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3.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(10): 1071-1074, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944595
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802936

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by targeting either the 3' untranslated or coding regions of genes. They have been reported to play key roles in a wide range of biological processes. The recent remarkable developments of transcriptomics technologies, especially next-generation sequencing technologies and advanced bioinformatics tools, allow more in-depth exploration of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs. These technologies have offered great opportunities for a deeper exploration of miRNA involvement in farm animal diseases, as well as livestock productivity and welfare. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of miRNA roles in major farm animal diseases with a particular focus on diseases of economic importance. In addition, we discuss the steps and future perspectives of using miRNAs as biomarkers and molecular therapy for livestock disease management as well as the challenges and opportunities for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs related to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/genética , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais Domésticos/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Humanos , Gado/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
5.
Parasite ; 28: 35, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835021

RESUMO

Debates about emerging infectious diseases often oppose natural conceptions of zoonotic reservoirs with cultural practices bringing humans into contact with animals. This article compares the representations of cross-species pathogens at ontological levels below the opposition between nature and culture. It describes the perceptions of distinctions between interiority and physicality, between wild and domestic, and between sick and dead in three different contexts where human societies manage animal diseases: Australia, Laos and Mongolia. Our article also argues that zoonotic pathogens are one of the entities mobilized by local knowledge to attenuate troubles in ordinary relations with animals, and shows that the conservation of cultural heritage is a tool of mitigation for infectious diseases emerging in animal reservoirs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Zoonoses
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 157-165, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827172

RESUMO

Takin (Budorcus taxicolor) are classified as "Vulnerable" on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. Thus, ex situ conservation efforts provide assurance populations for future survival of this species. The objective of this study was to identify common causes of morbidity and mortality in takin populations in human care. Twenty North American institutions that housed takin from 1997 to 2017 completed a survey requesting medical and husbandry data. Data were examined broadly, by sex and age groups. There were 206 morbidity events (male = 133; female = 73) submitted across 102 takin (male = 62; female = 40). The most common causes of morbidity were infectious or inflammatory diseases (50%; 104/206), degenerative diseases (22%; 46/206), and traumatic events (17%; 34/206). Necropsy reports were provided for 42 takin that died during the study period. The most common causes of mortality were infectious or inflammatory diseases (26%; 11/42), traumatic events (24%; 10/42), and degenerative disease (12%; 5/42). Sixty-two percent of infectious or inflammatory diseases causing morbidity were associated with endoparasites (64/104). Degenerative joint diseases more commonly affected males (78%; 36/46) as well as forelimbs (48%; 22/46) when compared to hindlimbs (30%; 14/46) and unspecified limbs (22%; 10/46). The prevalence of trauma as a cause of morbidity and mortality was higher in neonate and juvenile takin groups combined (morbidity = 19%; mortality = 50%) as compared to adult and senior takin groups combined (morbidity = 15%; mortality = 11%). Older takin were euthanatized more often (57%; 16/28) than younger takin (29%; 4/14). Correlations between husbandry and health were difficult as a result of the inherent limitations of the survey. These data will inform takin-holding zoologic institutions and contribute to the successful management of takin in human care.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais de Zoológico , Ruminantes , Envelhecimento , Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 299-310, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906992

RESUMO

Animal disease surveillance encompasses systematic collection of long-term data on disease events, risk factors and other relevant parameters followed by analyzing the same with reference to temporal and spatial characteristics to arrive at a conclusion so that necessary preventive measures can be taken. In India, the animal disease surveillance is done through National Animal Disease Reporting System, which is a web-based information technology system for disease reporting from States and Union Territories with the aim to record, monitor livestock disease situation and to initiate the preventive and curative action in a swift manner during disease emergencies. National Animal Disease Referral Expert System is a dynamic geographic information system and remote sensing-enabled expert system that captures an incidence of 13 economically important livestock diseases from all over the country and also provides livestock disease forecasting. The laboratories under State and Central governments, several research institutes under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and veterinary colleges are involved in livestock disease diagnosis including zoonotic diseases. An integrated surveillance system is necessary for early detection of emerging/zoonotic diseases in humans. This review provides information on disease reporting and surveillance systems in animal health sector and the need for One Health approach to improve and strengthen the zoonotic disease surveillance system in India.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gado , Vigilância da População , Zoonoses
9.
Vet Rec ; 188(7): 252-253, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835547

RESUMO

With Covid-19 vaccines being developed at a rapid pace, Josh Loeb and Julienne Wooster ask why the most sought-after vaccines for animal diseases cannot be developed as quickly.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Vacinas , Drogas Veterinárias , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 410-414, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648388

RESUMO

As client interactions with veterinary diagnostic laboratories have evolved, so have client expectations: faster results, enhanced accessibility to cases, and more seamless data transfer from the laboratory database; all of these factors have encouraged the evolution of diagnostic laboratory systems. This evolution started with 24-h access to laboratory results via the web, yet data quality remained at the mercy of the person filling out the form. If bad (incomplete) information was flowing in, then the data coming out was equally bad (incomplete or inconsistent). By designing a web-based system integrated into our existing reporting platform, the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL) set out to improve the quality of submission data by including the premises identification number (PIN) and obtaining consistent location data, all while presenting to the client an easy-to-use interface. Efforts continued by incentivizing the use of this tool and client submission practices. As clients transitioned, data have become more complete, resulting in easier queries and an improved ability to leverage the diagnostic data. To further enhance the client experience, a streamlined daily reporting summary was designed to communicate laboratory results succinctly. The use of these web-based tools had a positive impact on the quality and consistency of the diagnostic data. As new ideas develop, the ISU-VDL strives to foster continuous improvement and positively impact the clients' experience.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Iowa , Pacientes
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 419-427, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719780

RESUMO

Technologic advances in information management have rapidly changed laboratory testing and the practice of veterinary medicine. Timely and strategic sampling, same-day assays, and 24-h access to laboratory results allow for rapid implementation of intervention and treatment protocols. Although agent detection and monitoring systems have progressed, and wider tracking of diseases across veterinary diagnostic laboratories exists, such as by the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the distinction between detection of agent and manifestation of disease is critical to improved disease management. The implementation of a consistent, intuitive, and useful disease diagnosis coding system, specific for veterinary medicine and applicable to multiple animal species within and between veterinary diagnostic laboratories, is the first phase of disease data aggregation. Feedback loops for continuous improvement that could aggregate existing clinical and laboratory databases to improve the value and applications of diagnostic processes and clinical interventions, with interactive capabilities between clinicians and diagnosticians, and that differentiate disease causation from mere agent detection, remain incomplete. Creating an interface that allows aggregation of existing data from clinicians, including final diagnosis, interventions, or treatments applied, and measures of outcomes, is the second phase. Prototypes for stakeholder cooperation, collaboration, and beta testing of this vision are in development and becoming a reality. We focus here on how such a system is being developed and utilized at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to facilitate evidence-based medicine and utilize diagnostic coding for continuous improvement of animal health and welfare.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Codificação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/instrumentação , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Iowa
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 448-456, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764226

RESUMO

The Ontario Animal Health Network (OAHN) is an innovative disease surveillance program created to enhance preparedness, early detection, and response to animal disease in Ontario. Laboratory data and, where available, abattoir condemnation data and clinical observations submitted by practicing veterinarians form the core of regular discussions of the species-sector networks. Each network is comprised of government veterinarians or specialists, epidemiologists, pathologists, university species specialists, industry stakeholders, and practicing veterinarians, as appropriate. Laboratorians provide data for diseases of interest as determined by the individual network, and network members provide analysis and context for the large volume of information. Networks assess data for disease trends and the emergence of new clinical syndromes, as well as generate information on the health and disease status for each sector in the province. Members assess data validity and quality, which may be limited by multiple factors. Interpretation of laboratory tests and antimicrobial resistance trends without available clinical histories can be challenging. Extrapolation of disease incidence or risk from laboratory submissions to broader species populations must be done with caution. Disease information is communicated in a variety of media to inform veterinary and agricultural sectors of regional disease risks. Through network engagement, information gaps have been addressed, such as educational initiatives to improve sample submissions and enhance diagnostic outcomes, and the development of applied network-driven research. These diverse network initiatives, developed after careful assessment of laboratory and other data, demonstrate that novel approaches to analysis and interpretation can result in a variety of disease risk mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Gerenciamento de Dados , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Disseminação de Informação , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Ontário/epidemiologia
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 439-447, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769152

RESUMO

Laboratory tests provide essential support to the veterinary practitioner, and their use has grown exponentially. This growth is the result of several factors, such as the eradication of historical diseases, the occurrence of multifactorial diseases, and the obligation to control endemic and epidemic diseases. However, the introduction of novel techniques is counterbalanced by economic constraints, and the establishment of evidence- and consensus-based guidelines is essential to support the pathologist. Therefore, we developed standardized protocols, categorized by species, type of production, age, and syndrome at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), a multicenter institution for animal health and food safety. We have 72 protocols in use for livestock, poultry, and pets, categorized as, for example, "bovine enteric calf", "rabbit respiratory", "broiler articular". Each protocol consists of a panel of tests, divided into 'mandatory' and 'ancillary', to be selected by the pathologist in order to reach the final diagnosis. After autopsy, the case is categorized into a specific syndrome, subsequently referred to as a syndrome-specific panel of analyses. The activity of the laboratories is monitored through a web-based dynamic reporting system developed using a business intelligence product (QlikView) connected to the laboratory information management system (IZILAB). On a daily basis, reports become available at general, laboratory, and case levels, and are updated as needed. The reporting system highlights epidemiologic variations in the field and allows verification of compliance with the protocols within the organization. The diagnostic protocols are revised annually to increase system efficiency and to address stakeholder requests.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Patologia Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Itália
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530493

RESUMO

The impact of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the microbiomic and pathogenic phenomena occurring in humans and other warm-blooded animals is relatively well-recognized. At the same time, there are scant data concerning the role of E. coli strains in the health and disease of cold-blooded animals. It is presently known that reptiles are common asymptomatic carriers of another human pathogen, Salmonella, which, when transferred to humans, may cause a disease referred to as reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS). We therefore hypothesized that reptiles may also be carriers of specific E. coli strains (reptilian Escherichia coli, RepEC) which may differ in their genetic composition from the human uropathogenic strain (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Therefore, we isolated RepECs (n = 24) from reptile feces and compared isolated strains' pathogenic potentials and phylogenic relations with the aforementioned UPEC (n = 24) and APEC (n = 24) strains. To this end, we conducted an array of molecular analyses, including determination of the phylogenetic groups of E. coli, virulence genotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis-Restriction Analysis (RA-PFGE) and genetic population structure analysis using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The majority of the tested RepEC strains belonged to nonpathogenic phylogroups, with an important exception of one strain, which belonged to the pathogenic group B2, typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. This strain was part of the globally disseminated ST131 lineage. Unlike RepEC strains and in line with previous studies, a high percentage of UPEC strains belonged to the phylogroup B2, and the percentage distribution of phylogroups among the tested APEC strains was relatively homogenous, with most coming from the following nonpathogenic groups: C, A and B1. The RA-PFGE displayed a high genetic diversity among all the tested E. coli groups. In the case of RepEC strains, the frequency of occurrence of virulence genes (VGs) was lower than in the UPEC and APEC strains. The presented study is one of the first attempting to compare the phylogenetic structures of E. coli populations isolated from three groups of vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals (humans).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Filogenia , Répteis/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 415-418, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568009

RESUMO

The local laboratory with a local client-base, that never needs to exchange information with any outside entity, is a dying breed. As marketing channels, animal movement, and reporting requirements become increasingly national and international, the need to communicate about laboratory tests and results grows. Local and proprietary names of laboratory tests often fail to communicate enough detail to distinguish between similar tests. To avoid a lengthy description of each test, laboratories need the ability to assign codes that, although not sufficiently user-friendly for day-to-day use, contain enough information to translate between laboratories and even languages. The Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) standard provides such a universal coding system. Each test-each atomic observation-is evaluated on 6 attributes that establish its uniqueness at the level of clinical-or epidemiologic-significance. The analyte detected, analyte property, specimen, and result scale combine with the method of analysis and timing (for challenge and metabolic type tests) to define a unique LOINC code. Equipping laboratory results with such universal identifiers creates a world of opportunity for cross-institutional data exchange, aggregation, and analysis, and presents possibilities for data mining and artificial intelligence on a national and international scale. A few challenges, relatively unique to regulatory veterinary test protocols, require special handling.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios/normas , Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Mineração de Dados
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 166, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420005

RESUMO

Habitat alteration can influence suitability, creating ecological traps where habitat preference and fitness are mismatched. Despite their importance, ecological traps are notoriously difficult to identify and their impact on host-pathogen dynamics remains largely unexplored. Here we assess individual bat survival and habitat preferences in the midwestern United States before, during, and after the invasion of the fungal pathogen that causes white-nose syndrome. Despite strong selection pressures, most hosts continued to select habitats where disease severity was highest and survival was lowest, causing continued population declines. However, some individuals used refugia where survival was higher. Over time, a higher proportion of the total population used refugia than before pathogen arrival. Our results demonstrate that host preferences for habitats with high disease-induced mortality can create ecological traps that threaten populations, even in the presence of accessible refugia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Quirópteros , Ecossistema , Sobrevida , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Animais , Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fungos/patogenicidade , Michigan , Nariz , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura , Wisconsin
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