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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915902

RESUMO

E. granulosus is a cestode that causes Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide presence. The immune response generated by the host against the metacestode induces a permissive Th2 response, as opposed to pro-inflammatory Th1 response. In this view, mixed Th2 and regulatory responses allow parasite survival. Overall, larval Echinococcus infections induce strong regulatory responses. Fasciola hepatica, another common helminth parasite, represents a major infection in cattle. Co-infection with different parasite species in the same host, polyparasitism, is a common occurrence involving E. granulosus and F. hepatica in cattle. 'While it is known that infection with F. hepatica also triggers a polarized Th2/Treg immune response, little is reported regarding effects on the systemic immune response of this example of polyparasitism. F. hepatica also triggers immune responses polarized to the Th2/ Treg spectrum. Serum samples from 107 animals were analyzed, and were divided according to their infection status and Echinococcal cysts fertility. Cytokines were measured utilizing a Milliplex Magnetic Bead Panel to detect IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-18. Cattle infected only with F. hepatica had the highest concentration of every cytokine analyzed, with both 4.24 and 3.34-fold increases in IL-10 and IL-4, respectively, compared to control animals, followed by E. granulosus and F. hepatica co-infected animals with two-fold increase in IL-10 and IL-4, compared to control animals, suggesting that E. granulosus co-infection dampens the cattle Th2/Treg immune response against F. hepatica. When considering Echinococcal cyst fertility and systemic cytokine concentrations, fertile cysts had higher IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations, while infertile cysts had higher IL-10 concentrations. These results show that E. granulosus co-infection lowers Th1 and Th2 cytokine serological concentration when compared to F. hepatica infection alone. E. granulosus infections show no difference in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-18 levels compared with control animals, highlighting the immune evasion mechanisms of this cestode.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Equinococose/sangue , Equinococose/imunologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 268-270, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693251

RESUMO

Helminths have developed complex mechanisms to suppress the host immune response. These mechanisms may impair the host vaccine response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Toxocara spp. infection on the vaccine immune response to bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5). First, 30 heifers received two doses of an experimental BoHV-5 vaccine. At 42nd days after the primo vaccination the vaccine efficacy was evaluated, and the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies. Second, 20 Balb/c mice were divided into two groups, one infected with T. canis and the other without infection. After infection, both groups received two doses of vaccine. The vaccine immune response was assessed by BoHV-5 serum neutralization and splenic cytokines transcription by qPCR. All heifers positive for Toxocara spp. (40%) showed BoHV-5 SN titer ≤1:32, whereas heifers negative for Toxocara spp. (60%) had BoHV-5 SN titer ≥1: 128. Infected T. canis mice showed BoHV-5 SN titer ≤1:2, whereas mice not infected with T. canis BoHV-5 SN titer ≥1:8. Splenocytes from control mice stimulated with BoHV-5 had a significant (p < .05) mRNA transcription for the cytokines IL-12, IL-17, and IL-23, whereas the same cytokines were down-regulated in T. canis infected mice. These results suggest that Toxocara spp. infection may impair BoHV-5 immunization and should be considered for efficient herd immunization.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 5 , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Baço , Toxocaríase/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 186-193, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593863

RESUMO

1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is recognized as a potent immune-modulator which can fight against the pathogens via the activation of vitamin D3 receptors (VDRs), as well as stimulating various cytokines in infectious diseases. In the present study, because of the vitamin D3 has an appropriate immunomodulatory, the effects of this vitamin on the levels of pre-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been investigated in calves with experimental pasteurellosis. This study was experimentally carried out on 10 Holstein crossbred male calves (2-4 months) that were divided into two groups. Prepared Pasteurella multocida (3 × 109 CFU/mL) was inoculated in the trachea with a lavage catheter and then the treatment group was injected with 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol after confirming pneumonia. Blood sampling, clinical symptoms scoring and radiological evaluation were recorded for both groups at different time intervals. The prescription of, vitamin D3 to the treatment group caused a decline in clinical symptoms score and changed interstitial and alveolo-interstitial lung pattern to such a degree that it could recover in comparison with the control group. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and the chemokine (IL-8) showed a significant decrease in the treatment group while the concentration of IL-10 increased in the treatment groups following the vitamin D3 injection (P = .001). The evidence from the current study suggests that vitamin D3 exert the immunomodulatory effects in infectious diseases through the regulation of cytokines and activation of VDR pathways to produce antimicrobial peptides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurella/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8888, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483247

RESUMO

The Capripoxvirus genus includes three agents: Sheeppox virus, Goatpox virus and Lumpy skin disease virus. Related diseases are of economic importance and present a major constraint to animals and animal products trade in addition to mortality and morbidity. Attenuated vaccines against these diseases are available, but afforded cross-protection is controversial in each specie. In this study, groups of sheep, goats and cattle were vaccinated with Romania SPPV vaccine and challenged with corresponding virulent strains. Sheep and cattle were also vaccinated with Neethling LSDV vaccine and challenged with both virulent SPPV and LSDV strains. Animals were monitored by clinical observation, rectal temperature as well as serological response. The study showed that sheep and goats vaccinated with Romania SPPV vaccine were fully protected against challenge with virulent SPPV and GTPV strains, respectively. However, small ruminants vaccinated with LSDV Neethling vaccine showed only partial protection against challenge with virulent SPPV strain. Cattle showed also only partial protection when vaccinated with Romania SPPV and were fully protected with Neethling LSDV vaccine. This study showed that SPPV and GTPV vaccines are closely related with cross-protection, while LSDV protects only cattle against the corresponding disease, which suggests that vaccination against LSDV should be carried out with homologous strain.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Capripoxvirus/classificação , Capripoxvirus/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Proteção Cruzada , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Romênia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/classificação , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/classificação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108665, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402345

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis with a high global prevalence in dairy cattle. This disease causes significant economic loss in the dairy industry and has been challenging to control, as current diagnostic assays are low in sensitivity and specificity, and previously developed vaccines do not prevent infection and face regulatory concerns due to interference with bovine tuberculosis diagnostics. To remediate this issue, positive and negative immune markers were created in a MAP strain as a step towards a vaccine capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). A gene coding for an immunogenic protein (MAP1693c) in the MAP genome was replaced with a library of epitope-tagged immunogenic genes (pepA) via a stable allelic exchange method. These markers were evaluated in a calf infection trial, where Holstein-Friesian dairy calves were inoculated at two weeks of age with either the marked strain or the parent strain, or remained uninfected controls. Cellular immune responses to the markers were measured using an interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). There were no MAP1693c marker-specific differences in cellular immune responses between infection groups. A scrambled version of the HA (human influenza hemagglutinin) epitope, but not the actual HA epitope, induced a significant IFN-γ response in marker-infected calves compared to WT-infected and uninfected groups at 4.5 months post-inoculation. This scrambled HA epitope thus holds potential as a diagnostic tool as part of a DIVA vaccine for Johne's disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 149, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bavaria, a large federal state in Germany, has been declared free from infections with Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in 2011. To maintain this status the cattle population is monitored for antibodies against BoHV-1 regularly. Several years ago, infrequent but recurrent problems in this sero-surveillance were statistically put into correlation with the presence of antibodies against Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2). In Europe, BoHV-2 is primarily known as the agent causing bovine herpes mammillitis. However, very little information about BoHV-2 infections in Bavaria is available so far. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine BoHV-2 seroprevalences and to detect virus genomes in potential clinical samples. RESULTS: 6801 blood sera of healthy cattle from all over Bavaria were tested for antibodies against BoHV-2, revealing an overall seroprevalence of 5.51%. Interestingly, seroprevalences markedly varied between the North and the South of Bavaria, namely from 0.42 to 11.17%. Concurrently, the previously reported relation between the epidemiologically inexplicable sero-reactivities in BoHV-1 ELISAs and the presence of BoHV-2 infections were statistically corroborated in this study. To detect BoHV-2 genomes a fast and sensitive real time PCR was established. Using a multiple PCR strategy, tissue samples from skin lesions at relevant localizations, corresponding lymph nodes, and trigeminal ganglia from 111 animals, as well as nasal swabs from 918 bovines with respiratory symptoms were tested. However, BoHV-2 genomes were not detected in any of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: BoHV-2 antibodies were found in samples from bovines all over Bavaria, albeit with an explicit South-North-divide. BoHV-2 genomes, however, could not be detected in any of the analyzed samples, indicating that acute clinical cases as well as obvious virus reactivation are relatively rare. Consequently, the future spread of BoHV-2 infections throughout Bavaria, particularly, after eradicating BoHV-1, has to be further monitored.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Alemanha , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1749-1757, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435857

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the vaccine-matching and antigenic properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from Ethiopia between 2011 and 2014. Samples (n = 51) were collected from cattle and pigs with clinical signs consistent with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) on farms in Debre-Berhan, Debre-Zeit/Bishoftu, Sidamo, Mekelle, and Addis Ababa. Infectious FMDV was isolated using BHK-21 cell cultures from 38 of the 51 field samples (74.5%). All of these FMDV-positive samples were characterized as serotype O, belonging to two East Africa topotypes (EA-3 and EA-4), and their VP1-encoding sequences demonstrated amino acid sequence variability encompassing 27 positions in comparison to the vaccine strain (O/ETH/38/2005) currently provided by the National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. One-dimensional virus neutralization test (1 dm VNT) results showed that O/ETH/38/2005 was antigenically matched to 10 of the 16 serotype O viruses. These findings indicate that the O/ETH/38/2005 vaccine strain can provide protection against outbreaks caused by the O/EA-3 topotype, although poorer vaccine-matching results for the O/EA-4 topotype reinforce the importance of using a good-quality vaccine with high coverage in the susceptible herds with supporting post-vaccination serosurveillance to ensure that sufficient antibody titers are generated in the vaccinated animals.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Etiópia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Variação Genética/imunologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Suínos
8.
Infect Immun ; 88(6)2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253247

RESUMO

The survival, replication, and virulence of mycoplasmas depend on their ability to capture and import host-derived nutrients using poorly characterized membrane proteins. Previous studies on the important bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis demonstrated that the amino-terminal end of an immunogenic 226-kDa (P226) protein, encoded by milA (the full-length product of which has a predicted molecular weight of 303 kDa), had lipase activity. The predicted sequence of MilA contains glycosaminoglycan binding motifs, as well as multiple copies of a domain of unknown function (DUF445) that is also found in apolipoproteins. We mutagenized the gene to facilitate expression of a series of regions spanning the gene in Escherichia coli Using monospecific antibodies against these recombinant proteins, we showed that MilA was proteolytically processed into 226-kDa and 50-kDa fragments that were both partitioned into the detergent phase by Triton X-114 phase fractionation. Trypsin treatment of intact cells showed that P226 was surface exposed. In vitro, the recombinant regions of MilA bound to 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid and to a variety of lipids. The MilA fragments were also shown to bind heparin. Antibody against the carboxyl-terminal fragment inhibited the growth of M. bovis in vitro This carboxyl end also bound and hydrolyzed ATP, suggestive of a potential role as an autotransporter. Our studies have demonstrated that DUF445 has lipid binding activity and that MilA is a multifunctional protein that may play multiple roles in the pathogenesis of infection with M. bovis.


Assuntos
Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma bovis/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise
9.
Infect Immun ; 88(5)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122940

RESUMO

Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD), an infectious disease of the bovine foot with a predominant treponemal etiology, is a leading cause of lameness in dairy and beef herds worldwide. BDD is poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy and exhibits a relapsing clinical course; an effective vaccine is therefore urgently sought. Using a reverse vaccinology approach, the present study surveyed the genomes of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups for putative ß-barrel outer membrane proteins and considered their potential as vaccine candidates. Selection criteria included the presence of a signal peptidase I cleavage site, a predicted ß-barrel fold, and cross-phylogroup homology. Four candidate genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), refolded, and purified. Consistent with their classification as ß-barrel OMPs, circular-dichroism spectroscopy revealed the adoption of a predominantly ß-sheet secondary structure. These recombinant proteins, when screened for their ability to adhere to immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM) components, exhibited a diverse range of ligand specificities. All four proteins specifically and dose dependently adhered to bovine fibrinogen. One recombinant protein was identified as a candidate diagnostic antigen (disease specificity, 75%). Finally, when adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide and administered to BDD-naive calves using a prime-boost vaccination protocol, these proteins were immunogenic, eliciting specific IgG antibodies. In summary, we present the description of four putative treponemal ß-barrel OMPs that exhibit the characteristics of multispecific adhesins. The observed interactions with fibrinogen may be critical to host colonization and it is hypothesized that vaccination-induced antibody blockade of these interactions will impede treponemal virulence and thus be of therapeutic value.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Dermatite Digital/imunologia , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Treponema/imunologia , Treponema/patogenicidade , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Virulência/fisiologia
10.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(3): 297-310, 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090674

RESUMO

There was a dearth of information on pathology and causal agents of bovine pneumonia in West Africa. This cross-sectional study conducted at four major metropolitan abattoirs in Nigeria and Ghana was to evaluate the pathology and to immunohistochemically demonstrates viral and bacterial pathogens of bovine pneumonia in West Africa. Out of the 20,605 cattle lungs examined at post-mortem using standard inspection procedures, 136 samples grossly showed pneumonic lesions and 99 randomly selected lung samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The overall prevalence of pneumonia was 0.66%, with 0.72% prevalence in Ibadan, Nigeria and 9.68% prevalence in Ghana. Age and breed were observed to be among the predisposing factors to pneumonia in cattle. Histologically, bronchopneumonia (0.65%), broncho-interstitial pneumonia (0.13%), and interstitial pneumonia (0.08%) were the prominent type of pneumonias observed. Immunohistochemically, 0.8% was positive for bovine PI-3, 0.9% for bovine RSV, 1.0% for Mannheimia haemolytica (MH), and 0.6% for Pasteurella multocida (PM). There were a few interactions of pathogens: PI3 and MH (0.01%), RSV and MH (0.01%), PM and MH (0.02%). This was the first study that immunohistochemically demonstrated bacterial and viral antigens in naturally occurring pneumonia in cattle in Nigeria and Ghana.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Gana , Imuno-Histoquímica , Nigéria , Pneumonia/diagnóstico
11.
Animal ; 14(S1): s44-s54, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024567

RESUMO

Aspects of neutrophil function are diminished or dysregulated in dairy cows in the weeks just before and after calving, which appears to be an important contributor to the occurrence of retained placenta, mastitis, metritis and endometritis. The timing and mechanisms by which specific elements of neutrophil function are impaired are only partially understood. Oxidative burst capacity is the element of neutrophil function most consistently shown to be impaired in the week after calving, but that observation may partially be biased because oxidative burst has been studied more than other functions. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the availability of calcium and glucose, and exposure to elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids or ß-hydroxybutyrate affect some aspects of neutrophil function. However, these factors have mostly been studied in isolation and their effects are not consistent. Social stressors such as a competitive environment for feeding or lying space should plausibly impair innate immune function, but when studied under controlled conditions such effects have generally not been produced. Similarly, treatment with recombinant bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor consistently produces large increases in circulating neutrophil count with modest improvements in function, but this does not consistently reduce the incidence of clinical diseases thought to be importantly attributable to impaired innate immunity. Research is now needed that considers the interactions among known and putative risk factors for impaired neutrophil function in dairy cows in the transition period.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos , Hipocalcemia , Lactação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Período Periparto , Placenta Retida/imunologia , Gravidez , Proteínas Recombinantes
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 159-171, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029181

RESUMO

This article summarizes the state of the art in vaccine research against parasitic helminths in sheep and cattle. Optimization of antigen production (eg, recombinant expression) and antigen delivery, followed by extensive field testing, is still required for further development of vaccines. Helminth vaccines should sufficiently reduce parasite transmission to protect vaccinated animals against parasite-induced disorders and production loss. Vaccine efficacy requirements depend on the parasite's epidemiology and farm management, both of which vary in different geographic regions and are influenced by climate. Vaccination is likely to be part of integrated worm control, together with other worm control measures.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(6): 2589-2602, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002597

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically significant disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by FMD virus (FMDV) of the Picornaviridae family. Vaccination of susceptible animals with inactivated virus vaccine is the standard practice for disease control. The prophylactic use of the inactivated vaccines has reduced the disease burden in many countries endemic to FMD. In the process of implementation of the mass vaccination program and disease eradication, it is essential to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) where a large proportion of the animal population is vaccinated, and disease-free zones are being established, to help in sero-surveillance of the disease. In such a scenario, the use of a negative marker vaccine is beneficial to rule out false-positive results in a disease-free zone. Here we report the construction and rescue of an infectious cDNA clone for FMDV serotype A Indian vaccine strain lacking 58 amino acid residues (87-144 amino acid position) in the carboxy-terminal region of the viral 3A protein. The recombinant deletion mutant virus showed similarity in the antigenic relationship with the parental strain. Immunization of guinea pigs with the inactivated vaccine formulated using the deletion mutant virus induced potent immune response with 100% protective efficacy upon challenge with homologous virus. Further, we show that sera from the guinea pigs infected with the deletion mutant virus did not show reactivity in an indirect ELISA test targeting the deleted portion of 3A protein. We conclude that the recombinant deletion mutant virus vaccine along with the newly developed companion indirect ELISA targeting portion of FMDV 3A protein could be useful in the implementation of a precise DIVA policy in our country when we reach FMD free status with vaccination.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Deleção de Sequência , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , DNA Complementar , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/classificação , Cobaias , Mutação , Sorogrupo , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 176: 104904, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066023

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide, causing intestinal infection to both humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the level of anti-C. parvum IgG antibodies transferred through colostrum from dams to newborn calves impacts the susceptibility to cryptosporidiosis. A number of 50 dams and their healthy newborns were included in the study. Colostrum samples were collected within 12 h after birth and anti-C. parvum IgG antibody levels were determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The health condition of the newborns was daily monitored, and fecal samples were collected at first diarrheic episode of a calf. In all dams, the anti-C. parvum IgG antibody concentration in colostrum varied between 570 and 4070 mg/dl; in dams who gave birth to calves with diarrhea and were C. parvum-positive, the antibody concentration in colostrum varied between 680 and 3680 mg/dl (Table 1). The point-biserial correlation showed a negative correlation between the levels of anti-C. parvum antibodies and manifestation of clinical cryptosporidiosis (r=-0.425). Our findings highlight the importance of IgG levels in colostrum received by neonatal calves during their first day of life for prevention of C. parvum infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Grécia
15.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940684

RESUMO

The major glycoproteins of bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) are gB, gH, gM, gL, and gp180 with gB, gH, and gp180 being the most glycosylated. These glycoproteins participate in cell binding while some act as neutralization targets. Glycosylation of these envelope proteins may be involved in virion protection against neutralization by antibodies. In infected cattle, BoHV-4 induces an immune response characterized by low neutralizing antibody levels or an absence of such antibodies. Therefore, virus seroneutralization in vitro cannot always be easily demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of 2 Argentine BoHV-4 strains and to associate those findings with the gene expression profiles of the major envelope glycoproteins. Expression of genes coding for the envelope glycoproteins occurred earlier in cells infected with isolate 10/154 than in cells infected with strain 07/435, demonstrating a distinct difference between the strains. Differences in serological response can be attributed to differences in the expression of antigenic proteins or to post-translational modifications that mask neutralizing epitopes. Strain 07/435 induced significantly high titers of neutralizing antibodies in several animal species in addition to bovines. The most relevant serological differences were observed in adult animals. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the expression kinetics of genes coding for BoHV-4 glycoproteins in 2 Argentine strains (genotypes 1 and 2). The results further elucidate the BoHV-4 life cycle and may also help determine the genetic variability of the strains circulating in Argentina.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 4/genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Proteínas Virais/análise , Animais , Argentina , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Cervos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 4/imunologia , Masculino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Transcrição Genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 9, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are common in postpartum dairy cows. Cortisol level has been observed to increase in dairy cows during peripartum period, and is associated with the endometrial innate immunity against pathogens like E.coli. However, the mechanism underlying how cortisol regulates E.coli-induced inflammatory response in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEEC) remains elusive. RESULTS: Cortisol decreased the expressions of IL1ß, IL6, TNF-α, IL8, and TLR4 mRNA in BEEC treated with LPS or heat-killed E.coli, but up-regulated these gene expressions in BEEC stimulated by live E.coli. CONCLUSION: Cortisol exerted the anti-inflammatory action on LPS- or heat-killed E.coli-stimulated BEEC, but the pro-inflammatory action on live E.coli-induced BEEC.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Escherichia coli , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endometrite/veterinária , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991915

RESUMO

Ticks transmit a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, parasites and viruses. Over the last decade, numerous novel viruses have been described in arthropods, including ticks, and their characterization has provided new insights into RNA virus diversity and evolution. However, little is known about their ability to infect vertebrates. As very few studies have described the diversity of viruses present in ticks from the Caribbean, we implemented an RNA-sequencing approach on Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from cattle in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Among the viral communities infecting Caribbean ticks, we selected four viruses belonging to the Chuviridae, Phenuiviridae and Flaviviridae families for further characterization and designing antibody screening tests. While viral prevalence in individual tick samples revealed high infection rates, suggesting a high level of exposure of Caribbean cattle to these viruses, no seropositive animals were detected. These results suggest that the Chuviridae- and Phenuiviridae-related viruses identified in the present study are more likely tick endosymbionts, raising the question of the epidemiological significance of their occurrence in ticks, especially regarding their possible impact on tick biology and vector capacity. The characterization of these viruses might open the door to new ways of preventing and controlling tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flaviviridae/genética , Flaviviridae/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Martinica , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia , Índias Ocidentais
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108544, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928696

RESUMO

Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana. The whole sampling and testing was organized and conducted by a veterinary school in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. Among sampled sheep (n = 102), goats (n = 66), and cattle (n = 1495), the seroprevalence rates were 25.8 %, 43.1 % and 55.8 %. For cattle, seroprevalence was significantly higher on larger farms (82.2 % vs 17.8 %, comparing farms with >50 or <50 animals; p = 0.027). Highest prevalence was seen in the Northern province with dry climate, but no significant trend following the north-south gradient of sampling sites was detected. Our study identifies a considerable seroprevalence for BCoV in Ghana and provides further support for the spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Lactação , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 69: 101422, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982851

RESUMO

The local expression of WC1+ γδ T lymphocytes subset has been evaluated by immunohistochemical methods at the different types of lesions present in cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) and in non-infected control animals. Infected cattle were either in the latent/subclinical (focal lesions) or clinical (diffuse paucibacillary and multibacillary forms) stage of paratuberculosis. To assess the cell distribution, a differential cell count was carried out at the lamina propria, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and submucosa. A significant increase in the number of WC1+ γδ T cells was observed in all the infected animals, regardless of the type of lesion. Cows with focal lesions showed higher number of labeled cells than those with diffuse forms, where no differences were found between the two types. This increase in the number of positively immunolabelled lymphocytes in infected animals was seen in the lamina propria, with higher values in those with focal lesions. While in the lymphoid tissue no differences in the numbers were observed, in animals with focal lesions, WC1+ γδ T cells tended to be located at the periphery of the granulomas. These findings suggest a proinflammatory action of WC1+ γδ T lymphocytes in bovine paratuberculosis, which might play an important role in the containment of the Map-infection in the focal granulomas located in the lymphoid tissue, helping to prevent the progression toward diffuse forms responsible for the clinical signs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Paratuberculose/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
20.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 220: 109988, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846797

RESUMO

Whole blood based assays, particularly interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs), are used for the diagnosis of both bovine and human tuberculosis (TB). The aim of the current study was to evaluate a panel of cytokines and chemokines for potential use as diagnostic readouts indicative of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in cattle. A gene expression assay was used to determine the kinetics of the response to M. bovis purified protein derivative and a fusion protein consisting of ESAT-6, CFP10, and Rv3615c upon aerosol infection with ∼104 cfu of M. bovis. The panel of biomarkers included: IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-22, IL-21 and IL-13. Protein levels of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were determined by ELISA. Findings suggest that CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-21, IL-13, and several acute phase cytokines may be worth pursuing as diagnostic biomarkers of M. bovis infection in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Citocinas/genética , Imunidade Celular , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL9/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Interferon gama , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina/sangue
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