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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100435, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862896

RESUMO

Faecal specimens from 36 scouring neonatal calves from two dairy farms located in the Al Ain region of the UAE were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Additionally, faecal smears were stained with modified-acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the VITEK 2 system plus Gram's stain used to identify bacteria isolated from the faecal samples. Farm management practices were also evaluated during a farm visit. Of the 36 calves, 29, 13, 5, and 6 were positive for C. parvum, E. coli K99, bovine coronavirus, and rotavirus antigens respectively, while 27 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In various combinations, mixed infections were detected in 20/36 calves. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤14-days-old scouring neonatal dairy calves from the UAE. Molecular characterization of these pathogens and nationwide epidemiological calf scour studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785524

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease that affects a range of animals, including humans caused by Fasciola hepatica. The present study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of bovine fasciolosis and to assess the correlation between the high Positivity Index (PI) and climate data and land altitude, from 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Condemned livers of slaughtered animals were obtained from 198 out of 293 municipalities and from 518.635 animals, exclusively from SC. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between the prevalence of F. hepatica and land altitude ( ρ ^ s = -0.43). The highest PI (above 10.1%) was observed in cities at 500 to 600 m (P < 0.01; ρ ^ s = -0.47) of altitude. There was no correlation between fascioliasis and rainfall in SC. It was determined that weather conditions in the past decade did not impose any limitation to the occurrence of the parasite, making it a disease of permanent clinical importance. These findings are essential to regions with similar geographical and climate conditions (i.e. altitude), when considering long-term control measurements, where animals and humans can be infected.


Assuntos
Altitude , Doenças dos Bovinos , Clima , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e001720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667499

RESUMO

In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Helmintíase Animal , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2965-2973, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661890

RESUMO

Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2563-2577, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548739

RESUMO

Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24-30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to modulate the host cellular cell cycle to successfully perform their intracellular development. As such, we recently demonstrated that T. gondii tachyzoites induce G2/M arrest accompanied by chromosome missegregation, cell spindle alteration, formation of supernumerary centrosomes, and cytokinesis impairment when infecting primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). Here, we follow a comparative approach by using the same host endothelial cell system for B. besnoiti infections. The current data showed that-in terms of host cell cycle modulation-infections of BUVEC by B. besnoiti tachyzoites indeed differ significantly from those by T. gondii. As such, cyclin expression patterns demonstrated a significant upregulation of cyclin E1 in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating parasite-driven host cell stasis at G1-to-S phase transition. In line, the mitotic phase of host cell cycle was not influenced since alterations of chromosome segregation, mitotic spindle formation, and cytokinesis were not observed. In contrast to respective T. gondii-related data, we furthermore found a significant upregulation of histone H3 (S10) phosphorylation in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating enhanced chromosome condensation to occur in these cells. In line to altered G1/S-transition, we here additionally showed that subcellular abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for G1 and S phase sub-stages, was affected by B. besnoiti since infected cells showed increased nuclear PCNA levels when compared with that of control cells.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2927-2934, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562064

RESUMO

The molecular prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in cattle were investigated. A total of 450 fecal samples were collected from cattle in three provinces of Central Anatolia from August 2017 to July 2019. Genomic DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and used in molecular analysis carried out by nested PCR analyses of the ß-giardin (bg) gene of G. duodenalis. Positive samples were further analyzed by nested PCR at two gene loci (triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)) for genotyping of G. duodenalis isolates. PCR analyses of the bg gene indicated that the overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 30.2%. However, lower rates were determined with PCR analyses for gdh and tpi loci. The sequence analyses of the bg, gdh, and tpi genes revealed the presence of zoonotic assemblage A and livestock-specific assemblage E. Combined-sequence analyses revealed that assemblage E was the most common in the study area. Our study provides the first data on the wide prevalence of livestock-specific assemblages E in cattle in Turkey. The prevalence of assemblage A in cattle also reveals the importance of cattle for zoonotic transmission of giardiasis in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535114

RESUMO

The chemical composition and acaricidal activity of plant-derived essential oils was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus were assessed for acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oils (EO) of plants were separated by hydrodistillation (three times) and analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). For bioassays, engorged females of R. microplus were exposed to C. citratus and C. nardus EO at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations; and to M. arvensis EO at 1%, 3%, and 5% for 5 min. The weight egg mass, nutrient index (N.I), egg production index (E.P.I), hatching and control rate were evaluated. Non-feed larvae of R. microplus were exposed to essential oils with 0.25%, 0.5%; 1%; 1.5% and 2% concentrations; the mortality rate was measured after 48 h. Only engorged females presented reduced biological activities (oviposition, E.P.I) after exposure to M. arvensis at 3%, when in comparison to both positive and negative controls. The hatchability of R. microplus larvae ranged from 66.9% (after exposure to C. nardus EO at 5%) to 99.2% (positive control). The nutrition index was lower (46.6%) for the exposure to M. arvensis EO at 5%. M. arvensis at 3% and 5% concentrations was significantly efficient for engorged females when compared to control (53.7% and 47.5%, respectively). C. citratus EO at 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations yielded better results in the larval packet test, causing 100% mortality. Nonetheless, C. nardus and M. arvensis EO at 2% yielded 66% and 39% mortality, respectively. The study showed that M. arvensis presented potential for the control of R. microplus engorged females while C. citratus and C. nardus presented potential as a larvicide.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cymbopogon/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Destilação/métodos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Dose Letal Mediana , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2411-2420, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533261

RESUMO

In Uganda, the role of ticks in zoonotic disease transmission is not well described, partly, due to limited available information on tick diversity. This study aimed to identify the tick species that infest cattle. Between September and November 2017, ticks (n = 4362) were collected from 5 districts across Uganda (Kasese, Hoima, Gulu, Soroti, and Moroto) and identified morphologically at Uganda Virus Research Institute. Morphological and genetic validation was performed in Germany on representative identified specimens and on all unidentified ticks. Ticks were belonging to 15 species: 8 Rhipicephalus species (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus afranicus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus simus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tropical lineage); 5 Amblyomma species (Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Amblyomma cohaerens, Amblyomma gemma, and Amblyomma paulopunctatum); and 2 Hyalomma species (Hyalomma rufipes and Hyalomma truncatum). The most common species were R. appendiculatus (51.8%), A. lepidum (21.0%), A. variegatum (14.3%), R. evertsi evertsi (8.2%), and R. decoloratus (2.4%). R. afranicus is a new species recently described in South Africa and we report its presence in Uganda for the first time. The sequences of R. afranicus were 2.4% divergent from those obtained in Southern Africa. We confirm the presence of the invasive R. microplus in two districts (Soroti and Gulu). Species diversity was highest in Moroto district (p = 0.004) and geographical predominance by specific ticks was observed (p = 0.001). The study expands the knowledge on tick fauna in Uganda and demonstrates that multiple tick species with potential to transmit several tick-borne diseases including zoonotic pathogens are infesting cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bovinos , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Uganda
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109120, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361525

RESUMO

The histological findings associated to Besnoitia besnoiti infection were exhaustively studied in target tissues from experimentally and chronically infected calves. Calves were inoculated with 106 bradyzoites via intravenous, subcutaneous and intradermal route. Visible pathognomonic sclera cysts were observed in all infected animals. Tissue cysts were more abundant and lesions were more frequent in calves inoculated via intradermal. The most parasitized tissues were skin, including scrotum (40.81% of positive samples), nostril and nasal turbinate. Tissue cysts were already fully developed as the average tissue cyst diameter was 181.20 µm. Microscopic lesions were mainly detected in skin samples, followed by reproductive and upper respiratory tracts. Mild lesions compatible with both acute (thrombus, oedema and inflammation) and chronic besnoitiosis (skin lesions, hyperkeratosis and dilated sweat glands) coexisted. Vascular damage and inflammation were more frequently observed in skin (including scrotum) followed by testicular parenchyma, epididymis and pampiniform plexus. Histological findings evidenced a subclinical chronic besnoitiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Coccidiose/patologia , Masculino
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107919, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442440

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle tick, is a major cause of economic losses in bovine production. Due to the widespread acaricidal resistance to commercially available products, as well as their toxicity and environmental impact, alternative control methods are required. Nanoformulations produced from plant extracts as bioactive substances are very promising as innovative acaricidal agents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent activity of Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil and its nanoemulsion against R. microplus, using larval repellent test (RT). The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The nanoemulsion was prepared with 5% essential oil, 5% tween 80, and 90% water, using the phase inversion method (50 mg/mL). Limonene was the major component (46.8%) of the essential oil, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and confirmed by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). According to the RT results, the essential oil had a repellent activity greater than 69%, from concentrations of 3.12 mg/mL (69.81 ± 10%) to 50 mg/mL (98.10 ± 0.6%), whereas the nanoemulsion at 50 mg/mL presented repellent activities of 97.14 ± 1.37% and 97.89 ± 0.52% 6 and 10 h after treatment, respectively. These values regarding to total repellency were very close to those calculated for mortality corrected by Abbott's formula. The phase inversion method preserved the chemical and physical characteristics of the essential oil since both reached an equal repellent effect at the same concentration. Therefore, P. spicatus essential oil and nanoemulsion had excellent repellent activities against R. microplus larvae, demonstrating its potential for future use as an alternative for tick control.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pilocarpus/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/análise , Modelos Lineares , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2257-2262, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458115

RESUMO

Bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis can suffer from sterility. There is limited information about the distribution of Besnoitia cysts and their associated lesions within the male genital organs. This work describes the gross and histological abnormalities in the genital organs of 6 bulls chronically infected with Besnoitia besnoiti, including both clinically (n = 4) and subclinically (n = 2) affected cases. Parasitic cysts were observed in the genital organs of all the clinically affected bulls. The tissue cysts were most commonly found within the pampiniform plexus (4/4), where they were often seen within venous vascular walls and associated with vasculitis, followed by epididymis (3/4), tunica albuginea (2/4), and penis (1/4). In decreasing order of their frequency, observed abnormalities included seminiferous tubule degeneration, testicular fibrosis, testicular necrosis, lack of/or diminished numbers of spermatozoa, testicular atrophy, and Leydig cell hyperplasia. Only one of the subclinically infected bulls had few Besnoitia cysts within the pampinoform plexus, which was associated to small areas of necrosis and mineralization in the ipsilateral testicle. Results indicate that Besnoitia cysts and genital abnormalities are frequent in bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis, while they are mild and scarce in subclinically affected ones. Moreover, present data show that Besnotia-associated testicular lesions can occur without the presence of cysts within the testicular parenchyma. B. besnoiti cysts seem to have a tropism for the vascular structures of the spermatic chord, which may cause testicular abnormalities via vascular damage, reduced blood flow, and/or impaired thermoregulation and subsequently lead to the observed testicular lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Sarcocystidae/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doença Crônica , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Genitália Masculina/parasitologia , Masculino , Encistamento de Parasitas
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e014919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267389

RESUMO

This study investigated the seropositivity for five different tick-borne agents, namely Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Trypanosoma vivax in beef cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal. The serum samples collected from animals (200 cows; 200 calves) were used in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA) to detect IgG antibodies against A. marginale, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. vivax, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for detecting IgG antibodies against C. burnetii and A. phagocytophilum. No correlation was observed between seropositivity for C. burnetii and A. phagocytophilum with other agents whereas moderate correlation was observed for A. marginalexB. bigemina x B. bovis. Cows were more seropositive for T. vivax whereas calves were more seropositive for B. bovis and B. bigemina. The highest number of seropositive animals by a single agent was observed for T. vivax (15.2%). Co-seropositivity for T. vivax + A. marginale was higher in cows (25.5%) and for T. vivax + B. bovis + B. bigemina + A. marginale was higher in calves (57.5%). The high seropositivity correlation for A. marginale x B. bovis x B. bigemina is probably due to the presence of the tick biological vector, Rhipicephalus microplus, in the studied farms. Common transmission pathways, mediated by hematophagous dipterans and fomites, may explain the high co-seropositivity of cows for A. marginale and T. vivax. Low seropositivity to C. burnetii is probably due to the type of breeding system employed (extensive). Seropositivity for A. phagocytophilum in only one animal suggests the occurrence of a cross-serological reaction with another agent of the genus Anaplasma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294720

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the importance of the Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in the genesis of cattle tick fever (CTF) among dairy calves in the northwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. A total of 15 calves with the classic symptoms of disease were examined, and the samples obtained were confirmed as a simple infection by A. marginale through semi-nested PCR. These results confirm bovine anaplasmosis as the primary cause of CTF among the calves of dairy cattle within the studied area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 186, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From a veterinary-medical point of view, the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is perhaps the economically most important blood-sucking muscoid fly species (Diptera: Muscidae), owing to its worldwide occurrence, frequently high local abundance, direct harm caused to livestock, pet animals and humans, as well as its vector role. Considering the latter in the context of protozoan parasites, the stable fly is a mechanical vector of trypanosomes and Besnoitia besnoiti. However, its role as a vector of piroplasms appears to be seldom studied, despite old data suggesting mechanical transmission of babesiae by dipteran flies. METHODS: In this study 395 stable flies (and one Haematobia stimulans) were collected at a cattle farm with known history of bovine theileriosis, and at further nine, randomly chosen locations in Hungary. These flies were separated according to sex (30 of them also cut into two parts: the head with mouthparts and the thorax-abdomen), followed by individual DNA extraction, then screening for piroplasms by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: In stable flies, Theileria orientalis and T. capreoli were identified at the cattle farm and T. equi was identified in three other locations. At the cattle farm, significantly more male stable flies carried piroplasm DNA than females. There was no significant difference between the ratio of PCR-positive flies between the stable (void of cattle for at least two hours) and the pen on the pasture with cattle at the time of sampling. Among dissected flies (29 S. calcitrans and 1 H. stimulans), exclusively the thoracic-abdominal parts were PCR-positive, whereas the head and mouthparts remained negative. CONCLUSIONS: Theileria DNA is detectable in stable flies, in the case of T. orientalis at least for two hours after blood-feeding, and in the case of T. capreoli also in the absence of infected hosts (i.e. roe deer). Male flies rather than females, and thoracic-abdominal (most likely crop) contents rather than mouthparts may pose a risk of mechanical transmission. These data suggest that it is worth to study further the vector role of stable flies in the epidemiology of theilerioses, in which not the immediate, but rather the delayed type transmission seems possible.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Muscidae/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário , Cervos/parasitologia , Feminino , Hungria , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Patologia Molecular/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 18S
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 316-322, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330281

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection of humans and, more commonly, ruminants. It is caused by 2 liver fluke species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which differ in size. The traditional morphological methods used to distinguish the 2 species can be unreliable, particularly in the presence of hybrids between the 2 species. The development of advanced molecular methods has allowed for more definitive identification of Fasciola species, including their hybrids. Hybrids are of concern, as it is thought that they could acquire advantageous traits such as increased pathogenicity and host range. In 2013, we collected flukes from Fasciola-positive cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in 4 Chadian abattoirs. DNA from 27 flukes was extracted, amplified, and analyzed to identify species using the ITS1+2 locus. Twenty-six of the 27 flukes were identified as F. gigantica, while the remaining fluke showed heterozygosity at all variable sites that distinguish F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Cloning and sequencing of both alleles confirmed the presence of 1 F. hepatica and 1 F. gigantica allele. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous, molecular demonstration of the presence of such a hybrid in a bovine in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Quimera/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Chade , Quimera/classificação , Sequência Consenso , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola hepatica/classificação , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1707-1712, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236710

RESUMO

Infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma causes considerable human and animal morbidity, mortality and economic loss to the livestock industry. Current diagnostic tools have limitations. In this study, we compared the sedimentation and filtration methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in livestock. A total of 196 faecal samples from cattle in Côte d'Ivoire were subjected to sedimentation and filtration for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasite infections. Schistosoma eggs or miracidia were discovered in 32 samples: 15 by filtration only, seven by sedimentation only, six concurrently by both methods and four by observing miracidia swimming on the sedimentation slide. The sensitivity of sedimentation and filtration was 41% and 66%, respectively. Cases with no Schistosoma eggs identified in the sediment but miracidia swimming on the slide indicate that eggs had hatched before microscopy. More accurate diagnostic are required for livestock schistosomiasis, in order to better understand the epidemiology and inform control and elimination efforts in livestock and human populations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Costa do Marfim , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Filtração , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Gado , Masculino , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 486-489, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242771

RESUMO

A 2-y-old Brahman bull was presented with progressive hindlimb ataxia and paraparesis that led to recumbency. Postmortem examination revealed scattered pinpoint, red-brown foci within the brainstem and gray matter of the spinal cord, and a larger lesion within the spinal cord at the level of T13. Histology of the section of T13 contained cross-sections of nematodes consistent with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Evidence of inflammation was present in other affected areas of the spinal cord and brain. DNA extraction and nested PCR were performed, which demonstrated 98% identity and 100% coverage to both P. tenuis and P. andersoni. Our case highlights the utility of DNA sequencing in parasite identification.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Ataxia/veterinária , Encéfalo/patologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 401-408, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306865

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion and important economic losses in cattle worldwide. There are no treatments or vaccines available; disease control is based on diagnosis and herd management strategies. We developed, validated, and evaluated under field conditions a competitive inhibition ELISA based on the truncated SAG1 protein (tSAG1), expressed in Escherichia coli, and the RafNeo5 monoclonal antibody (ciELISAtSAG1). A criterion based on the 3-y sequential serologic analysis of 230 dairy cows by IFAT was used as the gold standard. The assay was validated using 860 serum samples from cows that were consistently positive or negative by IFAT throughout the study period. ciELISAtSAG1 was then used to evaluate the prevalence of neosporosis in 16 beef cow herds (22 samples per herd, 352 total samples). The results were compared with those from IFAT and a commercial cELISA (cELISAVMRD). The ciELISAtSAG1 cutoff was ≥ 29%I, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.7% (95% CI = 96.8-99.7%) and a diagnostic specificity of 97.9% (95% CI = 96.4-99.0%). Concordance among IFAT, cELISAVMRD, and ciELISAtSAG1 was 90.3%. The agreement (κ) between ciELISAtSAG1 and the other 2 tests was ≥ 0.81. The overall prevalence of neosporosis in the 16 beef herds was 30% (range: 5-60%). The ciELISAtSAG1 could be useful for large-scale detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies in cattle and seroepidemiologic investigations, given its appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and the simplicity of production.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1353-1362, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157394

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variations among Neospora caninum, a cyst-forming protozoan parasite that is one of the main causes of bovine abortion in the cattle industry worldwide. Previous genetic studies based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping (MLGs) of different Ibero-American populations showed a high genetic diversity. These studies provided clear clues of a predominant clonal propagation in cattle and population sub-structuring partially associated with geographical origin. Although, these reports were limited to a reduced number of countries. In this study, the N. caninum isolates from aborted bovine fetuses and stillbirths and a goat abortion from Northern Italy were investigated genetically using 9 microsatellite markers. Complete or nearly complete isolate profiles were obtained from 30 fetuses and stillbirths. An extensive genetic diversity was also found in this Italian N. caninum population. The study of genetic relationships among Italian MLGs using network (eBURST) and principal component analyses based on the allele-sharing coefficient (PCoA) showed different clonal subpopulations disseminated throughout Northern Italy without apparent segregation depending on the geographic origin, cattle breed, or time of collection. The presence of linkage disequilibrium supports a predominant clonal propagation of Italian N. caninum. In addition, most of Italian MLGs segregated from other global populations including Spain, Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Germany, and Scotland, suggesting the existence of specific N. caninum subpopulations in the Northern Italy and different subpopulations of N. caninum circulating in Europe.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/genética , Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Variação Genética/genética , Geografia , Cabras/genética , Itália , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Neospora/classificação , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(4): 591-602, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180071

RESUMO

The intensive usage of chemical acaricides for the control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus has resulted in the development and establishment of multi-acaricide resistant populations. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is currently marketed in India for the management of this important veterinary tick species. Here, we tested Indian isolates of R. microplus which have developed multi-acaricide resistance, for their susceptibility to fipronil. Twenty-five field isolates from five agro-climatic zones of the country were collected and tested by adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). Sixteen isolates with resistance factor (RF) in the range of 1.56-10.9 were detected using LPT, whereas only 11 isolates with RF ranging from 1.05 to 4.1 were detected using AIT. A significant variation of RF between both tests was found, which raises doubt about the suitability of larva-based assays in screening of fipronil resistance. The data indicated possible cross-resistance between groups of acaricides in fipronil-resistant tick populations.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Pirazóis , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Bovinos , Índia
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