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1.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 58-67, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980012

RESUMO

Background: Neuromusculoskeletal anomalies generally in combination with severe clinical symptoms, comprise a heterogeneous group of fairly common and mostly fatal disorders in man and animals. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, causes bone fragility and deformity. Prominent extra-skeletal accessory manifestations of OI comprise blue/gray sclerae, hearing impairment, lung abnormalities and hypercalciuria. Cases of OI in cattle have been reported. However, no causative mutations have been identified in cattle so far.Aim: To report a possible oligogenic origin identified in a calf from clinically healthy parents suffering from OI.Materials and Methods: A neonatal embryo transfer male Holstein calf developing multiple fractures with bone tissue showing marked osteopenia was used for whole genome re-sequencing as well as its parents. In addition, 2,612 randomly chosen healthy Holstein cattle were genotyped as well as controls.Results: Sixteen candidate genes with potential protein-altering variants were selected revealing non-synonymous variants only within IFITM5 and CRTAP genes. However, in-depth gene analysis did not result in the identification of a single causative mutation in the OI calf.Conclusion: The analysis of the OI case revealed a possible oligogenic origin of the disease attributable to additive effects of three candidate genes, i.e., ABCA13, QRFPR, and IFTIM5.Clinical relevance: Most OI cases in humans and domestic animals reported so far are caused by distinct dominant or recessive monogenic mutations, therefore a potential oligogenic additive genetic effect is a novel finding. Furthermore, the case presented here demonstrates that cross-species genetic analyses might not always be straightforward.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Genótipo , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 619-624, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704007

RESUMO

Specific DNA mutations underlying several genetic defects associated with embryo loss or reduced calf survivability have been identified in dairy cattle, and a convenient and cost-effective platform is required for their routine screening. We developed Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) assays for discrimination of the wild-type alleles from the associated defective alleles at each of 8 common genetic defects in Holstein cattle, involving 5 SNP [HH1, HH3, HH4, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), and complex vertebral malformation (CVM)] and 3 insertion or deletion mutations [HH5, haplotype for cholesterol deficiency (HCD), and brachyspina (BS)]. A total of 390 cows from a Chinese Holstein herd were genotyped and the carriers identified at 7 of these 8 loci (except HH4), with the highest carrier frequencies found for CVM (10.5%) and HH1 (10.0%), followed by HH3 (2.6%), BS (2.1%), HCD (1.3%), HH5 (0.8%), and BLAD (0.5%). Surprisingly, 102 cows (26.2%) carried at least 1 of the 7 defective alleles. Our results demonstrate that these KASP assays are simple, rapid, and reliable for the detection of multiple genetic defects. The high carrier frequency of these genetic defects indicates an urgent need for routine molecular testing to eliminate the deleterious alleles from Chinese Holstein cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/veterinária , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
3.
Anim Genet ; 50(6): 749-752, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568573

RESUMO

Two clinical forms of ichthyosis in cattle have been reported, ichthyosis fetalis and congenital ichthyosis. Ichthyosis poses animal welfare and economic issues and the more severe form, ichthyosis fetalis, is lethal. A Shorthorn calf with ichthyosis fetalis was investigated and a likely causal missense variant on chromosome 2 in the ABCA12 gene (NM_001191294.2:c.6776T>C) was identified by whole genome sequencing. Mutations in the ABCA12 gene are known to cause ichthyosis fetalis in cattle and Harlequin ichthyosis in humans. Sanger sequencing of the affected calf and the dam confirmed the variant was homozygous in the affected calf and heterozygous in the dam. Further genotyping of 130 Shorthorn animals from the same property revealed an estimated allele frequency of 3.8%. The presented findings enable genetic testing for breeding and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Ictiose Lamelar/veterinária , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Ictiose Lamelar/genética
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 405-429, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590895

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are the outcome of complex interactions between the host, pathogen, and environment. After exposure to a pathogen, the host immune system uses various mechanisms to remove the pathogen. However, environmental factors and characteristics of pathogens can compromise the host immune responses and subsequently alter the outcome of infection. In this article, genetic and epigenetic factors that shape the individual variation in mounting protective responses are reviewed. Different approaches that have been used by researchers to investigate the genetic regulation of immunity in ruminants and various sources of genetic information are discussed.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Ruminantes/genética , Ruminantes/imunologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Epigênese Genética , /imunologia
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10030-10038, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521347

RESUMO

Incidences of ketosis, metritis, mastitis, and retained placenta were studied in Israeli Holstein cows calving between 2008 and 2017. These diseases were selected based on their economic impact. Ketosis, metritis, and retained placenta were scored dichotomously. Mastitis was scored as absent, a single occurrence during the lactation, or more than 1 occurrence. Ketosis and metritis were recorded during the first 21 d after calving, retained placenta during the first 5 d after calving, and mastitis up to 305 d in milk. The effects of herd-year-season, calving age, month of calving, gestation length, and occurrence of dystocia were included in the first-parity analysis models. All effects were significant for metritis and retained placenta. For ketosis, all effects were significant, except for gestation length. For mastitis, only the effects of herd-year-season and calving age were significant. Variance components were computed by the multitrait animal model. The 4 diseases were analyzed jointly based on first-parity records, and each disease was analyzed separately for parities 1 to 3 with the different parities considered separate traits. The 4 disease traits in first parity were also analyzed jointly with the 6 major traits included in the Israeli breeding index: milk, fat, and protein production; somatic cell score; female fertility; and longevity. Heritability was highest for metritis and lowest for mastitis, but all heritabilities were <0.07, similar to previous studies. For all 4 diseases, genetic correlations among the first 3 parities were >0.65, and all residual correlations were <0.07. Selection of herd-years assumed to have more accurate recording of mastitis did not result in higher heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between the disease traits and milk, fat, and protein production were economically unfavorable, while correlations between the disease traits and somatic cell score, female fertility, and longevity were economically favorable. Expected genetic changes in the disease traits after 10 yr of selection with the current Israeli breeding index were all <1%, except for ketosis, which was predicted to increase by 1.5%. Inclusion of these traits in a proposed index with the disease traits constituting 7% of the index would result in only marginal improvements for the disease traits and adversely affect genetic gain for fat and protein production. Thus, inclusion of these traits in the breeding index cannot be justified economically.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Cetose/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/economia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Distocia/genética , Distocia/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Israel , Cetose/economia , Lactação/genética , Longevidade , Leite , Paridade , Fenótipo , Placenta Retida/economia , Gravidez
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9983-9994, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521359

RESUMO

The susceptibility of animals to periparturient diseases has a great effect on the economic efficiency of dairy industries, on the frequency of antibiotic treatment, and on animal welfare. The use of selection for breeding cows with reduced susceptibility to diseases offers a sustainable tool to improve dairy cattle farming. Several studies have focused on the association of distinct bovine chromosome 18 genotypes or haplotypes with performance traits. The aim of this study was to test whether selection of Holstein Friesian heifers via SNP genotyping for alternative paternal chromosome 18 haplotypes associated with favorable (Q) or unfavorable (q) somatic cell scores influences postpartum reproductive and metabolic diseases. Thirty-six heifers (18 Q and 18 q) were monitored from 3 wk before calving until necropsy on d 39 (± 4 d) after calving. Health status and rectal temperature were measured daily, and body condition score and body weight were assessed once per week. Blood samples were drawn twice weekly, and levels of insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor-I, growth hormone, and ß-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Comparisons between the groups were performed using Fisher's exact test, chi-squared test, and the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Results showed that Q-heifers had reduced incidence of metritis compared with q-heifers and were less likely to develop fever. Serum concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyrate were lower and insulin-like growth factor-I plasma concentrations were higher in Q- compared with q-heifers. However, the body condition score and withers height were comparable between haplotypes, but weight loss tended to be lower in Q-heifers compared with q-heifers. No differences between the groups were detected concerning retained fetal membranes, uterine involution, or onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, selection of chromosome 18 haplotypes associated with a reduced somatic cell score resulted in a decreased incidence of postpartum reproductive and metabolic diseases in this study. The presented data add to the existing knowledge aimed at avoiding negative consequences of genetic selection strategies in dairy cattle farming. The underlying causal mechanisms modulated by haplotypes in the targeted genomic region and immune competence necessitate further investigation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , Haplótipos , Período Pós-Parto , Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Lactação , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
7.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(3): 627-630, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560480

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to find out whether carriers of new lethal mutation in SDE2 gene occur in the population of Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls. Eighty seven bulls were included in the analysis. Bulls were selected as having in the pedigree known carrier of SDE2 mutation (bull Mountain USAM000002070579). All bulls were diagnosed by PCR amplification of 524 bp fragment of SDE2 gene followed by digestion of Bcc I restriction enzyme. Heterozygotes (carriers) were confirmed by sequencing. Each new carrier was used to trace another potential carriers among its offspring available in Polish Holstein Bull Repository Database. Among 87 bulls, 50 new SDE2 carriers were found. The study has shown that mutation in SDE2 gene causing early embryo mortality is already transmitted to Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. The results are sufficient to initiate the screening program to reveal new carriers and to avoid further spreading of SDE2 lethal mutation.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Perda do Embrião/veterinária , Animais , Perda do Embrião/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
8.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6543-6555, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545328

RESUMO

Mastitis, a major disease affecting dairy cows, is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Selenium (Se) can activate pivotal proteins in immune responses and regulate the immune system, and microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a key transcriptional regulator for inflammation-related diseases. We constructed the model of mouse mastitis in vivo and primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) in vitro, which were induced by S. aureus. Se content of the mammary was estimated using an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. Histopathological analysis was performed via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The mmu-miR-155-5p mimic was transfected in MMECs, and viability was determined through the MTT assay. Transfected efficiency was evaluated by qPCR and fluorescence staining. Cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-10 and TLRs were detected with qPCR. In addition, western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. The results demonstrated that a Se-supplemented diet improved the content of Se in mammary tissues. Histopathological studies indicated that the mammary glands were protected in the Se-supplemented group after S. aureus infection. Se-supplementation suppressed the production of MPO, mmu-miR-155, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and TLR2 and significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs in vivo and in vitro. All the data indicated that mmu-miR-155 played a pro-inflammatory role in our study, and Se-supplementation could suppress the expression of mmu-miR-155 to inhibit inflammation in S. aureus-induced mastitis in mice.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mastite/genética , Mastite/imunologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia
9.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 440-446, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an outbreak of Actinobacillus lignieresii was caused by one or multiple strains. METHODS: Nine isolates of A. lignieresii were obtained from the lymph nodes of 15 affected cattle from two farms to determine whether a single strain was involved. An enterobacterial repetitive insertion consensus sequence (ERIC) PCR was used for genotyping, and the repeats-in-toxin genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Isolates from the two farms belonged to two and three genotypes, with a total of four genotypes detected. Genes of the apxICABD operons of some strains had deletions in the apxIA (~697 bp) and in the apxID (~187 bp) genes. The toxin gene deletions and the ERIC PCR patterns suggested the involvement of different A. lignieresii genotypes. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that a unique genotype was associated with actinobacillosis on the two farms, confirming that this disease was associated with other contributing factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Actinobacillus/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Actinobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinobacillus/genética , Infecções por Actinobacillus/patologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência , Tasmânia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374089

RESUMO

Cattle with subclinical endometritis (SCE) are sub-fertile and diagnosing subclinical uterine disease remains a challenge. The hypothesis for this study was that endometrial inflammation is reflected in mRNA expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes. Transcriptome profiles were evaluated in healthy cows and in cows with SCE using circulating white blood cells (WBC) and endometrial biopsy samples collected from the same animals at 45-55 days postpartum. Bioinformatic analyses of microarray-based transcriptional data identified gene profiles associated with distinct biological functions in circulating WBC and endometrium. In circulating WBC, SCE promotes a pro-inflammatory environment, whereas functions related to tissue remodeling are also affected in the endometrium. Nineteen differentially expressed genes associated with SCE were common to both circulating WBC and the endometrium. Among these genes, transcript abundance of immune factors C3, C2, LTF, PF4 and TRAPPC13 were up-regulated in SCE cows at 45-55 days postpartum. Moreover, mRNA expression of C3, CXCL8, LTF, TLR2 and TRAPPC13 was temporally regulated during the postpartum period in circulating WBC of healthy cows compared with SCE cows. This observation might indicate an advantageous modulation of the immune system in healthy animals. The transcript abundance of these genes represents a potential source of indicators for postpartum uterine health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Endometrite/veterinária , Endométrio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/sangue , Endometrite/genética , Feminino , Leucócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 307, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The split spinal cord malformation (SSCM) is an uncommon congenital malformation of the vertebral canal in which parts of the spinal cord are longitudinally duplicated. In SSCM Type I, each spinal cord has its own dura tube. In the SSCM Type II, both parts of the spinal cord are surrounded by a common dura tube. CASES PRESENTATION: During the clinical examination one calf showed ambulatory paresis and 3 calves non-ambulatory paraparesis. Calf 4 additionally had a congenital tremor. The examination of calf 4 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a median hydrosyringomyelia at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. The caudal part of this liquid-filled cavity was split longitudinally through a thin septum. From there, the spinal cord structures duplicated with an incomplete division, so that the transverse section of the spinal cord appeared peanut-shaped and in each half a central canal could be observed. The pathological-anatomical examination after euthanasia showed a duplication of the spinal cord in the area of the lumbar vertebral column in all calves. The histopathological examination revealed two central lumbar vertebral column channels. The two spinal cord duplicates were each surrounded by two separate meninges in calf 2 (SSCM type I); in the other calves (1, 3, 4, and) the two central canals and the spinal cord were covered by a common meninx (SSCM type II). A pedigree analysis of calves 2, 3 and 4 showed a degree of relationship suggestive of a hereditary component. This supports the hypothesis of a possible recessive inheritance due to common ancestors, leading to partial genetic homozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical appearance of SSCM can vary widely. In calves with congenital paralysis SSCM should always be considered as a differential diagnosis. A reliable diagnosis intra vitam is possible only with laborious imaging procedures such as MRI. Further studies on the heritability of this malformation are necessary to confirm a genetic cause of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Medula Espinal/anormalidades , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vértebras Lombares , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Linhagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/congênito , Doenças da Medula Espinal/genética , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia
12.
J Appl Genet ; 60(3-4): 401-404, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468362

RESUMO

We previously showed that deregulation of PEG3 domain genes is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in cattle. Here, we carried out genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of foetal placenta in two IUGR and wild-type samples and identified a differentially methylated region (DMR) in intron 2 of MIMT1. Pyrosequencing on a larger sample size (n = 20) confirmed significantly lower (P < 0.001) MIMT1-DMR methylation in foetal and maternal placenta of IUGR than wild-type conceptuses. Our study demonstrates that small-scale whole-genome bisulphite sequencing can be used to identify epigenetic regulatory elements in a defined genome locus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Íntrons/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9107-9116, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400895

RESUMO

The dynamic interaction between the host and pathogens, along with environmental factors, influences the regulation of mammalian immune responses. Therefore, comprehensive in vivo immune-phenotyping during an active response to a pathogen can be complex and prone to confounding effects. Evaluating critical fundamental aspects of the immune system at a cellular level is an alternative approach to reduce this complexity. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine an in vitro model for functional phenotyping of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), cells which play a crucial role at all phases of inflammation, as well influence downstream immune responses. As indicators of MDM function, phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO-) production were tested in MDM of 16 cows in response to 2 common bacterial pathogens of dairy cows, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Notable functional variations were observed among the individuals (coefficient of variation: 33% for phagocytosis and 70% in the production of NO-). The rank correlation analysis revealed a significant, positive, and strong correlation (rho = 0.92) between NO- production in response to E. coli and S. aureus, and a positive but moderate correlation (rho = 0.58) between phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus. To gain further insight into this trait, another 58 cows were evaluated solely for NO- response against E. coli. The pedigree of the tested animals was added to the statistical model and the heritability was estimated to be 0.776. Overall, the finding of this study showed a strong effect of host genetics on the in vitro activities of MDM and the possibility of ranking Holstein cows based on the in vitro functional variation of MDM.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Macrófagos/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fagocitose , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 1-8, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266598

RESUMO

The identification of selection signature genes may help to detect genomic regions that underwent artificial selection and contributed to phenotypic diversity. The aim of this study, therefore, was to detect selection signatures in candidate genes and quantitative trait locus (QTL) for reproductive traits in a Nellore population being selected for sexual precocity. A total of 2035 Nellore heifers, sourced from breeding programs focused on sexual precocity, were used. Candidate genes and some specific QTL related to reproductive traits were chosen based on published literature and Animal QTL databases, respectively, for investigation whether these regions were affected by selection. Selection signature DNA sequences were detected in the selected regions using the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) methods. From 22,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the candidate genes and QTL, 17,312 SNPs generated 2756 haplotype blocks. A total of 7518 EHH tests were analyzed using haplotypes with a frequency of more than 25%, for which there were 39 tests that were significant for REHH (P<0.01). Selection signature DNA sequences were detected that contained several QTLs for important reproductive traits in cattle, suggesting that reproductive traits may have been affected by selection for sexual precocity in this population. Forty-six genes were located in the selection signature regions, whereas 24 genes participated in important biological processes or pathways that may underlie sexual precocity. These results indicate there are possible molecular mechanisms related to sexual precocity in the Nellore breed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Reprodução/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Puberdade Precoce/genética
15.
Theriogenology ; 138: 52-65, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301448

RESUMO

Cystic ovaries (CO) characterize a disorder frequently found in dairy cattle. However, despite the contributions by several researchers, the mechanism that leads to ovulatory failure has not yet been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the mRNA expression of bovine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)-164, VEGFA-164b and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) by real-time PCR and protein expression by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot in follicular fluid from dairy cows with spontaneous CO and in an experimental model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone. Results showed that both VEGFA isoforms and receptors were coexpressed in granulosa and theca interna cells and in follicular fluid of ovaries from all the groups evaluated. VEGFA-164, VEGFA-164b and VEGFR2 protein expression was higher in theca cells of persistent follicles from group P0 (expected time of ovulation) than in those from dominant follicles (as reference structure) from the control group (p < 0.05). Also, VEGFA-164 expression was higher in theca cells of cysts than in those of dominant follicles of the control group (p < 0.05). In follicular fluid, VEGFA-164 expression was higher in persistent follicles from group P5 (5 days of follicular persistence) than in the control, P0 and P15 groups, and higher in cysts than in dominant follicles from the control group (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence of an altered expression of VEGFA-164, VEGFA-164b and VEGFR2 during the formation of persistent follicles and cysts in cows. Together, these results evidence that early development of CO in cows is concurrent with an altered expression of these growth factors and that these alterations may contribute to the follicular persistence, angiogenic dysregulation and ovulatory failure found in cows with follicular cysts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Cistos Ovarianos/genética , Cistos Ovarianos/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Cisto Folicular/genética , Cisto Folicular/metabolismo , Cisto Folicular/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica , Cistos Ovarianos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/genética , Ovulação/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7556-7569, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229286

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ruminal epithelium activates a local inflammatory response following a short-term subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Seven ruminally cannulated, nonpregnant, nonlactating beef heifers, fed a baseline total mixed ration (TMR) with 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio, were used in a crossover design with 2 periods and 2 treatments: SARA and control (CON). Induction of SARA included feed restriction (25% of dry matter intake [DMI] for 24 h) followed by a grain overload (30% of baseline DMI) and provision of the full TMR; whereas, the CON group received the TMR ad libitum. Ruminal pH was recorded using indwelling probes, and ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration was measured daily following the challenge until d 6. Biopsies of ruminal papillae from the ventral sac were collected on d 2 and 6 after the grain overload. Transcript abundance of genes associated with acute inflammation was measured by quantitative real-time PCR, normalized to the geometric mean of 3 stable housekeeping genes. Target genes included toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA), prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 (PTGS1), PTGS2 transforming growth factor ß-1 (TGFB1), and 4 intermediate enzymes of leukotriene synthesis (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, LTA4H, and LTC4S). Protein localization and expression of TLR4 were quantified by image analysis of fluorescence intensity. Statistical analysis was performed using as a crossover design with fixed effects of treatment, day, and the treatment × day interaction with the random effect of day within period. Ruminal pH was below 5.6 for 4.5 h/d and below 5.8 for 6.9 h/d in the SARA group compared with 22 and 72 min/d, respectively, for CON. Ruminal LPS concentration peaked on d 2 in SARA heifers at 51,481 endotoxin units (EU)/mL compared with 13,331 EU/mL in CON. Following grain overload, small but statistically significant decreases in the transcriptional abundance of TLR2, TLR4, TNF, PTGS2, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP were seen in SARA versus CON heifers. A functionally relevant decrease in TLR4 expression in SARA heifers compared with CON was confirmed by a decrease in fluorescence intensity of the corresponding protein following immunohistofluorescent staining of papillae. The study results indicate a suppression of the inflammatory response in the ruminal epithelium and suggest that the response is tightly regulated, allowing for tissue recovery and return to homeostasis following SARA.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Epitélio/imunologia , Rúmen/imunologia , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/genética , Acidose/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/imunologia , Rúmen/química , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
17.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 372-375, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215050

RESUMO

In 2015, cholesterol deficiency (CD) was reported for the first time as a new recessive defect in Holstein cattle. After GWAS mapping and identification of a disease-associated haplotype, a causative loss-of-function variant in APOB was identified. CD-clinically affected APOB homozygotes showed poor development, intermittent diarrhea and hypocholesterolemia and, consequently, a limited life expectation. Herein, we present a collection of 18 cases clinically diagnosed as CD-affected APOB heterozygotes. CD-clinically affected heterozygotes show reduced cholesterol and triglyceride blood concentrations. The differences in total blood cholesterol and triglycerides between nine CD-clinically affected and 36 non-affected heterozygotes were significant. As only some APOB heterozygotes show the clinical CD phenotype, we assume that the penetrance is reduced in heterozygotes compared to the fully penetrant effect observed in homozygotes. We conclude that APOB-associated CD represents most likely an incomplete dominant inherited metabolic disease with incomplete penetrance in heterozygotes.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/deficiência , Dislipidemias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diarreia/veterinária , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Homeostase
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0214832, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226113

RESUMO

The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistently infected ruminants in initiating new outbreaks remains controversial, and the perceived threat posed by such animals hinders international trade in FMD-endemic countries. In this study we report longitudinal analyses of genetic and antigenic variations of FMDV serotype O/ME-SA/Ind2001d sublineage during naturally occurring, persistent infection in cattle and buffalo at an organised dairy farm in India. The proportion of animals from which FMDV RNA was recovered was not significantly different between convalescent (post-clinical) and sub-clinically infected animals or between cattle and buffalo across the sampling period. However, infectious virus was isolated from a higher proportion of buffalo samples and for a longer duration compared to cattle. Analysis of the P1 sequences from recovered viruses indicated fixation of mutations at the rate of 1.816 x 10-2substitution/site/year (s/s/y) (95% CI 1.362-2.31 x 10-2 s/s/y). However, the majority of point mutations were transitional substitutions. Within individual animals, the mean dN/dS (ω) value for the P1 region varied from 0.076 to 0.357, suggesting the selection pressure acting on viral genomes differed substantially across individual animals. Statistical parsimony analysis indicated that all of the virus isolates from carrier animals originated from the outbreak virus. The antigenic relationship value as determined by 2D-VNT assay revealed fluctuation of antigenic variants within and between carrier animals during the carrier state which suggested that some carrier viruses had diverged substantially from the protection provided by the vaccine strain. This study contributes to understanding the extent of within-host and within-herd evolution that occurs during the carrier state of FMDV.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/genética , Animais , Variação Antigênica , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação Puntual , RNA Viral/genética
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7536-7547, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178189

RESUMO

High blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and altered lipid metabolism are key characteristics of fatty liver in dairy cows. In nonruminants, the mitochondrial membrane protein mitofusin 2 (MFN2) plays important roles in regulating mitochondrial function and intrahepatic lipid metabolism. Whether MFN2 is associated with hepatic lipid metabolism in dairy cows with moderate fatty liver is unknown. Therefore, to investigate changes in MFN2 expression and lipid metabolic status in dairy cows with moderate fatty liver, blood and liver samples were collected from healthy dairy cows (n = 10) and cows with moderate fatty liver (n = 10). To determine the effects of MFN2 on lipid metabolism in vitro, hepatocytes isolated from healthy calves were used for small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of MFN2 or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of MFN2 for 48 h, or treated with 0, 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 mM NEFA for 12 h. Milk production and plasma glucose concentrations in dairy cows with moderate fatty liver were lower, but concentrations of NEFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were greater in dairy cows with moderate fatty liver. Dairy cows with moderate fatty liver displayed hepatic lipid accumulation and lower abundance of hepatic MFN2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). However, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) were more abundant in the livers of dairy cows with moderate fatty liver. In vitro, exogenous NEFA treatment upregulated abundance of SREBP-1c, ACACA, FASN, and DGAT1, and downregulated the abundance of PPARα and CPT1A. These changes were associated with greater lipid accumulation in calf hepatocytes, and MFN2 silencing aggravated this effect. In contrast, overexpression of MFN2-ameliorated exogenous NEFA-induced lipid accumulation by downregulating the abundance of SREBP-1c, ACACA, FASN, and DGAT1, and upregulating the abundance of PPARα and CPT1A in calf hepatocytes. Overall, these data suggest that one cause for the negative effect of excessive NEFA on hepatic lipid accumulation is the inhibition of MFN2. As such, these mechanisms partly explain the development of hepatic steatosis in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/enzimologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
20.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105047, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158343

RESUMO

Anaplasma marginale is the rickettsia which causes the bovine anaplasmosis. The distribution of A. marginale is both tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major surface protein 4 (MSP4) of this parasite was identified as an immunodominant protein. In this study, the full length of DNA encoding A. marginale MSP4 (AmMSP4) was cloned from the parasites. The open reading frame of msp4 coding sequence of Thailand strain is 849 bp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the msp4 coding sequence of A. marginale was highly conserved when compared with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The recombinant plasmid was further transformed into the BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL competent cells for over-expression of the recombinant major surface protein 4 of A. marginale (rAmMSP4). Sera from rabbit immunized with rAmMSP4 and from cattle infected with A. marginale were used to study the antigenicity of rAmMSP4 (35 kDa) and AmMSP4 (31 kDa). Both rAmMSP4 and AmMSP4 were recognized by these sera showing that recombinant and native AmMSP4 have conserved epitopes. Localization of Anaplasma parasites by immunofluorescence showed these parasites are distributed on both the membrane and the outside of infected erythrocytes. Regarding antigenicity, recombinant MSP4 could be used for immunodiagnostic purposes and as a possible vaccine candidate against anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/metabolismo , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/genética , Anaplasmose/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Filogenia , Coelhos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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