogenetic studies on the index case suggested that this outbreak was not due to local cross-border spread from the Niagara region of the United States where raccoon rabies has persisted for several years. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of a viral collection from the Hamilton area and several US states indicates that a long-distance translocation of a diseased animal from southeastern New York State was responsible for this incursion. The role of the skunk as a potential secondary host supporting persistence and / or spread of the virus is also examined.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Raiva/veterinária , Guaxinins , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , Genótipo , New York , Ontário/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126071, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085936

RESUMO

The spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is an endangered Mediterranean tortoise that lives in North Africa, Southern Europe and Southwest Asia. In the wake of recent legislation making their keeping as domestic animals illegal, many of these animals have been returned to wildlife recovery centers in Spain. In the present study, a population of such tortoises showing signs of ocular disease and nasal discharge was examined for the presence of Chlamydia spp. Cloacal, conjunctival and/or choanal swabs were collected from 58 animals. Using a real-time PCR specific for the family Chlamydiaceae, 57/58 animals tested positive in at least one sample. While only a few samples proved positive for C. pecorum, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a sequence identical to previously published sequences from specimens of German and Polish tortoises. Whole-genome sequences obtained from two conjunctival swab samples, as well as ANIb, TETRA values and a scheme based on 9 taxonomic marker genes revealed that the strain present in the Spanish tortoises represented a new yet non-classified species, with C. pecorum being its closest relative. We propose to designate the new species Candidatus Chlamydia testudinis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/classificação , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e6, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933451

RESUMO

Cervids represent a mammal group which plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. Recent studies have highlighted the role of these species as reservoirs for several arthropods-borne pathogens. Globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are emerging or remerging bacteria that attach to red blood cells of several mammals species causing hemolytic anaemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning of Mycoplasma ovis in free-ranging deer from Brazil. Using a polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA region, 18 (40%) out of 45 sampled deer were positive to M. ovis. Among the nine sequences analysed, four distinct genotypes were identified. The sequences detected in the present study were closely related to sequences previously identified in deer from Brazil and the USA. On the other hand, the Neighbour-Net network analysis showed that the human-associated M. ovis genotypes were related to genotypes detected in sheep and goats. The present study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of M. ovis in Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama bororo deer species, expanding the knowledge on the hosts harbouring this haemoplasma species. Once several deer species have your population in decline, additional studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenicity of M. ovis among deer populations around the world and assess its potential as reservoir hosts to human infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genótipo , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 853-860, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926515

RESUMO

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one method of providing nutrient support to hospitalized, nondomestic ruminants that have a decreased appetite in hospital or have high metabolic demands caused by illness. There are a limited number of published reports of the use of PN in nondomestic ruminants. A retrospective evaluation of PN use in adult (>6 mo of age) hospitalized ruminants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park was conducted from 2014 to 2018 (n = 24). Discharge rate for animals that received PN was 34%. Poor survival was likely caused by case selection of animals that had severe disease or malnutrition necessitating the need for PN. Common metabolic changes among the study animals included the following: hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperphosphatemia or hypophosphatemia. Bivariable analysis revealed no clinically significant factors that influenced odds of survival. There was little evidence of adverse effects with the administration of PN during the study period. Parenteral nutrition requires specialized equipment and technical skills, but is a viable means of nutrient support for hospitalized nondomestic ruminants.


Assuntos
Nutrição Parenteral/veterinária , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 209-232, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610137

RESUMO

Bumble bees (Bombus) are unusually important pollinators, with approximately 260 wild species native to all biogeographic regions except sub-Saharan Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. As they are vitally important in natural ecosystems and to agricultural food production globally, the increase in reports of declining distribution and abundance over the past decade has led to an explosion of interest in bumble bee population decline. We summarize data on the threat status of wild bumble bee species across biogeographic regions, underscoring regions lacking assessment data. Focusing on data-rich studies, we also synthesize recent research on potential causes of population declines. There is evidence that habitat loss, changing climate, pathogen transmission, invasion of nonnative species, and pesticides, operating individually and in combination, negatively impact bumble bee health, and that effects may depend on species and locality. We distinguish between correlational and causal results, underscoring the importance of expanding experimental research beyond the study of two commercially available species to identify causal factors affecting the diversity of wild species.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Doenças dos Animais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Comércio , Ecossistema , Neonicotinoides , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007793, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790399

RESUMO

This study describes changes in the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans infections among small mammals, including rats and larger domestic and wild mammals in Lviv Oblast, a region in western Ukraine from 2001-2015, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A total of 439,948 domestic or wild animals were tested. We found the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans exposure varied among tested species and changed over the time. Infection was significantly less common in domestic animals, than in wild rodents. In swine the overall seroprevalence was 0.51%, while in cattle it was 0.19%. In dogs it was higher-2.75%. After 2006, evidence of infection was only observed in swine among domestic animals. The prevalence among large wild animals (0.25%) was similar to that among domestic animals. Among small mammals and rats, seroprevalence was most commonly observed among Rattus norvegicus (18.44%) and it was less common among other wild small mammals (8.74%). There were two dominant serogroups among large wild and domestic animals-L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. hebdomadis while among wild small mammals the two most common were L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. grippotyphosa. Wild animals with antibodies were found throughout the entire oblast.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Mamíferos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0208969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821326

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. Outbreaks of the infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), are implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous amphibian species. In Costa Rica, a major decline event occurred in 1987, more than two decades before this pathogen was discovered. The loss of many species in Costa Rica is assumed to be due to Bd-epizootics, but there are few studies that provide data from amphibians in the time leading up to the proposed epizootics. In this study, we provide new data on Bd infection rates of amphibians collected throughout Costa Rica, in the decades prior to the epizootics. We used a quantitative PCR assay to test for Bd presence in 1016 anuran museum specimens collected throughout Costa Rica. The earliest specimen that tested positive for Bd was collected in 1964. Across all time periods, we found an overall infection rate (defined as the proportion of Bd-positive individuals) of 4%. The number of infected individuals remained relatively low across all species tested and the range of Bd-positive specimens was shown to be geographically constrained up until the 1980s; when epizootics are hypothesized to have occurred. After that time, infection rate increased three-fold, and the range of specimens tested positive for Bd increased, with Bd-positive specimens collected across the entire country. Our results suggest that Bd dynamics in Costa Rica are more complicated than previously thought. The discovery of Bd's presence in the country preceding massive declines leads to a number of different hypotheses: 1) Bd invaded Costa Rica earlier than previously known, and spread more slowly than previously reported; 2) Bd invaded multiple times and faded out; 3) an endemic Bd lineage existed; 4) an earlier Bd lineage evolved into the current Bd lineage or hybridized with an invasive lineage; or 5) an earlier Bd lineage went extinct and a new invasion event occurred causing epizootics. To help visualize areas where future studies should take place, we provide a Bd habitat suitability model trained with local data. Studies that provide information on genetic lineages of Bd are needed to determine the most plausible spatial-temporal, host-pathogen dynamics that could best explain the epizootics resulting in amphibian declines in Costa Rica and throughout Central America.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/história , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/história , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 589-600, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866674

RESUMO

Progress towards the South African Government's social upliftment targets on food security, equity, job creation and economic development can be made by diversification of fish production in the country's aquaculture sector. The risks associated with the diseases and parasitic infections that affect aquaculture production in South Africa are poorly understood. Substantial investment is currently being made to provide evidence of freedom from OIE-listed diseases to support an aquaculture industry that is largely reliant on access to foreign markets for high-value aquacultural products. The projected rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector in South Africa accentuates the associated need to prevent the spread of aquatic animal diseases. The primary constraint is that the current regulatory framework governing aquacultural activities is not centralised due to the diversity of aquaculture activities spanning marine, brackish and freshwater environments. An aquaculture development bill was drafted in 2018 to promote aquacultural development. The effective implementation of the provisions of the bill requires resources to ensure that suitable standards for aquatic animal health management are achieved in accordance with international standards and government policies and objectives.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aquicultura/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Peixes , Abastecimento de Alimentos , África do Sul
15.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 533-570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866676

RESUMO

Aquatic animal disease outbreaks affect both the public (represented by the government) and the private sector (represented by the aquaculture and fisheries industry). However, all too often, the responsibilities and costs of responding to an outbreak may not be shared. Without a mechanism for public and private sectors to work together, the outcomes of an emergency response may not be ideal, or of common benefit to all potentially affected parties. In Australia, a mechanism is being developed for public and private sectors to share the responsibilities and costs of responding to aquatic animal disease outbreaks, through an industry- government aquatic emergency animal disease response agreement. The agreement provides an approach for both public and private sectors to share the responsibilities and costs of responding to a disease outbreak and to coordinate disease prevention activities to reduce their shared risk. The key elements of the agreement include provisions to incentivise faster notification of disease outbreaks, facilitate a faster response, share decision-making and costs (including compensation for affected businesses), clarify the responsibilities of all parties and, most importantly, strengthen risk mitigation activities. This paper describes how the draft agreement has been developed among 18 industry and government parties, how key elements of the agreement may contribute to improved aquatic animal health outcomes, and the principles which could be applied by other OIE Member Countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura/normas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Pesqueiros/normas , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Setor Público
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 537-551, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866677

RESUMO

Since 1970, aquaculture has grown at a rate of between 5% and 10% per annum. It has achieved this by expanding into new areas, farming new (often non-native) species and intensifying production. These features of aquaculture, combined with large-scale movements of animals, have driven disease emergence, with negative consequences for both production and biodiversity. Efforts to improve the management of emerging diseases of aquatic animals must include actions to reduce the rate of disease emergence, enhance disease detection and reporting, and improve responses to prevent disease spread. The rate of disease emergence can be reduced by understanding the underpinning mechanisms and developing measures to mitigate them. The three principal mechanisms of disease emergence, namely, host switching, decreased host immunocompetence and increased pathogen virulence, have many drivers. The most important of these drivers are those that expose susceptible hosts to novel pathogens (e.g. the introduction of non-native hosts, translocation of pathogens, and increased interaction between wild and farmed populations), followed by host switching. Exposure to wild populations can be reduced through infrastructure and management measures to reduce escapes or exclude wild animals (e.g. barrier nets, filtration and closed-confinement technology). A high standard of health management ensures immunocompetence and resistance to putative new pathogens and strains, and thus reduces the rate of emergence. Appropriate site selection and husbandry can reduce the likelihood of pathogens developing increased virulence by preventing their continuous cycling in geographically or temporally linked populations. The under-reporting of emerging aquatic animal diseases constrains appropriate investigation and timely response. At the producer level, employing information and communications technology (e.g. smartphone applications and Cloud computing) to collect and manage data, coupled with a farmer-centric approach to surveillance, could improve reporting. In addition, reporting behaviours must be understood and disincentives mitigated. At the international level, improving the reporting of emerging diseases to the World Organisation for Animal Health allows Member Countries to implement appropriate measures to reduce transboundary spread. Reporting would be incentivised if the global response included the provision of support to low-income countries to, in the short term, control a reported emerging disease, and, in the longer term, develop aquatic animal health services. Early detection and reporting of emerging diseases are only of benefit if Competent Authorities' responses prevent disease spread. Effective responses to emerging diseases are challenging because basic information and tools are often lacking. Consequently, responses are likely to be sub-optimal unless contingency plans have been developed and tested, and decision-making arrangements have been well established.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Saúde Global
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 523-536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866678

RESUMO

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) develops international standards for the prevention, detection and control of aquatic animal diseases as well as the safe international trade of amphibians, crustaceans, fish, molluscs and their products. The Competent Authorities of importing and exporting countries should implement the OIE international standards by adopting the required legislation as this provides the basis for setting sanitary measures that ensure safe international trade, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade. Based on an analysis of legislation notified by countries to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the context of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the authors explore how and to what extent Member Countries use the OIE international standards when developing sanitary measures. The study develops an analytical framework for collecting and presenting countries' legislation to determine if a direct link can be demonstrated between national legislation and OIE international standards. Results show that OIE international standards are implemented through different categories of legislation which range from more general (those providing a general sanitary framework) to more specific (those setting requirements for the import of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products). However, the study illustrates the difficulty of identifying direct links between countries' legislation and OIE international standards. Nonetheless, this study is the first step in the design of an approach to better understand how OIE international standards are used by Member Countries to devise sanitary measures in the context of international trade. It further notes that increased transparency of national sanitary legislation can facilitate efforts to improve knowledge on the implementation of OIE international standards.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Cooperação Internacional , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Comércio/normas , Saúde Global , Internacionalidade
18.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 511-522, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866679

RESUMO

Aquaculture is an important industry both economically and socially. The majority of this industry is focused on the production of aquatic animals, which may be substantially adversely affected by disease. Economic analyses may be used to inform decision-makers on the aquatic animal disease control choices that are economically optimal. Examples of such analyses are presented in this paper, ranging from basic cost estimates of disease impact to complex, spatial- temporal, bio-economic models. Regardless of the complexity of the analysis, there is a consistent need to collect and analyse good quality data measuring both the production and health of aquatic animals. This would require a variety of individuals and groups, including farmers, scientists and the government, to collaboratively contribute to this end. Given the necessary data, more sophisticated models may be better used to inform decision-making from the farm to the national level. Finally, economic analyses should not be limited to simple aggregated cost and benefit results but rather should include the social and gender impacts of financial decisions, as well as the potential externalities both within and among the various impacted sectors in order to optimise investment at both the farm and national levels.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/economia , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Animais , Aquicultura/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Humanos
19.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 361-383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866687

RESUMO

Global food security and nutrition depend heavily on aquaculture, the continued growth of which is crucial as the world heads towards a human population of at least 9 billion by 2050, while harvests from wild capture will, at best, stabilise at current levels. Thus, a fundamental question is: how can we sustainably increase aquatic food production? It is clear that aquatic animal diseases present a substantial threat and, consequently, aquatic animal health management has a critical role in food security. An ecosystem approach to aquaculture will mitigate impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity, and provide the necessary resilience to future disease threats, including those exacerbated by climate change. Due to the nature of aquatic production systems, this approach must encompass fisheries and other sectors that share the same resources. Improved aquatic animal health management must be a key component of aquaculture's future. At the national level, public-private partnerships are vital in achieving objectives of common benefit. Improved disease reporting and response is critical in the control of listed and emerging diseases and can only be achieved through government, industry and stakeholder collaboration. Great potential exists to improve biosecurity from the farm to national level, but this will only be achieved through collaboration. Industry cannot develop effective biosecurity without a clear government strategy and support, specifically legislation which provides an effective framework for safe trade. Governments have a key role in creating a regulatory environment that supports effective biosecurity and is attractive to investment; such as one that supports the development and regulatory approval of therapeutics. The improved control of transboundary diseases requires the wider and more consistent implementation of OIE standards, particularly on disease notification. This can only be achieved through improved collaboration between trading partners and by supporting low- and middle-income countries to strengthen their aquatic animal health services. There is incredible potential for aquaculture to continue its rapid growth and increase its contribution to global food security. However, sustainable growth of aquaculture is threatened by both known diseases, which we cannot effectively control, and new diseases, which may become pandemic. Recent pandemics have shown that global production systems are epidemiologically connected and, consequently, aquatic animal diseases present a shared global threat that demands global solidarity. The world now depends on a sustainable future for aquaculture and improved aquatic animal health management is critical to its continued and growing contribution to global food security.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Animais , Pesqueiros , Saúde Global , Humanos
20.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(4): 405-407, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850871

RESUMO

Elimination of pathogens by laboratory rodent commercial vendors has substantially improved standardized conditions as well as laboratory animal welfare. However, pathogens are also important for basic activation and functioning of the immune system with consequential influences on the symbiotic bacteria composition in the individual microbiota. One of the reasons for failures of translating results from preclinical research to the clinical phase in some studies could be due to unintentional selection processes. Some recommendations are provided to increase researchers' awareness on this point, together with a practical checklist to optimize information from microbiota knowledge.


Assuntos
Alternativas ao Uso de Animais , Animais de Laboratório/microbiologia , Microbiota , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Micronutrientes , Especificidade da Espécie , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Simbiose
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