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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008117, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130210

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses pose a substantial threat to wildlife populations and to public health in Africa. Evolutionary analyses of virus genome sequences can contribute significantly to elucidate the origin of new outbreaks, which can help guide surveillance efforts. The reconstructed between-outbreak evolutionary history of Zaire ebolavirus so far has been highly consistent. By removing the confounding impact of population growth bursts during local outbreaks on the free mixing assumption that underlies coalescent-based demographic reconstructions, we find-contrary to what previous results indicated-that the circulation dynamics of Ebola virus in its animal reservoir are highly uncertain. Our findings also accentuate the need for a more fine-grained picture of the Ebola virus diversity in its reservoir to reliably infer the reservoir origin of outbreak lineages. In addition, the recent appearance of slower-evolving variants is in line with latency as a survival mechanism and with bats as the natural reservoir host.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , África , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/genética , Genótipo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008113, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210439

RESUMO

Despite proactive measures to prevent raccoon rabies entering Canada from the United States, several incursions of this disease have occurred. The largest outbreak, first reported in December 2015 in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, has resulted in the reporting of 449 animal cases as of December 31, 2018. Initial phylogenetic studies on the index case suggested that this outbreak was not due to local cross-border spread from the Niagara region of the United States where raccoon rabies has persisted for several years. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of a viral collection from the Hamilton area and several US states indicates that a long-distance translocation of a diseased animal from southeastern New York State was responsible for this incursion. The role of the skunk as a potential secondary host supporting persistence and / or spread of the virus is also examined.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Raiva/veterinária , Guaxinins , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , Genótipo , New York , Ontário/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007793, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790399

RESUMO

This study describes changes in the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans infections among small mammals, including rats and larger domestic and wild mammals in Lviv Oblast, a region in western Ukraine from 2001-2015, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A total of 439,948 domestic or wild animals were tested. We found the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans exposure varied among tested species and changed over the time. Infection was significantly less common in domestic animals, than in wild rodents. In swine the overall seroprevalence was 0.51%, while in cattle it was 0.19%. In dogs it was higher-2.75%. After 2006, evidence of infection was only observed in swine among domestic animals. The prevalence among large wild animals (0.25%) was similar to that among domestic animals. Among small mammals and rats, seroprevalence was most commonly observed among Rattus norvegicus (18.44%) and it was less common among other wild small mammals (8.74%). There were two dominant serogroups among large wild and domestic animals-L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. hebdomadis while among wild small mammals the two most common were L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. grippotyphosa. Wild animals with antibodies were found throughout the entire oblast.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Mamíferos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104777, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731037

RESUMO

Information about infectious diseases at the global level relies on effective, efficient and sustainable national and international surveillance systems. Surveillance systems need to be regularly evaluated to ensure their performance, the quality of the data and information provided, as well as to allocate resources efficiently. Currently available frameworks for evaluation of surveillance systems in animal or human health often treat technical, process and socio-economic aspects separately instead of integrating them. The surveillance evaluation (EVA) tool, a support tool for the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems, was developed to provide guidance for integrated evaluation of animal health surveillance including economic evaluation. The tool was developed by international experts in surveillance and evaluation in an iterative process of development, testing and revision taking into account existing frameworks and guidance, scientific literature and expert opinion. The EVA tool encompasses a web interface for users to develop an evaluation plan, a Wiki classroom to provide theoretical information on all required concepts and a generic evaluation work plan to facilitate implementation and reporting of outputs to decision makers. The tool was tested by planning and conducting epidemiological and economic evaluations of surveillance for classical and African swine fever, bovine virus diarrhoea, avian influenza, and Salmonella Dublin in five European countries. These practical applications highlighted the importance of a comprehensive evaluation approach to improve the quality of the evaluation outputs (economic evaluation; multiple attributes assessment) and demonstrated the usefulness of the guidance provided by the EVA tool. At the same time they showed that comprehensive evaluations might be constrained by practical issues (e.g. confidentiality concerns, data availability) and resource scarcity. In the long term, the EVA tool is expected to increase professional evaluation capacity and help optimising animal health surveillance system efficiency and resource allocation for both public and private actors of the surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Vigilância da População/métodos
5.
Elife ; 82019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549963

RESUMO

Exceptionally high rates of tooth fracture in large Pleistocene carnivorans imply intensified interspecific competition, given that tooth fracture rises with increased bone consumption, a behavior that likely occurs when prey are difficult to acquire. To assess the link between prey availability and dental attrition, we documented dental fracture rates over decades among three well-studied populations of extant gray wolves that differed in prey:predator ratio and levels of carcass utilization. When prey:predator ratios declined, kills were more fully consumed, and rates of tooth fracture more than doubled. This supports tooth fracture frequency as a relative measure of the difficulty of acquiring prey, and reveals a rapid response to diminished food levels in large carnivores despite risks of infection and reduced fitness due to dental injuries. More broadly, large carnivore tooth fracture frequency likely reflects energetic stress, an aspect of predator success that is challenging to quantify in wild populations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fósseis , Fraturas dos Dentes/veterinária , Lobos , Animais , Fraturas dos Dentes/epidemiologia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 453, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Mortality resulting from the disease is low in livestock, although severe cryptosporidiosis has been associated with fatality in young animals. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the prevalence and molecular data on Cryptosporidium infections in selected terrestrial domestic and wild ungulates of the families Bovidae (bison, buffalo, cattle, goat, impala, mouflon sheep, sheep, yak), Cervidae (red deer, roe deer, white-tailed deer), Camelidae (alpaca, camel), Suidae (boar, pig), Giraffidae (giraffes) and Equidae (horses). Data collection was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Cochran databases, with 429 papers being included in this systematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that overall 18.9% of ungulates from the investigated species were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Considering livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and buffaloes), analysis revealed higher Cryptosporidium infection prevalence in ungulates of the Cetartiodactyla than in those of the Perissodactyla, with cattle (29%) being the most commonly infected farm animal. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the investigated domestic ungulates are considered potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in the environment. Control measures should be developed to reduce the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in these animals. Furthermore, literature on wild populations of the named ungulate species revealed a widespread presence and potential reservoir function of wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , Artiodáctilos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Equidae , Gado , Animais , Prevalência
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 434, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The density of questing ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens is an important parameter that determines tick-borne disease risk. An important factor determining this density is the availability of different wildlife species as hosts for ticks and their pathogens. Here, we investigated how wildlife communities contribute to tick-borne disease risk. The density of Ixodes ricinus nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Borrelia miyamotoi, Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum among 19 forest sites were correlated to the encounter probability of different vertebrate hosts, determined by encounter rates as measured by (camera) trapping and mathematical modeling. RESULT: We found that the density of any tick life stage was proportional to the encounter probability of ungulates. Moreover, the density of nymphs decreased with the encounter probability of hare, rabbit and red fox. The density of nymphs infected with the transovarially-transmitted B. miyamotoi increased with the density of questing nymphs and the encounter probability of bank vole. The density of nymphs infected with all other pathogens increased with the encounter probability of competent hosts: bank vole for Borrelia afzelii and N. mikurensis, ungulates for A. phagocytophilum and blackbird for Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana. The negative relationship we found was a decrease in the density of nymphs infected with B. garinii and B. valaisiana with the encounter probability of wood mouse. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few animal species drive the densities of infected nymphs in forested areas. There, foxes and leporids have negative effects on tick abundance, and consequently on the density of infected nymphs. The abundance of competent hosts generally drives the abundances of their tick-borne pathogen. A dilution effect was only observed for bird-associated Lyme spirochetes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Biota , Florestas , Ixodes/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Medição de Risco , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
8.
Helicobacter ; 24 Suppl 1: e12645, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486233

RESUMO

This article is a review of the most important, accessible, and relevant literature published between April 2018 and April 2019 in the field of Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori. The initial part of the review covers new insights regarding the presence of gastric and enterohepatic non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH) in humans and animals, while the subsequent section focuses on the progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of these species. Over the last year, relatively few cases of gastric NHPH infections in humans were published, with most NHPH infections being attributed to enterohepatic Helicobacters. A novel species, designated "Helicobacter caesarodunensis," was isolated from the blood of a febrile patient and numerous cases of human Helicobacter cinaedi infections underlined this species as a true emerging pathogen. With regard to NHPH in animals, canine/feline gastric NHPH cause little or no harm in their natural host; however they can become opportunistic when translocated to the hepatobiliary tract. The role of enterohepatic Helicobacter species in colorectal tumors in pets has also been highlighted. Several studies in rodent models have further elucidated the mechanisms underlying the development of NHPH-related disease, and the extra-gastric effects of a Helicobacter suis infection on brain homeostasis was also studied. Comparative genomics facilitated a breakthrough in the evolutionary history of Helicobacter in general and NHPH in particular. Investigation of the genome of Helicobacter apodemus revealed particular traits with regard to its virulence factors. A range of compounds including mulberries, dietary fiber, ginseng, and avian eggs which target the gut microbiota have also been shown to affect Helicobacter growth, with a potential therapeutic utilization and increase in survival.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter/classificação , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Humanos , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/patologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/patologia
9.
Int. microbiol ; 22(3): 399-401, sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184847

RESUMO

Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on those diseases that are transferred from animals to humans. However, humans are also transmitting pathogens to animals but research on this topic is not given priority and importance. I have tried to draw the attention of researchers to this area also which is equally important. The aim of this letter was to provide a brief overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses or zooanthroponosis in the field of leishmaniasis and highlight the need for future work in this area. Scientific research must be conducted in the field of reverse zoonoses to provide an enriched understanding of emerging disease threats to animals and should not be neglected


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Vertebrados
10.
Biologicals ; 61: 80-84, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416792

RESUMO

An international workshop, held in Wiesbaden, Germany on 15-17 May 2019 provided an overview of existing and new methods and approaches to diagnostics in animal health and their benefits and challenges. The variability in quality and authority review of test kits across the world is a concern for the reliability of test results and the decisions that are based on the diagnostic data. In countries or regions without regulatory oversight, there is an urgent need for international harmonisation of quality requirements and licensing procedures. This would increase the validity of the diagnostic methods and allow mutual recognition of test results within the network of official control laboratories and amongst animal health officials. Regional cooperation, as well as the OIE Laboratory Network, should be used to support licensing procedures, pool resources for serum and sample banks, survey outbreak responses, and coordinate research and development of new veterinary diagnostics. The end-users must have clear information on a test's performance, limitations, and interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Laboratórios , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 301, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African market is highly affected by counterfeit veterinary drugs. Though these counterfeit and non-compliance of drugs can induce adverse effects during their utilization, there is no monitoring system of veterinary medicines. The present pilot study was carried out in Cameroon to identify and describe suspected cases of adverse reactions to veterinary drugs in animals and / or humans as well as inefficacy of veterinary drugs. The methodology involved a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 67 actors in the veterinary medicine sector in Cameroon. RESULTS: A total of 74/120 (62%) cases of suspected adverse effects and or lack of efficacy of veterinary drugs in animals and 46 (38%) cases of adverse reactions in humans were identified. Antiparasitics were the most incriminated therapeutic class in animals (61%) and human (56%). Adverse reactions were reported in dogs (44%) and poultry (24%) while drug inefficacy was most observed in poultry (47%). According to animal health professionals, levamisole (24%) and ivermectin (16%) were identified to be responsible for the adverse effects and that the highest level of inefficacy was most frequently reported for oxytetracycline (29%). The main adverse reactions were systemic (22%), gastrointestinal (20%) and neurological (13%) disorders. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that misuse and circulation of poor quality as well as lack of efficacy of veterinary drugs is very common in Cameroon. Adverse reactions were observed in animals and humans. Therefore, the establishment of a national veterinary pharmacovigilance system based on solid legal bases is essential for a continuous assessment of the risks-benefits effects of veterinary drugs marketed in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos Falsificados/efeitos adversos , Drogas Veterinárias/efeitos adversos , África ao Sul do Saara , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Legislação de Medicamentos , Projetos Piloto
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8): 1539-1542, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310219

RESUMO

We isolated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from brain samples of 2 seals with lethal encephalitis at Weihai Aquarium, Weihai, China, in 2017. We confirmed our findings by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis showed this virus was genotype I. Our findings suggest that JEV might disseminate though infected zoo animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Focas Verdadeiras/virologia , Doenças dos Animais/história , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/classificação , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Genes Virais , História do Século XXI , Masculino , Filogenia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188875

RESUMO

Wildlife diseases have posed a significant challenge to the conservation of many species in recent years. Diseases have been implicated in population declines over large geographic areas, with severe disease outbreaks leading to either local or complete extinctions of wild populations. Ophidiomycosis, commonly known as snake fungal disease, is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, which has been documented in snake populations across the eastern and southern United States. We collected swab samples from the federally threatened Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi) in populations across the species' Georgia range. We used quantitative PCR to determine the presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA and also recorded skin abnormalities characteristic of ophidiomycosis. From 1 September 2016 to 4 August 2018, Eastern Indigo Snakes tested positive for O. ophiodiicola DNA on 47 of 107 occasions (43.9%) and tested negative for fungal DNA but had skin lesions consistent with ophidiomycosis on 42 occasions (39.3%). Symptomatic and qPCR positive individuals were more likely to be encountered during January and February when compared to November and December. We found no effect of sex (p = 0.517), age-class (p = 0.106), or body size (snout-vent length: p = 0.083; mass: p = 0.206; body condition: p = 0.063) on ophidiomycosis status. Over the two-year study, we encountered individuals in which infection was clearly negatively impacting overall health and also documented individuals in which infection apparently cleared from one year to the next. These results demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola and lesions characteristic of ophidiomycosis are widespread in Georgia's Eastern Indigo Snake populations. However, there are many unanswered questions regarding this disease, including the effects of disease on populations and individuals, the presence of infection vectors, and the change in prevalence over time. More research is needed to address ophidiomycosis and understand its impacts on ongoing conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens , Ascomicetos , Serpentes/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Georgia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(5): 343-346, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155602

RESUMO

We performed Leptospira culture analysis of 76 clinical samples collected from animals and of six soil samples for the investigation of a leptospirosis outbreak in southern Thailand in 2017. Leptospires were recovered from a kidney sample (a fatal canine leptospirosis case) and from all the soil samples. Next, 16S rRNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the clinical isolate was closely related to the pathogenic L. interrogans, whereas the soil isolates represented different species, including pathogenic L. ellisii, intermediate L. wolffii, and nonpathogenic L. yanagawae. Multilocus sequence typing identified an isolate of L. interrogans as a novel sequence type (ST263), suggesting that the causative agent of the canine leptospirosis in the southern Thailand outbreak has a unique genetic profile.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Microbiologia do Solo , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 56, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230595

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). SFTSV has been found in humans, ticks and animals, and SFTS has high mortality and increasing prevalence in East Asia. In the study, the samples (heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, brain tissue and serum) were collected from 374 domestic animals and 241 wild animals in Pingqiao District and Xinxian County of Xinyang in Henan Province, China. 275 (44.72%, 275/615) animals were positive for anti-SFTSV antibodies, the anti-SFTSV antibodies positive ratios of domestic and wild animals were 43.58% (163/374) and 46.47% (112/241), respectively. There was no significant difference in domestic and wild animals, but significant differences were detected among different species of animals (χ2 = 112.59, P < 0.0001). Among 615 animals, 105 (17.07%, 105/615) animals were positive for SFTSV RNA, and only one SFTSV strain was isolated from heart tissue of a yellow weasel. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the sequence from animals belonged to the same group with viral sequences obtained from humans. The animals maybe play a reservoir host in maintaining the life cycle of SFTSV in nature.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Aves , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Patos , Mamíferos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1224-1226, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107233

RESUMO

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Thogotovirus , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Gado , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1169-1176, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107235

RESUMO

In 2015, a mass die-off of ≈200,000 saiga antelopes in central Kazakhstan was caused by hemorrhagic septicemia attributable to the bacterium Pasteurella multocida serotype B. Previous analyses have indicated that environmental triggers associated with weather conditions, specifically air moisture and temperature in the region of the saiga antelope calving during the 10-day period running up to the event, were critical to the proliferation of latent bacteria and were comparable to conditions accompanying historically similar die-offs in the same areas. We investigated whether additional viral or bacterial pathogens could be detected in samples from affected animals using 3 different high-throughput sequencing approaches. We did not identify pathogens associated with commensal bacterial opportunisms in blood, kidney, or lung samples and thus concluded that P. multocida serotype B was the primary cause of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Antílopes , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/história , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Antílopes/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Feminino , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1252-1254, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107236

RESUMO

We isolated Getah virus from infected foxes in Shandong Province, eastern China. We sequenced the complete Getah virus genome, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with a highly pathogenic swine epidemic strain in China. Epidemiologic investigation showed that pigs might play a pivotal role in disease transmission to foxes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Alphavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Alphavirus/classificação , Alphavirus/genética , Alphavirus/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Animais/história , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , China/epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
19.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(8): 1337-1343, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086311

RESUMO

Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium responsible for anthrax, an acute infection that most significantly affects grazing livestock and wild ungulates, but also poses a threat to human health. The geographic extent of B. anthracis is poorly understood, despite multi-decade research on anthrax epizootic and epidemic dynamics; many countries have limited or inadequate surveillance systems, even within known endemic regions. Here, we compile a global occurrence dataset of human, livestock and wildlife anthrax outbreaks. With these records, we use boosted regression trees to produce a map of the global distribution of B. anthracis as a proxy for anthrax risk. We estimate that 1.83 billion people (95% credible interval (CI): 0.59-4.16 billion) live within regions of anthrax risk, but most of that population faces little occupational exposure. More informatively, a global total of 63.8 million poor livestock keepers (95% CI: 17.5-168.6 million) and 1.1 billion livestock (95% CI: 0.4-2.3 billion) live within vulnerable regions. Human and livestock vulnerability are both concentrated in rural rainfed systems throughout arid and temperate land across Eurasia, Africa and North America. We conclude by mapping where anthrax risk could disrupt sensitive conservation efforts for wild ungulates that coincide with anthrax-prone landscapes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/veterinária , Bacillus anthracis/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antraz/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia Ambiental , Geografia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 36(3): 193-196, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053264

RESUMO

Transboundary animal diseases are those that can move through a population of animals and cause considerable economic and societal harm. Many have high mortality, and in low-income areas, can quickly destroy herds and flocks of agricultural animals. Although much of One Health, which sits at the intersection of human, animal, and environmental health, focuses on the zoonotic diseases, in fact transboundary animal diseases can harm both humans and the environment through robbing communities of livelihoods and nutrition, and creating environmental contamination through extensive carcass disposal requirements. Transboundary animal diseases continue to circulate in the world, predominantly in low-income regions or in areas with less than optimal biosecurity. This paper will review three prominent emerging and re-emerging transboundary animal diseases, describing their pathology and diagnostics, as well as economic and food security impacts, which are substantial. Attention to these devastating diseases should be a One Health priority.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Zoonoses
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