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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 299-310, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906992

RESUMO

Animal disease surveillance encompasses systematic collection of long-term data on disease events, risk factors and other relevant parameters followed by analyzing the same with reference to temporal and spatial characteristics to arrive at a conclusion so that necessary preventive measures can be taken. In India, the animal disease surveillance is done through National Animal Disease Reporting System, which is a web-based information technology system for disease reporting from States and Union Territories with the aim to record, monitor livestock disease situation and to initiate the preventive and curative action in a swift manner during disease emergencies. National Animal Disease Referral Expert System is a dynamic geographic information system and remote sensing-enabled expert system that captures an incidence of 13 economically important livestock diseases from all over the country and also provides livestock disease forecasting. The laboratories under State and Central governments, several research institutes under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and veterinary colleges are involved in livestock disease diagnosis including zoonotic diseases. An integrated surveillance system is necessary for early detection of emerging/zoonotic diseases in humans. This review provides information on disease reporting and surveillance systems in animal health sector and the need for One Health approach to improve and strengthen the zoonotic disease surveillance system in India.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gado , Vigilância da População , Zoonoses
3.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 448-456, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764226

RESUMO

The Ontario Animal Health Network (OAHN) is an innovative disease surveillance program created to enhance preparedness, early detection, and response to animal disease in Ontario. Laboratory data and, where available, abattoir condemnation data and clinical observations submitted by practicing veterinarians form the core of regular discussions of the species-sector networks. Each network is comprised of government veterinarians or specialists, epidemiologists, pathologists, university species specialists, industry stakeholders, and practicing veterinarians, as appropriate. Laboratorians provide data for diseases of interest as determined by the individual network, and network members provide analysis and context for the large volume of information. Networks assess data for disease trends and the emergence of new clinical syndromes, as well as generate information on the health and disease status for each sector in the province. Members assess data validity and quality, which may be limited by multiple factors. Interpretation of laboratory tests and antimicrobial resistance trends without available clinical histories can be challenging. Extrapolation of disease incidence or risk from laboratory submissions to broader species populations must be done with caution. Disease information is communicated in a variety of media to inform veterinary and agricultural sectors of regional disease risks. Through network engagement, information gaps have been addressed, such as educational initiatives to improve sample submissions and enhance diagnostic outcomes, and the development of applied network-driven research. These diverse network initiatives, developed after careful assessment of laboratory and other data, demonstrate that novel approaches to analysis and interpretation can result in a variety of disease risk mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Gerenciamento de Dados , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Disseminação de Informação , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Ontário/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22150, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335179

RESUMO

Aquacultivated sea cucumbers often suffer from SKin Ulceration Diseases (SKUDs). SKUDs have been observed in six holothuroid species from nine countries. All SKUDs present a similar symptom-the skin ulceration-and can be induced by bacteria, viruses, or abiotic factors. We here provide an update on SKUDs in holothuroids and analyse the case of the SKUD observed in Holothuria scabra in Madagascar. Field observations revealed a seasonality of the disease (i.e. wintertime maximum peak). Morphological analyses of integument ulcers showed that sea cucumbers react by forming a collagen fibre plug. Metagenomic analyses revealed a higher proportion of Vibrionaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) in ulcers in comparison to the healthy integument of the same individuals. Experimental infection assays were performed with ulcer crude extracts and bacteria isolated from these extracts (e.g. Vibrio parahaemolyticus) but did not significantly induce skin ulceration. Our results suggest that the disease is not induced by a pathogen or, at the very least, that the pathogen is not found within the ulcers as the disease is not transmissible by contact. An initial cause of the SKUD in Madagascar might be the repeated and prolonged exposures to cold temperatures. Opportunistic bacteria could settle in the dermis of ulcerated individuals and promote the ulcer extension. We propose a general nomenclature for SKUDs based on the acronym of the disease, the affected sea cucumber species (e.g. Hs for Holothuria scabra), the concerned region using an ISO code 3166-2 (e.g. MG for Madagascar), the description date (e.g. 20 for the year 2020), and, when known, the inducing agent (first letter of the general taxon, b for bacteria, v for virus in currently known cases; a a if it is an abiotic inducing parameter; nothing if the inducing cause has not been precisely identified). The disease described in this work will be designated under the name SKUD Hs-MG-20.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Equinodermos , Holothuria , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/etiologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Equinodermos/microbiologia , Holothuria/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Avaliação de Sintomas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332429

RESUMO

Viral infections were investigated in American black bears (Ursus americanus) from Nevada and northern California with and without idiopathic encephalitis. Metagenomics analyses of tissue pools revealed novel viruses in the genera Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Anelloviridae, Polyomaviridae, and Papillomaviridae. The circovirus and parvovirus were of particular interest due to their potential importance as pathogens. We characterized the genomes of these viruses and subsequently screened bears by PCR to determine their prevalence. The circovirus (Ursus americanus circovirus, UaCV) was detected at a high prevalence (10/16, 67%), and the chaphamaparvovirus (Ursus americanus parvovirus, UaPV) was found in a single bear. We showed that UaCV is present in liver, spleen/lymph node, and brain tissue of selected cases by in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR. Infections were detected in cases of idiopathic encephalitis and in cases without inflammatory brain lesions. Infection status was not clearly correlated with disease, and the significance of these infections remains unclear. Given the known pathogenicity of a closely related mammalian circovirus, and the complex manifestations of circovirus-associated diseases, we suggest that UaCV warrants further study as a possible cause or contributor to disease in American black bears.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Circoviridae/patogenicidade , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Parvoviridae/patogenicidade , Ursidae/virologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Circoviridae/genética , Circoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Fígado/virologia , Metagenoma , Parvoviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Baço/virologia , Estados Unidos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1889-1894, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332289

RESUMO

Harmful algal bloom events can result from the rapid growth, or bloom, of photosynthesizing organisms in natural bodies of fresh, brackish, and salt water. These events can be exacerbated by nutrient pollution (e.g., phosphorus) and warming waters and other climate change effects (1); have a negative impact on the health of humans, animals, and the environment; and damage local economies (2,3). U.S. harmful algal bloom events of public health concern are centered on a subset of phytoplankton: diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae). CDC launched the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System (OHHABS) in 2016 to inform efforts to prevent human and animal illnesses associated with harmful algal bloom events. A total of 18 states reported 421 harmful algal bloom events, 389 cases of human illness, and 413 cases of animal illness that occurred during 2016-2018. The majority of harmful algal bloom events occurred during May-October (413; 98%) and in freshwater bodies (377; 90%). Human and animal illnesses primarily occurred during June-September (378; 98%) and May-September (410; 100%). Gastrointestinal or generalized illness signs or symptoms were the most frequently reported (>40% of human cases and >50% of animal cases); however, multiple other signs and symptoms were reported. Surveillance data from harmful algal bloom events, exposures, and health effects provide a systematic description of these occurrences and can be used to inform control and prevention of harmful algal bloom-associated illnesses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Saúde Única , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091068

RESUMO

Traditional pathogen surveillance methods for white-nose syndrome (WNS), the most serious threat to hibernating North American bats, focus on fungal presence where large congregations of hibernating bats occur. However, in the western USA, WNS-susceptible bat species rarely assemble in large numbers and known winter roosts are uncommon features. WNS increases arousal frequency and activity of infected bats during hibernation. Our objective was to explore the effectiveness of acoustic monitoring as a surveillance tool for WNS. We propose a non-invasive approach to model pre-WNS baseline activity rates for comparison with future acoustic data after WNS is suspected to occur. We investigated relationships among bat activity, ambient temperatures, and season prior to presence of WNS across forested sites of Montana, USA where WNS was not known to occur. We used acoustic monitors to collect bat activity and ambient temperature data year-round on 41 sites, 2011-2019. We detected a diverse bat community across managed (n = 4) and unmanaged (n = 37) forest sites and recorded over 5.37 million passes from bats, including 13 identified species. Bats were active year-round, but positive associations between average of the nightly temperatures by month and bat activity were strongest in spring and fall. From these data, we developed site-specific prediction models for bat activity to account for seasonal and annual temperature variation prior to known occurrence of WNS. These prediction models can be used to monitor changes in bat activity that may signal potential presence of WNS, such as greater than expected activity in winter, or less than expected activity during summer. We propose this model-based method for future monitoring efforts that could be used to trigger targeted sampling of individual bats or hibernacula for WNS, in areas where traditional disease surveillance approaches are logistically difficult to implement or because of human-wildlife transmission concerns from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Acústica , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Florestas , Hibernação , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Montana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833200

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Vírion , Replicação Viral
16.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e10, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787424

RESUMO

Impalas (Aepyceros melampus) are common African antelope. A retrospective study was conducted of 251 impala cases from game farms, national parks and zoos submitted by veterinarians and pathologists in South Africa (2003-2016). Histopathology slides as well as records of macroscopic lesions and additional diagnostic tests performed were examined. Non-infectious conditions, such as acute pulmonary congestion and oedema, cachexia, traumatic injury and anaesthetic-related mortality were the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Bacterial sepsis was the most common infectious disease, whilst skeletal muscle and myocardial sarcocystosis and verminous cholangitis and pneumonia were the most common parasitic diseases. Although the retrospective nature of this study limits the significance of the relative prevalence of lesions in the three locations, management decisions and diagnostic plans may be informed by the results. Impala from game farms had significantly more cachexia cases than those from other locations. Impala from zoos had significantly more lymphoid depletion than those from other locations. These findings suggest that nutrition and pasture management, enclosure design, management of intra- and interspecies aggression and improved anaesthetic protocols could improve animal welfare and survival of impala on game farms and in zoos. This report presents a detailed survey of diseases and conditions found in impala that provides baseline data for veterinary pathologists.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Antílopes , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 584, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Nunavik, Arctic rabies is still endemic due to a spillover from wildlife to dogs. The prevention of human exposure and the management of potential exposure is a significant public health concern in this region. METHODS: This study retrospectively describes cases of potential exposure to rabies in humans as reported to the Nunavik Public Health Board through their registry of reported cases. We used multi-correspondence analysis as well as univariable and multivariable regression models to test for differences between children and adults in reported cases, and to examine the contexts of exposure to dogs and dog attacks. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, 320 cases of potential exposure to rabies were reported, 92% of which were linked to dogs. The annual incidence rate was 2.5 per 1000 people. The incidence increased significantly during the study period, although the reasons for this are unclear. Fifteen cases of exposure were with rabid animals, mostly dogs (9 of 15). No human cases of rabies occurred thanks to adequate medical case management. Two specific profiles for potential exposure to rabies were identified based on age and gender. The first was children (< 15 y/o), male or female, who were more likely to be exposed through playing with dogs and were more often injured in the head and/or neck. The second was young male adults (aged 15 to 34 y/o), who were more involved with wildlife than other age groups and mostly injured in the upper limbs and as a result of a reaction by the animal. CONCLUSION: Rabies is a real public health threat in Nunavik. Potential human exposure needs to be prevented, and prevention measures should be tailored to the two risk profiles identified based on age, gender and animal species involved.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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