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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100435, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862896

RESUMO

Faecal specimens from 36 scouring neonatal calves from two dairy farms located in the Al Ain region of the UAE were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Additionally, faecal smears were stained with modified-acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the VITEK 2 system plus Gram's stain used to identify bacteria isolated from the faecal samples. Farm management practices were also evaluated during a farm visit. Of the 36 calves, 29, 13, 5, and 6 were positive for C. parvum, E. coli K99, bovine coronavirus, and rotavirus antigens respectively, while 27 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In various combinations, mixed infections were detected in 20/36 calves. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤14-days-old scouring neonatal dairy calves from the UAE. Molecular characterization of these pathogens and nationwide epidemiological calf scour studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785524

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease that affects a range of animals, including humans caused by Fasciola hepatica. The present study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of bovine fasciolosis and to assess the correlation between the high Positivity Index (PI) and climate data and land altitude, from 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Condemned livers of slaughtered animals were obtained from 198 out of 293 municipalities and from 518.635 animals, exclusively from SC. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between the prevalence of F. hepatica and land altitude ( ρ ^ s = -0.43). The highest PI (above 10.1%) was observed in cities at 500 to 600 m (P < 0.01; ρ ^ s = -0.47) of altitude. There was no correlation between fascioliasis and rainfall in SC. It was determined that weather conditions in the past decade did not impose any limitation to the occurrence of the parasite, making it a disease of permanent clinical importance. These findings are essential to regions with similar geographical and climate conditions (i.e. altitude), when considering long-term control measurements, where animals and humans can be infected.


Assuntos
Altitude , Doenças dos Bovinos , Clima , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 272, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses are notorious pathogens that cause diarrheic and respiratory diseases in humans and animals. Although the epidemiology and pathogenicity of coronaviruses have gained substantial attention, little is known about bovine coronavirus in cattle, which possesses a close relationship with human coronavirus. Bovine torovirus (BToV) is a newly identified relevant pathogen associated with cattle diarrhoea and respiratory diseases, and its epidemiology in the Chinese cattle industry remains unknown. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 461 diarrhoeic faecal samples were collected from 38 different farms in three intensive cattle farming regions and analysed. Our results demonstrated that BToV is present in China, with a low prevalence rate of 1.74% (8/461). The full-length spike genes were further cloned from eight clinical samples (five farms in Henan Province). Phylogenetic analysis showed that two different subclades of BToV strains are circulating in China. Meanwhile, the three BToV strains identified from dairy calves, 18,307, 2YY and 5YY, all contained the amino acid variants R614Q, I801T, N841S and Q885E. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to confirm the presence of BToV in beef and dairy calves in China with diarrhea, which extend our understanding of the epidemiology of BToVs worldwide.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Torovirus/veterinária , Torovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Torovirus/genética , Infecções por Torovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Torovirus/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
6.
Toxicon ; 186: 46-57, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730770

RESUMO

Pimelea poisoning of cattle, historically known as St. George Disease or Marree Disease, is a prevailing issue in arid grazing regions of inland Australia. Ingestion of the toxic native Pimelea species that contain the secondary metabolite simplexin, a diterpene orthoester with potent protein kinase C activity, induces diarrhoea, characteristic oedema and potentially fatal right-sided heart failure in cattle. Outbreaks of toxic Pimelea in the grazing field depend on seasonal prevalence. However, all stages of the plant carry the toxin, from seeds, juvenile plants to dead plant material. Livestock generally avoid consuming green Pimelea plants and only consume toxic Pimelea when pasture is minimal or where Pimelea growing through grass tussocks results in inadvertent ingestion. Our knowledge base of Pimelea poisoning has greatly improved with past research, yet the health hazards for livestock grazing in Pimelea affected pastures remains a significant issue whilst the ongoing search to develop effective strategies to mitigate poisoning continues. The goal of this review is to collate historical and recent research giving an overview of the current understandings of Pimelea poisoning, the toxin, its toxic effects and progress made towards remedies to alleviate the effects of Pimelea intoxication.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Bovinos , Diterpenos , Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Terpenos , Toxinas Biológicas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667952

RESUMO

Transmission network modelling to infer 'who infected whom' in infectious disease outbreaks is a highly active area of research. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have been a key focus of transmission network models that integrate genomic and epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to extend Lau's systematic Bayesian inference framework to incorporate additional parameters representing predominant species and numbers of animals held on a farm. Lau's Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm was reformulated, verified and pseudo-validated on 100 simulated outbreaks populated with demographic data Japan and Australia. The modified model was then implemented on genomic and epidemiological data from the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Japan, and outputs compared to those from the SCOTTI model implemented in BEAST2. The modified model achieved improvements in overall accuracy when tested on the simulated outbreaks. When implemented on the actual outbreak data from Japan, infected farms that held predominantly pigs were estimated to have five times the transmissibility of infected cattle farms and be 49% less susceptible. The farm-level incubation period was 1 day shorter than the latent period, the timing of the seeding of the outbreak in Japan was inferred, as were key linkages between clusters and features of farms involved in widespread dissemination of this outbreak. To improve accessibility the modified model has been implemented as the R package 'BORIS' for use in future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/classificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Filogenia , Quarentena/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645099

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq. The objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify and assess the evidence and knowledge gaps in published studies that have examined brucellosis in different food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq; using systematic review approach, and (ii) to quantify the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the city using meta-analysis approach. Google Scholar was used as a search engine to track pertinent peer-reviewed research reports. The search was conducted on November 24, 2019. Keywords used were: brucella, animal, Mosul, Iraq. Peer-reviewed published studies, MSc theses, and PhD dissertations written in Arabic or English were included. Duplicate records were removed, and the screening process was conducted at three levels: titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Identified studies that have reported the seroprevalence of brucellosis were included in a meta-analysis to calculate an overall prevalence. A total of 214 records were initially identified. Seventeen research reports were added from personal contact and qualified articles' references list. Thirty six articles were qualified for review after removing 35 duplicate records, 155 titles, 11 abstracts, and 5 full text articles. Seventeen studies reported the prevalence of brucellosis, 11 studies assessed different serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis, 9 studies isolated Brucella spp. from animal specimens and/or animal products, and 4 studies assessed vaccination procedures against brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in food-producing animals in Mosul over a period of 40 years was 14.14%, including 14.46% for sheep, 12.99% for goats, 11.69% for cattle, and 22.64% for buffalo. The study concluded that the disease is evident in the city with increasing trends over the years, buffalo shows high seroprevalence, the degree of agreement of Rose-Bengal test as a screening test is fair compared to more accurate serological tests such as ELISA; and the disease constitutes a public health concern in the city. Additional studies are important to identify the overlooked predisposing factors, estimate the abortion rate attributable to brucellosis in food-producing animals, and evaluate efficacy of vaccination programs in reducing the prevalence of brucellosis and/or abortion rate.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2965-2973, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661890

RESUMO

Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 211-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592460

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and Fasciola spp. are common parasites among ruminants. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these parasites in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Sabzevar abattoir, from April 2014 to March 2016. Total of 1653 cattle and 26720 sheep were inspected for helminthic infections of liver and lung in different seasons. The prevalence rates were found to be 684 (2.55%) and 235 (14.21%) in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection rate of liver in cattle was estimated to be 5.86%, 0.84% and 5.68% for hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst in cattle was 1.81%. Moreover, the liver infection rate of sheep was estimated to be 0.87%, 0.06% and 2.13% with hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst was 0.35%. The rate of infection with D. dendriticum was higher in the both animals than the other parasites. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was high, which caused high economic losses. Therefore, sanitary and preventive measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocelíase , Equinococose , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2927-2934, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562064

RESUMO

The molecular prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in cattle were investigated. A total of 450 fecal samples were collected from cattle in three provinces of Central Anatolia from August 2017 to July 2019. Genomic DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and used in molecular analysis carried out by nested PCR analyses of the ß-giardin (bg) gene of G. duodenalis. Positive samples were further analyzed by nested PCR at two gene loci (triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)) for genotyping of G. duodenalis isolates. PCR analyses of the bg gene indicated that the overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 30.2%. However, lower rates were determined with PCR analyses for gdh and tpi loci. The sequence analyses of the bg, gdh, and tpi genes revealed the presence of zoonotic assemblage A and livestock-specific assemblage E. Combined-sequence analyses revealed that assemblage E was the most common in the study area. Our study provides the first data on the wide prevalence of livestock-specific assemblages E in cattle in Turkey. The prevalence of assemblage A in cattle also reveals the importance of cattle for zoonotic transmission of giardiasis in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Turquia/epidemiologia
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 230-235, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented by the health, agriculture, water resources, forestry, land and resources sectors were retrospectively collected in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, and the completion of each measure, cost of control measures, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and bovines, and snail status were analyzed each year. An index system for assessing the integrated schistosomiasis control effect was constructed using the Delphi method to calculate the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index. In addition, a cost-effect analysis was performed in terms of the decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines, areas with snails in inner embankments, and areas with infected snails. RESULTS: A total of 7 110 926 500 Yuan were invested into the integrated schistosomiasis control program of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019. During the 16-year period, a total of 277 437.12 hm2 snail habitats received molluscicidal treatments, 6 927 230 person-times given expanded chemotherapy, 2 116 247 bovine-times given expanded chemotherapy, 954 850 harmless toilets built, 290 359 bovines fenced, 136 666 bovines eliminated, 141 905 machines used to replace bovines, 39 048.63 hm2 water lands improved as dry lands, 724.12 km irrigation regions improved, 3 994 300 populations covered with safe water, 191 102.89 hm2 forests planted and 38 535.27 hm2 lands leveled. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 4.29% in humans and 4.48% in bovines in Hunan Province in 2004, with 2 449.37 hm2 snail habitats in inner embankments and 3 423.74 hm2 infected snail areas. In 2019, the prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced to 0 in both humans and bovines, and areas of snail habitats reduced to 540.92 hm2 (77.92% reductions), while the areas with infected snails reduced to 0. The overall integrated schistosomiasis control effect index appeared a tendency towards a rise over years since 2004, and the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index was 97.35 in 2019; the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in 100 populations and 100 bovines were 70.11 Yuan and 4 204.78 Yuan, and the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas were 2 010.20 Yuan and 1 298.09 Yuan, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated control measures achieve remarkable effectiveness for schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province, with a remarkable decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines and great shrinking of snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas. Adequate fund investment is required to improve the integrated schistosomiasis control measures and consolidate the control achievements.


Assuntos
Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Moluscocidas/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 242-247, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province, so as to provide scientific basis for the development of the schistosomiasis elimination programme in the province. METHODS: According to the requirements of the National Guidelines for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 version), a total of 41 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all disease-endemic counties (districts) across Hunan Province. During the period between 2015 and 2019, Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status was monitored. The morbidity due to schistosomiasis and snail status was compared between years. RESULTS: The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 2.57% and 1.56% in local residents and mobile populations in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province from 2015 to 2019, respectively, and the sero-prevalence appeared a tendency towards a decline over years. A higher sero-prevalence rate of S. japonicum infections was seen in men than in women (P < 0.01). During the 5-year study period, the sero-prevalence rate of human S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in the marshland, embankment, inner embankment and hilly types of endemic areas over years. There were 44 and 19 egg -positives detected in local residents and 5 and 1 egg-positives in mobile populations in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A total of 9 346 domestic animals were monitored from 2015 to 2019, and 6 egg-positives were detected in 2015 and 2016 (all were bovine). A total of 0.155 billion m2 settings were surveyed from 2015 to 2019, and the mean density of living snails appeared a tendency towards a decline over years, with a 45.79% reduction in 2019 as compared to 2015. However, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails during the 5-year period. A total of 1 469 mixed snail samples were detected using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and 6 positive snail samples were identified in 2015 (one sample) and 2017 (5 samples). CONCLUSIONS: The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Hunan Province, and the prevalence of S. japonicum infections is at a low level in humans and livestock; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Improvements of health education, intensification of schistosomiasis examinations in mobile populations and reinforcement of the surveillance-response system is required to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province.


Assuntos
Gado , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Expiração , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Gado , Análise Multinível , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
17.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418380

RESUMO

Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232890, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392237

RESUMO

Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli in calves is an important problem in terms of survivability, productivity and treatment costs. In this study, 88 of 150 diarrheic animals tested positive for E. coli. Of these, 54 samples had mixed infection with other bacterial and/or parasitic agents. There are several diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). Molecular detection of virulence factors Stx2, Cdt3, Eae, CNF2, F5, Hly, Stx1, and ST revealed their presence at 39.7, 27.2, 19.3, 15.9, 13.6, 9.0, 3.4, and 3.4 percent, respectively. As many as 13.6% of the isolates lacked virulence genes and none of the isolate had LT or CNF1 toxin gene. The odds of isolating ETEC from male calves was 3.6 times (95% CI: 1.1, 12.4; P value = 0.042) that of female calves, whereas the odds of isolating NTEC from male calves was 72.9% lower (95% CI: 91.3% lower, 15.7% lower; P value = 0.024) than that in females. The odds of isolating STEC in winter was 3.3 times (95% CI: 1.1, 10.3; P value = 0.037) that of spring. Antibiograms showed 48 (54.5%) of the isolates to be multi-drug resistant. The percent resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 79.5, 67.0, 54.5, and 43.0, respectively. Ceftazidime (14.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (13.6%) and aztreonam (11.3%) showed the lowest resistance, and none of the isolates was resistant to imipenem. The results of this study can help improve our understanding of the epidemiological aspects of E. coli infection and to devise strategies for protection against it. The prevalence of E. coli pathotypes can help potential buyers of calves to avoid infected premises. The antibiograms in this study emphasizes the risks associated with the random use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Virulência/genética
19.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414076

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , França/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Seleção Genética/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética
20.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 71: 101494, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434101

RESUMO

The etiological agents involved in a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreak were investigated in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit from southern Brazil. A battery of PCR assays was performed to detect the most common viruses and bacteria associated with BRD, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from 21 heifer calves (symptomatic n = 15; asymptomatic n = 6) that, during the occurrence of the BDR outbreak, were aged between 6 and 90 days. At least one microorganism was detected in 85.7 % (18/21) of the BALF samples. Mixed infections were more frequent (72.2 %) than single infections (27.7 %). The interactions between viruses and bacteria were the most common in coinfections (55.5 %). The frequencies of BRD agents were 38.1 % for BRSV, 28.6 % for BVDV, 33.3 % for BCoV, 42.85 % for P. multocida, 33.3 % for M. bovis, and 19 % for H. somni. BoHV-1, BPIV-3, and M. haemolytica were not identified in any of the 21 BALF samples. Considering that BALF and not nasal swabs were analyzed, these results demonstrate the etiological multiplicity that may be involved in BRD outbreaks in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
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