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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 424, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338871

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging transboundary disease in India. In the recent past, Andhra Pradesh is experiencing outbreaks of LSD in several pockets with a severe economic impact on the farming community. The affected animals showed nodular lesions all over the body in severely affected cases, whereas the lesions were confined to the face, neck, jowl, back, udder, and scrotum in less affected cases. Young ones are highly susceptible to the disease than adults. The mortality was found to be more in young ones than adult cattle which might be due to subsequent secondary bacterial complications. Clinical samples like blood, serum, and tissues were collected randomly from affected animals from four different pockets of Andhra Pradesh. The tissue samples gave positive amplification in PCR targeting LSDV fusion protein gene (ORF 117) and yielded 472 bp product. Another gene specifically targeting ORF036 of LSDV also gave amplification in tissue samples with a product size of 606 bp. The representative samples from four different regions were sequenced for ORF 117 and 036 genes. The phylogeny of the sequenced products of ORF 117 showed more similarity with Kenya Neethling 2490 strain and Russian isolates of 2019. In addition, the phylogeny of ORF 036 showed the path of entry of the virus into the country and also to Andhra Pradesh. The isolates showed similarity with the isolates of India (Odisha), Bangladesh, Russia, Egypt, and Kenya. These studies paved way for the future perspective of developing a vaccine to control the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bangladesh , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Egito , Índia/epidemiologia , Quênia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101694, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418757

RESUMO

In this study, we report the serological, bacteriological and whole genome sequencing data of a 6 years study of Brucella abortus in Meghalaya, India. Investigation of 3060 sera samples indicated overall prevalence of 6.4% by Rose Bengal Plate Test and 10.7% by ELISA. Considerably higher prevalence was observed among milk samples (17.5%, n = 362) and in blood samples (37.7%, n = 262) by direct PCR. Clinical samples (n = 94) from late abortion cases yielded 11 B. abortus isolates. Multi-locus sequence typing indicated circulation of single sequence type, ST1. Whole genome sequencing (n = 8) and phylogenomic analysis revealed close clustering of majority of isolates in two clusters alongwith genomes from other countries, indicating global relatedness among B. abortus. Taken together, the results of our study revealed the putative hotspot of infection in the dairy-dominant districts of the state and also calls for concerted One Health based action for prevention and control of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Gravidez
4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424158

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) belongs to genus Mamastravirus (MAstV). It can be detected in the faeces of both diarrhoeal and healthy calves. However, its prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with cattle diarrhoea are poorly understood. In this study, faecal samples of 87 diarrhoeal and 77 asymptomatic calves from 20 farms in 12 provinces were collected, and BoAstV was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence rate of this virus in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic calves was 55.17 % (95 % CI: 44.13, 65.85 %) and 36.36 % (95 % CI: 25.70, 48.12 %), respectively, indicating a correlation between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.15, P=0.024). BoAstV existed mainly in the form of co-infection (85.53 %) with one to five of nine viruses, and there was a strong positive correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.83, P=0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed this correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.41, P=0.038). The co-infection of BoAstV and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with or without other viruses accounted for 70.77 % of all the co-infection cases. The diarrhoea risk for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and BRV was 8.14-fold higher than that for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and other viruses (OR=8.14, P=0.001). Further, the co-infection of BoAstV/BRV/bovine kobuvirus (BKoV) might increase the risk of calf diarrhoea by 14.82-fold, compared with that of BoAstV and other viruses (OR=14.82, P <0.001). Then, nearly complete genomic sequences of nine BoAstV strains were assembled by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. Sequence alignment against known astrovirus (AstV) strains at the levels of both amino acids and nucleotides showed a high genetic diversity. Four genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes MAstV-28 (n=3) and MAstV-33 (n=2) and two novel genotypes designated tentatively as MAstV-34 (n=1) and MAstV-35 (n=3). In addition, seven out of nine BoAstV strains showed possible inter-genotype recombination and cross-species recombination. Therefore, our results increase the knowledge about the prevalence and the genetic evolution of BoAstV and provide evidence for the association between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Diarreia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Prevalência
5.
Parasite ; 28: 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374643

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. cause the disease coccidiosis, which results in chronic wasting of livestock and can lead to the death of the animal. The disease, common worldwide, has caused huge economic losses to the cattle industry in particular. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of bovine Eimeria in China. Our search of five databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wan Fang for articles published up to February 29, 2020 on the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle in mainland China yielded 46 articles, in which the prevalence of cattle ranged from 4.6% to 87.5%. The rate of bovine Eimeria infection has been decreasing year by year, from 57.9% before 2000 to 25.0% after 2015, but it is still high. We also analyzed the region, sampling years, detection methods, feeding model, seasons, and species of bovine Eimeria. We recommend that prevention strategies should focus on strengthening detection of Eimeria in calves in the intensive farming model.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Theriogenology ; 174: 121-123, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428677

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive disorders and the main serogroups of Leptospira spp. in dairy herds. Blood samples from 216 cows from nine herds were collected for a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and a reproductive follow-up with ultrasonography was carried out monthly for at least 12 months. A total of 75 (16.5%) cows were reactive, while seroreactivity to a herd level ranged from 16.0% to 52.8%. Out of the nine herds, in five (55.0%) Sejroe was found to be the predominant serogroup and in four (45.0%) it was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The major reproductive problems identified were embryonic death (ED) and abortions. All herds presented ED and abortion was observed in three (33.3%). Herds with high seroreactivity (>20%) had more reproductive problems. Those with a predominance of Sejroe were associated with ED (P < 0.05), while those with Icterohaemorrhagiae were associated with abortion. The results show that different leptospiral strains lead to different reproductive problems, as well as showing that the main problem - ED - is caused by leptospirosis, particularly for those determined by strains of the serogroup Sejroe.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Sorogrupo
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 429, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351522

RESUMO

An investigation was conducted to identify polymorphism in mannose-binding lectin 1 (MBL1) gene and its effect on udder health and performance traits in dairy cattle and buffalo of India. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.2534G > A of MBL1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). All the possible genotypes for SNP c.2534G > A (GG, AG, and AA) were observed in the studied population. However, Sahiwal cows revealed dimorphic pattern (AG and GG). The effect of targeted SNP on incidence of mastitis was evaluated and found to be significant. Animals with GG genotype were less susceptible to clinical mastitis and had comparatively lower somatic cell score (SCS) in Hardhenu cattle (P < 0.01) and Murrah buffalo (P < 0.05). Animals having GG genotype also exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower age at first calving (AFC). AG genotyped Murrah buffalo animals revealed significantly higher second lactation milk yield (P < 0.01). GG genotype with SCS and AFC could therefore be exploited as a promising candidate marker for the genetic improvement of udder health and AFC in dairy animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/genética , Leite , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(8): 644-652, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves. ANIMALS: Cohorts (n = 3,339) of male beef calves (545,866) purchased by 1 large cattle feeding operation from 216 locations and transported to 1 of 89 feeding locations (backgrounding location or feedlot) with similar management protocols. PROCEDURES: Associations between weather conditions and management factors on the day of purchase (day P) and during the first week at the feeding location and cumulative BRDC mortality incidence within the first 60 days on feed were estimated in a mixed-effects negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: Significant factors in the final model were weaning status; degree of commingling; body weight; transport distance; season; precipitation, mean wind speed, and maximum environmental temperature on day P; environmental temperature range in the first week after arrival at the feeding location; and interactions between distance and wind speed and between body weight and maximum environmental temperature. Precipitation and wind speed on day P were associated with lower cumulative BRDC mortality incidence, but wind speed was associated only among calves transported long distances (≥ 1,082.4 km). Higher mean maximum temperature on day P increased the incidence of cumulative mortality among calves with low body weights (< 275.5 kg). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Several weather conditions on day P and during the first week after arrival were associated with incidence of BRDC mortality. The results may have implications for health- and economic-risk management, especially for high-risk calves and calves that are transported long distances.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Febre/veterinária , Masculino , Desmame , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Can Vet J ; 62(7): 712-718, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219779

RESUMO

Biosecurity practices of beef cow-calf herds in western Canada have not been studied extensively nor is there a good understanding of their association with herd health. A survey was sent to 103 cow-calf producers of the Western Canadian Cow-Calf Surveillance Network. Eighty completed questionnaires were returned. Bulls were purchased for all herds during the 2014 to 2017 study period; 54% of herds purchased heifers and 42% purchased cows. The use of standard biosecurity practices was generally low with 30% of producers keeping purchased animals separate and 30% vaccinating new additions. None of the evaluated biosecurity practices were associated with reporting Johne's disease. The purchase of > 10 bulls, the purchase of cows, not vaccinating animals bought into the herd, and use of community pasture were associated with a bovine respiratory disease outbreak. Outbreaks of calf diarrhea were associated with the purchase of 10 or more bulls, the use of a community pasture, and leasing or sharing bulls.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Paratuberculose , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199933

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is the causative agent of winter dysentery (WD). In adult dairy cattle, WD is characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea and a reduction in milk production. Therefore, WD leads to significant economic losses in dairy farms. In this study, we aimed to isolate and characterize local BCoV strains. BCoV positive samples, collected during 2017-2021, were used to amplify and sequence the S1 domain of S glycoprotein and the full hemagglutinin esterase gene. Based on our molecular analysis, local strains belong to different genetic variants circulating in dairy farms in Israel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all local strains clustered together and in proximity to other BCoV circulating in the area. Additionally, we found that local strains are genetically distant from the reference enteric strain Mebus. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing molecular data on BCoV circulating in Israel.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Disenteria/veterinária , Filogenia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Disenteria/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Israel/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 391, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224021

RESUMO

Neosporosis is a parasitic disease that causes abortions and economic losses in bovine production systems, but no studies have been found concerning its effect on the Creole cattle breed, Blanco Orejinegro (BON). The aim of this research was to establish the serological status of Colombian BON cattle against Neospora caninum and to determine the factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples were taken from 363 animals from 13 herds in six states of Colombia, and analyzed by indirect ELISA using a commercial test. Information on sex, herd, generation group, and state was recorded. A survey was carried out with 26 questions related to productive, reproductive, and health factors per herd. A logistic regression analysis was performed and the ORs for significantly associated variables were estimated using the R software. General seropositivity of 73.5% (95% CI 68.6-77.9%) was obtained, and sex, age group, and herd were the variables significantly associated with seropositivity (p < 0.05). For the sex variable, seroprevalence levels of 79.6% (95% CI 74.3-84.1%) were recorded for females and 54.5% (95% CI 43.6-65.1%) for males. Herd seroprevalence varied between 58.3 and 95.8%, and the last generation showed the lowest positivity (51.2%, 95% CI 42.1-60.2%). The inadequate disposal of fetuses was a risk factor, while carrying out serological tests to new animals that enter the herd, the use of new gloves and palpation utensils for each animal, supplementation, and stabling were stated as protective factors. No effect of positivity was found in the last calving interval. The implementation of bovine neosporosis control programs to support breeding and conservation programs of the BON breed in Colombia is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 398, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250579

RESUMO

Milk serves as a significant source of protein for many families and aids in combating food insecurity. However, the demand for milk and milk-related products far exceeds the supply. The objective of the study was to evaluate dairy farm-workers' knowledge of factors responsible for culling and mortality of dairy cows in the Eastern Cape Province. Data was collected from 106 dairy farm-workers using a questionnaire. Any correctly answered question by the majority amounted to a point and a zero for incorrectly answered questions. Correct answering by the majority to more than half the questions of a subsection amounted to a pass. A less than 50% pass rate was considered a poor level of knowledge, 51-69% pass rate was considered an average level of knowledge, and anything higher than that was considered a good level of knowledge. Most farm-workers (66.0%) relied on their colleagues for dairy health information. Most dairy farm-workers (49.1%) indicated that lameness, milk fever (56.6%), and mastitis (47.2%) do not lead to culling and mortality of dairy cows. A majority (83%) of farm-workers agreed that reproduction problems, poor milk yield (77.3%), and age (81.1%) are the main reasons for culling dairy cows. The participants had varying perceptions and limited knowledge (28.3%) about the major contributing factors of culling and mortality. The lack of training courses and minimal use of other sources of information such as the internet might contribute to this poor knowledge and perceptions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9383-9417, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253364

RESUMO

Many dairy cattle worldwide are housed in tiestalls, meaning that they are tethered by the neck to individual stalls. On some farms, tied cattle are permitted seasonal access to pasture, but otherwise their movements are restricted compared with cows housed in freestall barns or other loose housing systems. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the scientific literature pertaining the welfare of tied dairy cattle through comparison with less-restrictive housing systems. Articles identified by PubMed and Web of Science underwent a 5-phase screening process, resulting in the inclusion of 102 papers. These papers addressed measures of welfare related to affective state, natural behavior, and health (with the lattermost category subdivided into hoof and leg disorders, lameness, mastitis, transition disease, and other diseases or conditions). Health was the most researched topic (discussed in 86% of articles); only 19% and 14% of studies addressed natural behavior and affective state, respectively. Our review highlights different health benefits for tethered and loose cattle. For example, tied cattle experience reduced prevalence of white line disease and digital dermatitis, whereas loose cattle experience fewer leg lesions and injuries. The prevalence of mastitis, transition diseases, and other conditions did not differ consistently across housing types. We found that the expression of certain natural behaviors, particularly those associated with lying down (e.g., time spent kneeling, unfulfilled intentions to lie down), were impaired in tiestalls. Articles addressing affective state found benefits to loose housing, but these studies focused almost exclusively on (1) physiological measurements and (2) cow comfort, a concept that lacks a consistent operational definition across studies. We call for future research into the affective state of tied cattle that extends beyond these explorations and employs more sophisticated methodologies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Casco e Garras , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(9): 1378-1388, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248104

RESUMO

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-borne disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by the EHD virus (EHDV). To date, seven EHDV serotypes have been identified. In Japan, strain Ibaraki of EHDV serotype 2 has caused outbreaks of Ibaraki disease in cattle. In addition, EHDV serotype 7 (EHDV-7) has caused large-scale EHD epizootics. In mid-September 2016, eight cattle at a breeding farm in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan developed fever. Since EHDV-7 was detected in sentinel cattle in western Japan in 2016, we suspected that the cause of this fever might be an EHDV-7 infection. In this study, we tested cattle for EHDV-7 and some other viruses. Consequently, EHDV was isolated from washed blood cells collected from three of the eight cattle, and genetic analysis of genome segment 2 revealed that this isolate was EHDV-7. Moreover, all affected cattle tested positive for anti-EHDV-7 neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that the fever was caused by EHDV-7 infection. In addition, we modified a conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of EHDV. This modified assay could detect various strains of EHDV isolated in Japan, Australia, and North America. Furthermore, the assay permitted the detection of EHDV-7 in blood cells collected from seven of the eight cattle. We believe that this modified assay will be a useful tool for the diagnosis of EHD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica , Infecções por Reoviridae , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Transcrição Reversa , Sorogrupo
15.
Toxicon ; 200: 134-139, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314765

RESUMO

Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) poisoning in cattle is characterized by a systemic granulomatous inflammatory response that resembles a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Hairy vetch toxicity has been described in cattle worldwide. The aim of this paper was to describe 10 outbreaks of hairy vetch poisoning in cattle studied at INTA EEA Salta and INTA EEA Balcarce, Argentina, from 2004 to 2019. Clinical signs included weakness, pyrexia, dermatitis, alopecia, and progressive weight loss, which leads to death over a clinical course of approximately two weeks. A total of 12 necropsies were performed and tissue samples were collected for histopathology. The main gross changes were observed in skin, lymph nodes, liver, heart, spleen and kidneys. Other tissues, such as pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands, were also affected. Histological lesions consisted of multifocal to diffuse granulomatous inflammation in those organs. The toxicity of hairy vetch has been described in several countries of the world. In Argentina, the use of hairy vetch as a cover crop has become common in some regions during the past years. The data suggest that hairy vetch poisoning is an important disease in cattle. More studies are needed to contribute with further information.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas , Vicia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(8): 1248-1255, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193721

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis, caused by Prototheca bovis, has received much attention worldwide. To investigate the status of P. bovis infection in dairy farms of Hubei, we collected 1,158 milk samples and 90 environmental samples from 14 dairy farms of Hubei, China. The isolates were identified with traditional biological methods and molecular biological techniques, and their pathogenicity was tested through mice infection experiments. Isolates from 57 milk and 20 environmental samples were identified as P. bovis. The mice infection tests proved that the isolated P. bovis could cause mastitis in mice, manifesting as severe red swelling of the mammary glands. Histopathological analysis of tissue sections showed necrosis and nodules lesions formed in the infected mice mammary tissue, accompanied by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration. These results suggested the existence of pathogenic P. bovis in dairy farms of the Hubei province, China, with brewer's grains and fresh feces possibly playing important roles in the spread of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Mastite , Prototheca , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Mastite/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Leite
20.
Vet Ital ; 57(1): 13-17, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313094

RESUMO

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus, emerged in European domestic ruminants in 2011 causing abortions and malformations in newborns and none or mild clinical symptoms in adult animals. Here, a total of 364 bovine, ovine and caprine serum samples were collected in Kosovo and Albania between May 2014 and August 2016 and analyzed for the presence of anti­SBV antibodies. Sera were tested using an enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 48 ELISA­positive samples were subsequently analyzed by serum neutralization test (SNT). The overall percentage of ELISA positive results was 17.9%; 23.1% (53/229) was the prevalence observed in Kosovo (cattle 45.5%, sheep 19.2% and goat 6.8%), while 8.9% (12/135) was that observed in Albania (cattle 11.1%, sheep 0% and goat 20.0%). SNT confirmed the presence of neutralizing antibodies against SBV in all samples tested. This is the first study reporting SBV circulation in domestic ruminants in Kosovo and Albania, with indication that this virus has been present in Kosovo and Albania at least since 2014 without being detected.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
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