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1.
Animal ; 14(1): 66-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317849

RESUMO

Feed withdrawal (FW) is a frequent issue in open outdoor feedlot systems, where unexpected circumstances can limit the animals' access to food. The relationship among fasting period, animal behaviour during feed reintroduction (FR) and acidosis occurrence has not been completely elucidated. Twenty steers fitted with rumen catheters were fed a high-concentrate diet (concentrate : forage ratio 85 : 15) and were challenged by a protocol of FW followed by FR. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: FW for 12 h (T12), 24 h (T24), 36 h (T36) or no FW (control group) followed by FR. The steers' behaviour, ruminal chemistry, structure of the ruminal microbial community, blood enzymes and metabolites and ruminal acidosis status were assessed. Animal behaviour was affected by the FW-FR challenge ( P < 0.05). Steers from the T12, T24 and T36 treatments showed a higher ingestion rate and a lower frequency of rumination. Although all animals were suspected to have sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) prior to treatment, a severe case of transient SARA arose after FR in the T12, T24 and T36 groups. The ruminal pH remained below the threshold adopted for SARA diagnosis ( pH value = 5.6) for more than three consecutive hours (24, 7 and 19 h in the T12, T24 and T36 treatments, respectively). The FW-FR challenge did not induce clinical acute ruminal acidosis even though steers from the T36 treatment presented ruminal pH values that were consistent with this metabolic disorder (pH threshold for acute acidosis = 5.2). Total mixed ration reintroduction after the withdrawal period reactivated ruminal fermentation as reflected by changes in the fermentation end-products. Ruminal lactic acid accumulation in steers from the T24 and T36 treatments probably led to the reduction of pH in these groups. Both the FW and the FR phases may have altered the structure of the ruminal microbiota community. Whereas fibrolytic bacterial groups decreased relative abundance in the restricted animals, both lactic acid producer and utiliser bacterial groups increased ( P < 0.05). The results demonstrated a synchronisation between Streptococcus (lactate producer) and Megasphaera (lactate utiliser), as the relative abundance of both groups increased, suggesting that bacterial resilience may be central for preventing the onset of metabolic disturbances such as ruminal acidosis. A long-FW period (36 h) produced rumen pH reductions well below and lactic acid concentration increased well above the accepted thresholds for acute acidosis without any perceptible clinical signs.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Acidose/etiologia , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 783-790, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668443

RESUMO

Hyperketonemia and metritis are common in the weeks after calving. This study tested if feeding and agonistic behaviors before calving were associated with the development of hyperketonemia (HYK) and metritis after calving. Holstein cows on 5 commercial farms were monitored for HYK (as identified using a cow-side ß-hydroxybutyrate test) and metritis (using visual and olfactory assessment of vaginal discharge); both tests were conducted twice a week for 2 wk. Based on this assessment, we selected a balanced sample of cows that remained healthy (no signs of illness; n = 20), cows diagnosed with either HYK (n = 20) or metritis (n = 20), and cows with both HYK and metritis (n = 20). Video recordings from the 8 wk before calving (scored every 2 wk for 90 min immediately after fresh feed delivery) were used to evaluate feeding behavior and competition at the feed bunk. Feeding behavior before calving was associated with postpartum diagnosis of HYK and metritis. Specifically, cows that spent less time eating had higher odds of HYK and metritis. Odds of remaining healthy (compared with becoming sick with at least 1 condition) increased by 1.3 times for every additional 15 min spent eating. Additionally, cows that were involved in fewer agonistic interactions prepartum were more likely to be diagnosed with both conditions during the postpartum period. Odds of remaining healthy (compared with becoming sick with at least one condition) increased by 1.9 times for every 6 additional interactions. We conclude that prepartum feeding and agonistic behaviors can be used to identify animals at risk of HYK and metritis postpartum.


Assuntos
Comportamento Agonístico , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Cetose/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Endometrite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cetose/etiologia , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 750-767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704012

RESUMO

Adequate feeding of high-performance dairy cows is extremely important to avoid the digestive disorder subacute ruminal acidosis. Subacute ruminal acidosis is defined as a status with a below-average ruminal pH that does not cause direct clinical symptoms at the individual level but is relevant for animal welfare due to a higher risk of secondary health problems at the herd level. The main objective of this study was to apply meta-analytical methods in an exploratory approach to investigate the association between pH parameters of the ventral rumen with milk and diet parameters. Data from 32 studies using continuous pH measurement in the ventral rumen of lactating cows were included in the meta-analysis. Available information extracted from all studies was categorized into parameters associated with management, cow, diet, milk, and pH. The statistical analysis was divided into 4 sections. First, a multiple imputation procedure based on a principal component model was applied, since approximately 19% of the data set consisted of missing values due to heterogeneity in provided information between the studies included in the analysis. In a second step, all potential predictors for the pH parameters, including the daily mean pH, the time with a pH below 5.8, and the pH range, were examined for their prediction suitability using multi-level mixed effects meta-regression models. These analyses were performed on the raw and the imputed data. Because the results of both approaches were consistent, the imputing procedure was considered to be appropriate. Third, automated variable selection was applied to all 3 pH parameters separately for the predictor groups milk and diet using the imputed data set. Thereby, multi-model inference was used to estimate the relative importance of the selected variables. Finally, a functional relationship between the 3 pH parameters was established. The fat to protein ratio of milk, milk fat, and milk protein showed significant associations in meta-regression analysis for all 3 pH parameters when used as a single predictor. Out of the group of diet-specific variables, the acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, nonfiber carbohydrate, starch content, as well as the forage to concentrate ratio, showed the highest significance in the models. In particular, the multi-model inference showed that the protein, fat, and lactose content of the milk can best quantify the association to the daily mean pH and the time with a pH below 5.8 in a multiple regression model.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Rúmen/química , Acidose/etiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Leite , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Rúmen/metabolismo
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 649-665, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704020

RESUMO

In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that cows that are lame around dry-off are at increased risk of transition diseases (TD), including metritis, subclinical ketosis (SCK), retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, or displaced abomasum. We also hypothesized that the relationship between lameness and TD would be mediated through reduced feeding time. We enrolled 461 cows at 9 wk before their expected calving date on 6 commercial freestall farms in the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Cows were gait-scored weekly using a scale of 1 to 5. Lameness status was classified based on consecutive gait scores as lame (2 consecutive gait scores = 3 or 1 score ≥4) or sound (2 consecutive gait scores ≤2). Lameness status was summarized as (1) lameness at dry-off (sound or lame); (2) lameness group (always sound = sound on all visits, chronically lame = lame on all visits, and other = changed from sound to lame or vice versa); and (3) proportion of weeks lame during the dry period. Body condition scores were recorded at dry-off and at calving and collectively used to calculate change in body condition for each cow. A subsample of cows (n = 159) was evaluated for feeding time once a week during the dry period. All cows were evaluated for SCK (positive = ß-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L) and metritis (positive = foul smell, red/brown watery vaginal discharge) every 3 to 4 d between d 3 and 17 after calving. We retrieved data on treatment of retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, and displaced abomasum during the first 17 d after calving, cow parity, and milk production in the previous lactation from farm records. We created a binary variable, TD (any of SCK, metritis, retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, or displaced abomasum), to differentiate between healthy cows and cows that developed TD. Lameness at dry-off was associated with the occurrence of metritis and TD, but not with SCK. Cows that were chronically lame and cows that had an increased proportion of weeks lame during the dry period had higher occurrence of metritis and TD. Lameness was also associated with reduced feeding time, which in turn was associated with increased likelihood of SCK and TD, but not with metritis. Lameness was not associated with change in body condition; however, cows that lost body condition score during the dry period had increased odds of developing SCK, metritis, and TD. Change in body condition was highly associated with body condition score at dry-off. These results suggest that association between lameness and TD is partially mediated through reduced feeding time.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Marcha , Nível de Saúde , Cetose/etiologia , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Paridade , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 666-675, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733846

RESUMO

In a subset of dairy cows, prolonged pathological uterine inflammation results in purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), which can have negative consequences for both fertility and milk production. However, unlike for intensive systems, analysis of the effects of PVD in predominantly pasture-based herds is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PVD in spring-calving, pasture-based dairy cows on production and reproduction indices, stratified according to previous full-lactation milk yield. We assessed clinical disease as defined by vaginal mucus score (VMS) in 440 Holstein-Friesian cows from 5 farms. Cows were categorized as healthy (VMS 0) or having PVD (VMS 1-3) at 21 d postpartum. We recorded 305-d milk, milk protein, and milk fat yields (kg) before and after disease diagnosis, as well as fertility data, such as services per conception and the calving-conception period (CCP). Using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), we analyzed data using PROC MIXED, PROC PHREG, and PROC LOGISTIC to determine the least squares means differences and hazard and odds ratios between the groups, respectively. Overall, a 60% prevalence of PVD was recorded at 21 d postpartum. Milk yield and milk constituents were similar between all VMS categories and between healthy cows and cows with PVD. Although cows in the 4 VMS categories had statistically similar CCP, cows with PVD had a significantly longer CCP than healthy cows on average (9 d). The hazard ratio for cows with PVD was 0.66, indicating a 34% higher risk of a prolonged CCP than healthy cows. Odds ratio analysis determined that cows with PVD were 3 times more likely not to conceive at all, twice as likely not to conceive at first service, twice as likely not to conceive by 100 d postpartum, and 3 times more likely to fail to conceive before 150 d postpartum compared with healthy cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized as having low or high milk yield, based on whether they were above or below the median 305-d milk yield of the study population (6,571 kg) in the lactation before vaginal mucus scoring. Based on a univariate odds ratio, high-yield cows were 1.6 times more likely to present with PVD in the subsequent lactation. The number of services per conception did not differ between healthy and PVD cows in the low- and high-yield groups. In the high-yield group, cows with PVD were 4.9 times more likely not to conceive, 2.7 times more likely to require multiple services to conceive, 2.1 times more likely to remain not pregnant by 100 d postpartum, and 4.4 times more likely to remain not pregnant by 150 d postpartum. The CCP was also significantly longer in cows with PVD than their healthy counterparts (115.9 ± 4.9 and 104 ± 7.4 d, respectively). In conclusion, PVD significantly increased the CCP in all cows, but to a greater extent in cows with a high milk yield in the lactation before disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Fertilidade , Lactação , Descarga Vaginal/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Leite , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Doenças Uterinas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Descarga Vaginal/diagnóstico
6.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714113

RESUMO

Mortality in cattle associated with ingestion of cocoons (matlhoa in Setswana) of both Gonometa postica and Gonometa rufobrunnea is rare and has only previously been reported in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. A case history of gradual weight loss, bloat, dyschezia with dry faeces and laboured gait, resulting in sudden death after drinking water and associated with ingestion of pupal cocoons of Gonometa spp., was reported by keepers at Mmaditau crush in Botswana in 2013. The crush was a shared holding in a communal area with 15 registered animal keepers. The objective of this study was to profile the history, clinical signs, post-mortem findings, morbidity and mortality from the outbreak using the descriptive study method. Altogether, 81 cattle out of a total of 507 died of impaction from August to December 2013. On autopsy, a loosely connected mass of ingesta, intertwined in ropy silky strands, was observed. It was concluded that there is no readily accessible and available form of treatment at crush level, leaving only evasive husbandry practices as the feasible option. To aid evasive husbandry management practices, temporal and spatial monitoring of population dynamics of Gonometa spp. is recommended, particularly during a drought spell when animals are prone to develop pica, as the basis for an early warning system to farmers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Mariposas , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Surtos de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pupa , Rúmen/patologia , Gastropatias/etiologia , Gastropatias/mortalidade
7.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e4, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714114

RESUMO

Cases of rumen impaction caused by ingestion of Gonometa postica cocoons occurred at a farm in eastern-central Namibia. Ten animals died on the farm over the previous 5 months. Rumenotomies were successfully performed on three affected animals. The authors were of the opinion that the affected animals ingested the cocoons around the time of weaning, which then resulted in tangled masses that gradually stretched and enlarged because of entrapment of ingesta, eventually causing impaction of the rumen in the young adult animals. These are the first reported cases of ruminal impaction attributable to G. postica cocoon ingestion in Namibia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Mariposas , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia , Rúmen/cirurgia , Gastropatias/etiologia , Gastropatias/cirurgia
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 411, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alopecia is defined as the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows. Alopecia secondary to an infectious disease or parasitic infestation is commonly seen in cattle. It can also have metabolic causes, for example in newborn calves after a disease event such as diarrhoea. In the article, the investigation of a herd problem of acquired alopecia in Belgian Blue (BB) crossbred calves is described. CASE PRESENTATION: Several BB crossbred calves had presented with moderate to severe non-pruritic alopecia in a single small herd located in Southern Germany. The referring veterinarian had ruled out infectious causes, including parasitic infection and had supplemented calves with vitamins (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C, and K3) orally. Results of the diagnostic workup at the Clinic for Ruminants are presented for three affected calves and findings from a farm visit are discussed. Because of these investigations, an additional four calves were brought to the referral clinic within the first week of life, and before onset of alopecia, in order to study the course of the condition; however, these calves never developed any signs of alopecia during their clinic stay. CONCLUSIONS: Because all other plausible differential diagnoses were ruled out during our investigation, we concluded that the documented alopecia was due to malabsorption of dietary fat and consecutive disruption of lipid metabolism leading to telogen or anagen effluvium. In this particular case, this was caused by a mixing error of milk replacer in conjunction with insufficiently tempered water. We conclude that nutritional, management or environmental factors alone can lead to moderate to severe alopecia in calves in the absence of a prior or concurrent disease event or infectious cause.


Assuntos
Alopecia/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Substitutos do Leite/química , Alopecia/etiologia , Alopecia/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Masculino
9.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(10): 619-625, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In most cases, bovine recumbency (downer cow syndrome) is a complication of periparturient hypocalcemia, but may also be caused by other metabolic disorders, trauma, toxic mastitis or metritis. An important treatment measurement in the recumbent cattle is to bring the cow to its feet, in order to avoid quickly occurring secondary damage. Various lifting systems are on the market, such as a cow lift with a supporting harness or hip clamps. Such lifting systems are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. However, these techniques can cause secondary injuries and ischemic pressure damage. An alternative method is the use of a specially designed flotation tank. The buoyancy of the water gently lifts the cattle avoiding secondary, neuromuscular lesions. The success rate in the therapy of recumbent cattle can be significantly improved by the correct and early use of suitable lifting techniques. In this review, the most common lifting techniques for recumbent cattle are summarized.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes , Postura/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Hipocalcemia/complicações , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/efeitos adversos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/métodos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/veterinária
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 49, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modern dairy industry routinely generates data on production and disease. Therefore, the use of these cheap and at times even "free" data to predict a given state of welfare in a cost-effective manner is evaluated in the present study. Such register data could potentially be used in the identification of herds at risk of having animal welfare problems. The present study evaluated the diagnostic performance of four routinely registered indicators for identifying herds with high lameness prevalence among 40 Danish dairy herds. Indicators were extracted as within-herd annual means for a one-year period for cow mortality, bulk milk somatic cell count, proportion of lean cows at slaughter and the standard deviation (SD) of age at first calving. The target condition "high lameness prevalence" was defined as a within-herd prevalence of lame cows of ≥ 16% (third quartile). Diagnostic performance was evaluated by constructing and analysing Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and their area under the curve (AUC) for single indicators and indicator combinations. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the indicators were assessed at the optimal cut-off based on data and compared to a set of predefined cut-off levels (national annual means or 90-percentile). RESULTS: Cow mortality had the highest AUC (0.76), while adding the three other indicators to the model did not yield significant increase in AUC. Cow mortality and SD of age at first calving had highest Se (100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 72-100%), while highest Sp was found for the proportion of lean cows at slaughter (83%, 95% CI: 66-93%). The highest differential positive rate (DPR = 0.53) optimizing both Se and Sp was found for cow mortality. Optimal cut-off points were lower than the presently used pre-defined cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: The selected register-based indicators proved to be able to identify herds with high lameness prevalences. Optimized cut-offs improved the predictive ability and should therefore be preferred in official control schemes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10369-10378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495614

RESUMO

Cattle lameness is an important welfare concern that also has an economic impact on the dairy industry. It can be a significant problem among pasture-based herds. Our objectives were to identify cow- and herd-level factors related to lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows grazing year-round in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional study in 48 pasture-based dairy herds, visiting each farm in a single visit. We evaluated 2,262 cows for mobility score (0-3) and 392 cows for hoof lesions. We used a questionnaire and checklist to capture herd management data. All information obtained was used to build multivariable models. The factors associated with lameness were low body condition score, longer time spent in the corral, being kept in paddocks during the drought period, and poor hygiene. For hoof lesions, track features were the most significant factor in determining the likelihood of heel horn erosion, white line fissure, and sole hemorrhage-by more than 3 times. Different factors related to unhygienic conditions such as leg cleanliness, frequency of cleaning, and longer time spent in the corral were associated with infectious hoof lesions. Poor human-animal relationship was related to sole hemorrhage, but patient handling of cows on the track was a protective factor against interdigital hyperplasia. The results of this study suggest that improving hygiene conditions, track features, and cow handling can improve dairy cattle mobility scores in pasture-based farms under tropical conditions. These findings also represent a first step toward planning actions aimed at decreasing lameness and hoof lesions in the studied region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas/classificação , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Marcha , Manobra Psicológica , Higiene , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Registros/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Clima Tropical
12.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536534

RESUMO

The survey described in this research paper aimed to investigate the economic and health impacts of birds on dairies. Birds are common pests on dairies, consuming and contaminating feed intended for cattle. As a result, dairy operators experience increased feed costs and increased pathogen and disease risk. We surveyed dairy operators attending the 2017 Washington Dairy Conference to examine the impact of birds on dairies in Washington State. Dairy operators reported feed losses valued at $55 per cow resulting in annual losses totaling $5.5 million in the Western region of the state and $9.2 million in the Eastern region of the state. Shooting was the most commonly used bird management method and European starlings (Sternus vulgaris) were the most frequently implicated species statewide. Bird abundance greater than 10,000 birds per day was associated with larger herd size and with self-reported presence of Johne's disease and Salmonella.


Assuntos
Aves , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104773, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563110

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate factors associated with lameness in dairy cows on intensive farms in southern Brazil. Farms (freestall: n = 38; compost-bedded pack: n = 12) having on average 274 (range: 41-901) lactating cows were visited once in 2016 (March to October). Potential risk factors for lameness at the cow, pen and herd levels were investigated through inspection of facilities, examination of cows and the use of data collected on routine management practices. All milking cows on each farm were assessed for gait score and BCS (n = 13,716). Associations between lameness, days in milk (DIM), BCS, parity, and test-day milk yield were investigated in 16 farms with available data (n = 5,301 cows). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions were used to model the data. Within-herd lameness prevalence was 41.1% (range: 13.8-64.5, SD = 11.3). First- and second-lactation cows after 120 DIM and older cows after 335 DIM were more likely to be observed lame than early lactation cows. Greater parity and low BCS (≤ 2.75) were associated with increased odds of lameness. Severely lame cows had lower milk yield (on average 1.3 kg/d) than non-lame cows. Freestall dairies using mattresses as stall base had greater within-pen (95% CI: 52-69%) and herd-level (38-57%) lameness prevalence than compost-bedded farms. Higher lameness prevalence was observed on farms having slippery feed bunk alley floors (32-49%) and shortened dry periods (< 60 days: 32-42%). First-lactation pens had lower predicted within-pen lameness prevalence (0-4%) and special-needs pens higher (52-73%) compared with the prevalence observed in compost-bedded fresh-cow pens (19-41%). Freestall pens using sawdust deep-bedding had greater (46-68%) within-pen lameness prevalence, but the prevalence in barns using sand was not different from compost-bedded farms. Given the high lameness prevalence observed in this study, there is a great opportunity for implementation of lameness prevention programs. Providing walking surfaces with high traction that facilitates mobility and using soft and deep-bedded material, such as compost and sand (and avoiding the use of mattresses) may reduce lameness prevalence in the types of dairy farms visited in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Prevalência
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104716, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421488

RESUMO

The threat of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in South America has global economic implications and retaining a FMD Free status under the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) remains a top priority. In Argentina the Servicio Nacional de Sanidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria (SENASA), the national service of agri-food health and quality, requires cattle located in the Pampean region of the Salado River basin to receive two foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinations per year, which results in one vaccination coinciding with beef cattle breeding season. While the vaccination program remains necessary, there is a growing concern amongst food animal veterinarians, that the overlap of FMD vaccination with the first 35 days of the breeding season is associated with early pregnancy loss (EPL). To address this concern, a preliminary randomized controlled trial t study was conducted to investigate the risk ratio (RR) of EPL in vaccinated, pregnant Aberdeen Angus heifers. Initially (Day 0), 858 heifers underwent fixed time-AI (FTAI). Subsequently, on day 33, following pregnancy diagnosis by transrectal ultrasonography pregnant heifers (n = 311) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group 1 (162 animals) received an inactivated oil emulsion FMD vaccine, and Group 2 (149 animals) received a saline injection (control). On day 51 (18 days post vaccination), pregnancy status was re-evaluated by ultrasonography. The initial pregnancy rate (PR) on Day 33 was 58% (498/858 animals). On Day 51 (18 days post vaccination), PR in Group 1 was 96.3% (156/162 animals), and in Group 2 (control) was 98.6% (147/149 animals). The EPL in Group 1 was 3.7% (6/162 animals) and in Group 2 was 1.3% (2/149 animals). The RR of EPL in Group 1, compared to Group 2, was 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-13, p-value: 0.20). With such a wide range in confidence intervals and a p value of 0.20 a larger prospective study would be necessary to establish an unequivocally statistically significant link between heifer vaccination 33 days post FTAI and an increased risk of EPL.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9224-9235, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378492

RESUMO

High levels of morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use are common in the veal industry. For the sustainability of the industry, it is important to address these challenges and determine factors that can be used to improve animal health and welfare. The objectives of this prospective observational cohort study were to describe the health status of calves on arrival at a grain-fed veal facility and determine characteristics that were associated with morbidity and mortality. On arrival, the calves were assessed for health abnormalities, weighed, measured for hip height and length from withers to lumbosacral junction, and had blood collected to determine serum total protein level. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using weight on arrival divided by the sum of the calf's length from withers to lumbosacral junction and hip height. The calves were observed for 77 d after arrival, during which the producer was responsible for recording all antibiotic treatments and mortality. We built Cox proportional hazard models for morbidity and mortality variables. We created 2 morbidity models: 1 for calves that were treated <21 d after arrival at the facility, and 1 for calves that were treated during the 11 wk at the facility. From January to December 2017, 998 calves were evaluated on arrival at the veal rearing facility. A large proportion (68%) were treated with antibiotics in the first 21 d after arrival. The only explanatory variable in the final <21 d morbidity model was BMI: calves with a higher BMI had a lower hazard of being treated for disease in the first 21 d after arrival. A total of 872 calves (87%) were treated at least once over the 11-wk housing period. A calf arriving with a BMI >371.46 g/cm or a serum total protein between 5.8 and 6.2 g/dL had a lower level of morbidity during the observation period. Over the 11-wk housing period, 74 calves (7.5%) died. Calves that arrived at the facility with a fecal score of 2 or a rectal temperature between 38.9 and 39.1°C had a higher hazard of dying; calves that had a BMI of >371 g/cm were less likely to die than calves that had a BMI <330 g/cm. These results point to the importance of assessing calves on arrival at a veal facility as a measure of identifying those at high risk for morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes , Nível de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 94-102, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445399

RESUMO

Heat stress is well documented to have a negative influence on livestock productivity and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate change. Dairy cattle can be more vulnerable to the negative effects of heat stress as these adverse impacts may be more profound during pregnancy and lactation. New emerging diseases are usually linked to a positive relationship with climate change and the survival of microrganisms and/or their vectors. These diseases may exaggerate the immune suppression associated with the immune suppressive effect of heat stress that is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes. It has been established that heat stress has a negative impact on the immune system via cell mediated and humoral immune responses. Heat stress activates the HPA axis and increases peripheral levels of glucocorticoids subsequently suppressing the synthesis and release of cytokines. Heat stress has been reported to induce increased blood cortisol concentrations which have been shown to inhibit the production of cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, interferon γ (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). The impact of heat stress on the immune responses of dairy cows could be mediated by developing appropriate amelioration strategies through nutritional interventions and cooling management. In addition, improving current animal selection methods and the development of climate resilient breeds may support the sustainability of livestock production systems into the future.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/imunologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/imunologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9138-9150, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326177

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to determine the association of dry matter intake as percentage of body weight (DMI%BW) and energy balance (EB) prepartum (-21 d relative to parturition) and postpartum (28 d) with calving disorders (CDZ; dystocia, twins, and stillbirths; n = 101) and metritis (n = 114). For this, DMI%BW and EB were the independent variables and CDZ and metritis were the dependent variables. A secondary objective was to evaluate prepartum DMI%BW and EB as predictors of CDZ and metritis. For this, CDZ and metritis were the independent variables and DMI%BW and EB were the dependent variables. Data from 476 cows from 9 experiments were compiled. Cows that developed CDZ had lesser postpartum DMI%BW from d 3 to 12 and lesser energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows that did not develop CDZ. Dry matter intake as percentage of BW and EB prepartum did not affect the odds of CDZ. Cows with metritis had lesser prepartum DMI%BW and EB. Each 0.1-percentage point decrease in the average DMI%BW and each 1-Mcal decrease in the average EB in the last 3 d prepartum increased the odds of having metritis by 8%. The average DMI%BW and EB during the last 3 d prepartum produced significant cut-offs to predict metritis postpartum, which were ≤1.6%/d and ≤2.5 Mcal/d, respectively. Cows that developed metritis had lesser overall postpartum DMI%BW and ECM and lesser EB from d 2 to 5 and from d 7 to 11 than cows that did not develop metritis. The main limitation in this study is that the time-order of disease relative to DMI%BW and ECM is inconsistent such that postpartum outcomes were measured before and after disease, which was diagnosed at variable intervals after calving. In summary, prepartum DMI%BW and EB were associated with and were predictors of metritis although the effect sizes were small for metritis, and calving disorders and metritis were associated with decreased DMI%BW and ECM postpartum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Endometrite/etiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1333-1339, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309667

RESUMO

To study the effect of ionizing radiation on thyroid glands, 66 Japanese Black cattle residing in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2013-2017 were pathologically examined. There were no clinical symptoms of thyroid disease in these cattle. Three cases of goiter and seven of atrophy were found in two among the four farms examined. Cases of goiter exhibited normal morphological structure without mass or nodule formation in thyroid glands. Cellular atypia or capsular invasion of the follicular epithelium was absent. The estimated integrated dose of external radiation in goiter cases ranged from maximum 797 mSv to minimum 24 mSv. All lobules in the seven atrophic thyroid glands were affected, but pathological findings, such as inflammatory cell infiltration or stromal fibrosis, were not observed. The estimated integrated dose of external radiation in atrophic thyroids ranged from maximum 589 mSv to minimum 8 mSv. Immunohistochemical analysis of anti-nitroguanosine and the TUNEL method in goiter and atrophic thyroid glands did not reveal any positive findings. The present study indicates that there was no significant relationship between a radiation effect and pathological findings in any thyroid glands.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Bócio/veterinária , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/veterinária , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Bócio/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Doses de Radiação , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8332-8342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301835

RESUMO

The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Locomoção , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Caminhada
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8367-8375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301839

RESUMO

The objective of our study was to identify cow-level factors associated with subclinical hypocalcemia at calving (SCH) in multiparous Jersey cows. A total of 598 Jersey and 218 Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows from 2 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Blood samples to determine total Ca concentration were collected from the coccygeal vessels at 3 h 19 min (±2 h 33 min) after calving. We used 2 serum Ca concentration thresholds to define SCH: <2.00 mmol/L (SCH-2.00) and <2.12 mmol/L (SCH-2.12). We evaluated the association of cow-level factors with SCH with multivariable Poisson regression models. Variables evaluated for association with SCH were herd; parity (2, 3, and ≥4); breed; previous lactation length and 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield; previous lactation first test milk yield and last test somatic cell count; lengths of calving interval, gestation, dry, and close-up periods; body condition and locomotion scores at calving; calving ease; and calf sex for singletons. We categorized continuous variables into quartiles (≤25th percentile, interquartile range and ≥75th percentile). The prevalence of SCH among Jersey cows was 40 (SCH-2.00) and 64% (SCH-2.12). Jersey cows of higher parity had greater risk of SCH-2.00 and SCH-2.12. The risk of SCH-2.12 was higher after birthing male calves. We also found a tendency for previous lactation length and previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield effect to affect risk of SCH-2.12. The risk of SCH-2.12 was lower for cows that had a previous lactation length shorter than the 25th percentile compared with cows that had a previous lactation length within the interquartile range. The risk of SCH-2.12 was higher for cows that had a previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield below the 25th percentile compared with cows that had a previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield above the 75th percentile. Also, Jersey × Holstein crossbreed was associated with increased risk of SCH-2.00. In the multivariable analysis, we observed no association between SCH and previous lactation first test milk yield; last test somatic cell count; lengths of calving interval, gestation, dry, and close-up periods; body condition and locomotion scores at calving; and calving ease. Our study identified parity, breed, calf sex, previous lactation length, and previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield as cow-level factors associated with SCH in multiparous Jersey cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Paridade , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hipocalcemia/sangue , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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