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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101753, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134061

RESUMO

Bovine babesiosis is economically the most important arthropod-borne disease of cattle worldwide. The most significant damage caused by bovine babesiosis is attributed to Babesia bovis due to its higher pathogenicity. This study aimed to develop a real-time PCR method followed by HRM (high-resolution melting) analysis for the simultaneous detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina, enabling a semi-quantitative analysis of Babesia levels using a single-tube reaction. The HRM was compared with real-time PCR using species-specific hydrolysis probes. The HRM analysis allowed to differentiate both Babesia species and was sensitive in the detection and differentiation of 10% for each Babesia species in the sample. Our results suggest the use of this method to estimate the prevalence of infections by B. bovis or B. bigemina as an alternative to the methods of absolute quantification by real-time PCR since it neither requires precise estimates of the number of DNA loads nor the construction of calibration curves. The simultaneous detection of the two Babesia species can be used to characterise the infection levels in cattle populations from different geographical regions, allowing a better control of these diseases.


Assuntos
Babesia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia bovis/genética , Babesia bovis/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101708, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175736

RESUMO

Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus have been eradicated from the United States and inspectors from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) monitor the quarantine zone along the Texas border to prevent the introduction of livestock carrying cattle fever ticks from Mexico. Stray livestock apprehended by CFTEP in the zone are checked for ticks and tested for infectious disease-causing pathogens but are not evaluated for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. We tested blood samples collected from stray cattle by CFTEP inspectors for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. As a comparison group representing U.S. resident cattle, we tested blood samples that had been sent to the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) for unrelated testing. Both sets of blood samples were evaluated using the same specific and broad-spectrum PCR assays. For the border cattle the overall prevalence of infection with one or more tick-borne pathogen was 58.5 % (79/135) with many co-infections, including 30 cattle positive for Babesia bovis and/or Babesia bigemina (22.2 %) and 77 cattle positive for Anaplasma marginale (57 %), three of these animals were also positive for Borrelia theileri. No resident cattle represented by the TVMDL samples were infected with either of the Babesia spp., or with Borrelia theileri, but three were positive for Theileria orientalis and 7.3 % (7/96) were positive for A. marginale. These data show that cattle originating in Mexico have a higher prevalence of infection with tick-borne pathogens relative to resident U.S. cattle and specifically, a proportion are infected with bovine Babesia, which is absent from U.S. cattle populations. Consequently, these stray cattle may be a reservoir of tick-borne pathogens and if populations of Boophilus ticks become reestablished in areas where they had previously been eradicated, could pose a significant risk to the U.S. Cattle industry.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Texas , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2533-2542, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146127

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis of public health and economic concern, is highly endemic in Sardinia, Italy. The study involved examining the intraspecific variability and demographic structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in common hosts of this parasite. Molecular surveillance included the fragment amplification of a partial mitochondrial gene, cox1 (750 bp), for a total of 69 isolates derived from sheep (n = 52), cattle (n = 11), pigs (n = 4), and goats (n = 2). It was ascertained that E. granulosus s.s. was the primary agent of infection among these ungulates and G1 genotype was highly prevalent (79.71%). Considerable intraspecific variation was found, revealing the existence of 22 haplotypes with relatively high haplotype (0.8555 ± 0.033) and low nucleotide diversities (0.00281 ± 0.00030). Population demographics indicated an expanding parasitic population signifying negative deviation from neutrality indices. Little genetic differentiation was found between the subpopulations of E. granulosus s.s. in the island. Moreover, the geographic dispersal of genotypes G1 and G3 also indicated similarity between Sardinian and mainland Echinococcus granulosus s.s. populations reaffirming the sympatric occurrence and efficient transmission of G1 and G3 genotypes. Molecular survey of CE has the potential to yield baseline information on the infective genotypes among the intermediate hosts and helps in devising suitable control strategies for curtailing the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Haplótipos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
4.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 108-112, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103286

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle in the Oguzlar district of Çorum province. Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of 100 cattle in the Oguzlar region and stored into anticoagulant-free tubes. Serum samples were examined with commercial c-ELISA kits for N. caninum (IDEXX, Switzerland) and B. besnoiti (ID.vet, France). Results: Two of serum samples were found to be N. caninum (2%) and five were B. besnoiti (5%) seropositive. No mixed infection was detected in any of serum samples. Conclusion: In this study, the presence of N. caninum and B. besnoiti was serologically determined in animals that are not imported in the Oguzlar region. This is the first study in the region to identify B. besnoiti in the seropositive cattle and is the third study in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 117-120, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103288

RESUMO

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence, seasonal distribution and economic effects of hydatid cyst infection in slaughtered cattle of Mugla province. Methods: Data from the 2019 records of the Mugla Metropolitan Municipal Abattoir were studied retrospectively. Both direct and indirect calculation methods were used to determine the economic losses incurred due to hydatid cyst. Results: Twenty-one out of 9.985 (0.21%) cattle were found to have been infected with hydatid cyst in 2019. The highest prevelance of infection was reported in February (1.17%), while no cases were observed in May, June and August. The direct economic loss attributed to liver destruction in Mugla province was 11,760 TL (1.950 $). The total indirect economic loss caused by hydatid cyst (carcass loss, milk production loss, decreased fecundity) was 122,691 TL (20,346 $). Cumulatively, the direct and indirect economic losses for hydatid cyst disease in Mugla province were 134,451 TL (22,296 $). Conclusion: According to our results, the prevalence of hydatid cyst in cattle of Mugla province was 0.21%, which was still lower than the average loss in Turkey in spite of the corresponding significant economic loss.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Equinococose/veterinária , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/economia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 429, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease and has a great general and economic health importance in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, this systematic and meta-analytic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran. METHODS: The present study was conducted as a systematic review and meta-analysis. The SID & Magiran, MEDLINE (PubMed), ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched with a view to selecting relevant research works. As a result, 31 articles published from April 1970 to April 2020 were selected. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data analysis was conducted within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA) v.3.0 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA) and Arc map (ArcGIS 10.3) software. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using the I2 test which value was 99% showing a high heterogeneity in the studies. The results of publication bias in studies were evaluated by the Egger test, which were not statistically significant (P = 0.144). The overall prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran is 13.9% (95%CI: 10.7-17.7%). The results of the meta-regression analysis indicate the increasing trend of the hydatid cyst prevalence with the increase of sample size and publication year (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study and the relatively high prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran, health policy makers should make effective decisions in this regard, and implement careful inspections and interventions by experts and health authorities.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gado , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009384, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048430

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne viral zoonosis endemic to parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Human cases are reported annually in South Africa, with a 25% case fatality rate since the first case was recognized in 1981. We investigated CCHF virus (CCHFV) seroprevalence and risk factors associated with infection in cattle and humans, and the presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma spp. ticks in central South Africa in 2017-18. CCHFV IgG seroprevalence was 74.2% (95%CI: 64.2-82.1%) in 700 cattle and 3.9% (95%CI: 2.6-5.8%) in 541 farm and wildlife workers. No veterinary personnel (117) or abattoir workers (382) were seropositive. The prevalence of CCHFV RNA was significantly higher in Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%) than in H. rufipes (0.2%) (P = 0.002). Seroprevalence in cattle increased with age and was greater in animals on which ticks were found. Seroprevalence in cattle also showed significant geographic variation. Seroprevalence in humans increased with age and was greater in workers who handled livestock for injection and collection of samples. Our findings support previous evidence of widespread high CCHFV seroprevalence in cattle and show significant occupational exposure amongst farm and wildlife workers. Our seroprevalence estimate suggests that CCHFV infections are five times more frequent than the 215 confirmed CCHF cases diagnosed in South Africa in the last four decades (1981-2019). With many cases undiagnosed, the potential seriousness of CCHF in people, and the lack of an effective vaccine or treatment, there is a need to improve public health awareness, prevention and disease control.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 185, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock slaughtered in Iran during the years 2015-2019 and estimate direct costs associated with organ condemnation due to these parasites. METHODS: Abattoir data from 413 abattoirs representing all 31 Iranian provinces were collected from the Iran Veterinary Organization. Infection prevalence was calculated per year at the province level. The Local Moran's I statistic was performed to evaluate spatial autocorrelation of animals positive at slaughter for the years 2015-2019. Direct costs associated with condemned livers were calculated for each parasitic condition, with costs associated with condemned lungs also included for CE. RESULTS: Overall prevalence values for the study timeframe were as follows: sheep and goat fascioliasis 1.56% (95% CI: 1.56-1.56%), cattle fascioliasis 3.86% (95% CI: 3.85-3.88%), sheep and goat dicrocoeliasis 4.63% (95% CI: 4.62-4.63%), cattle dicrocoeliasis 3.08% (95% CI: 3.07-3.09%), sheep and goat CE 5.32% (95% CI: 5.32-5.33%), and cattle CE 7.26% (95% CI: 7.24-7.28%). Northwest Iran had the highest prevalence of CE and fascioliasis. High infection areas for Dicrocoelium spp. included the provinces of Zanjan, Gilan, Qazvin, and Tehran, which are located in northern Iran. Direct economic losses for sheep and goat fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$13,842,759, US$41,771,377, and US$22,801,054, respectively. Direct economic losses for cattle fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$1,989,200, US$1,668,986, and US$2,656,568, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide valuable data for future monitoring of these important parasitic diseases in Iranian livestock. Disease control strategies are required to reduce the economic and public health impact of these platyhelminths.


Assuntos
Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dicrocelíase/economia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/economia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/economia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/economia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 66, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962666

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. The disease is characterized by the development of cystic structures inside viscera of the intermediate host, mainly liver and lungs. These cysts are formed by three layers: germinal, laminated, and adventitial layer, the latter being the local host immune response. Metacestodes that develop protoscoleces, the infective stage to the definitive host, are termed fertile, whereas cysts that do not produce protoscoleces are termed non-fertile. Sheep usually harbor fertile cysts while cattle usually harbor non-fertile cysts. Adventitial layers with fibrotic resolution are associated to fertile cysts, whereas a granulomatous reaction is associated with non-fertile cysts. The aim of this study was to analyze cellular distribution in the adventitial layer of fertile and non-fertile E. granulosus sensu stricto cysts found in liver and lungs of cattle and sheep. A total of 418 cysts were analyzed, 203 from cattle (8 fertile and 195 non-fertile) and 215 from sheep (64 fertile and 151 non-fertile). Fertile cysts from cattle showed mixed patterns of response, with fibrotic resolution and presence of granulomatous response in direct contact with the laminated layer, while sheep fertile cysts always displayed fibrotic resolution next to the laminated layer. Cattle non-fertile cysts display a granulomatous reaction in direct contact with the laminated layer, whereas sheep non-fertile cysts display a granulomatous reaction, but in direct contact with the fibrotic resolution. This shows that cattle and sheep cystic echinococcosis cysts have distinct local immune response patterns, which are associated to metacestode fertility.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Cistos/veterinária , Equinococose Hepática/veterinária , Equinococose Pulmonar/veterinária , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cistos/parasitologia , Cistos/fisiopatologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/fisiopatologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Equinococose Pulmonar/parasitologia , Equinococose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109435, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946031

RESUMO

Fascioliasis causes significant economic losses and is a constant challenge to livestock farmers globally. Fluke faecal egg counts (flukeFECs) are a simple, non-invasive method used to detect the presence of patent liver fluke infection. Many flukeFEC techniques exist but they vary in complexity, precision and accuracy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the egg recovery capabilities of two simple flukeFEC methods at different egg concentrations in two ruminant species, using artificially spiked faecal samples. We added Fasciola hepatica eggs to sheep and cattle faeces at 2, 5 10 and 20 epg and utilised the Flukefinder® (FF) and a simple sedimentation method (referred to as the Becker method) to investigate the effects of methods, species and egg density on egg recovery. We calculated the proportion of fluke eggs recovered using each technique, and determined the lowest reliable egg detection threshold of each flukeFEC method. The performance of the flukeFEC methods were also compared using faecal samples collected from naturally infected animals. The egg-spiking study revealed that both FF and the Becker sedimentation method are significantly more likely to recover eggs from cattle faeces than sheep (P < 0.001). Overall, FF recovered more eggs than the Becker method (P < 0.001), and importantly has a reliable low egg detection threshold of 5 epg in sheep and cattle. The kappa coefficient indicated a substantial agreement between FF and the Becker method in naturally infected faecal samples collected from cattle (0.62, P < 0.05) and a moderate agreement in sheep (0.41, P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that FF has a low egg detection threshold and therefore has promising potential for the future of on-farm liver fluke diagnostics.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109444, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991726

RESUMO

Lice are common production-limiting ectoparasites affecting livestock. Up-to-date data on their prevalence and spatial distribution on farms in Great Britain is important given that prevalence is believed to be increasing as a result of insecticide resistance. Here the prevalence of farms reporting lice, and factors associated with louse presence, were assessed using a retrospective questionnaire. For sheep and cattle farms, 16.1 % and 15.8 % reported lice on their livestock, respectively. Beef farms were more likely to report lice than dairy farms, with a prevalence of 18.0 % and 7.8 %, respectively. For sheep farms, prevalence was highest in Wales (27.7 %) and Scotland (22.4 %). For cattle farms, prevalence was highest in Scotland (27.6 %), Wales (18.5 %) and SW England (18.5 %). For sheep farms, statistical hotspot clusters were identified in Wales, NW England and SW Scotland, with prevalence in these areas ranging from 30.7 to 40.0%. For cattle farms clustering of cases was less evident. Multivariable analysis showed that significant factors associated with lice on sheep farms were larger flock sizes and geographic location (Scotland or Wales). For beef cattle farms, significant associated factors were larger herd sizes and upland grazing. More than 90 % of farms that reported lice, also reported treating for lice.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Hotspot de Doença , Fazendas , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Gado , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 292: 109394, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689962

RESUMO

Hypodermins A (HA), B (HB), and C (HC) of warble flies are modulatory antigens involved in host inflammation and immune responses during migration of the warble fly larvae through host connective tissues. In the current study, molecular characteristics of the genes encoding HA, HB, and HC were revealed from cDNA constructs of third-instar larvae of Hypoderma bovis. The open reading frame (ORF) of each hypodermin gene was amplified with modified gene-specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were cloned into pGEM-T Easy Vector to produce recombinant plasmids (rHA, rHB, and rHC). The ORF sequences of rHA, rHB, and rHC genes are 705 bp, 771 bp, and 783 bp long and encode proteins of 234, 256, and 263 amino acids with predicted sizes of 25.74 kDa, 27.79 kDa, and 28.51 kDa, respectively. The rHC gene was subcloned into the pET 100/D-TOPO Expression Vector, and the recombinant HC was purified using affinity chromatography. Western blotting indicated that rHC was recognized by the sera of cattle naturally infested with H. bovis. The rHC and a synthetic peptide (sHC) containing its linear B cell-specific epitope were evaluated as serological markers in indirect ELISA (iELISA) for the diagnosis of bovine hypodermosis. Both sHC and rHC iELISAs had sensitivity values equal to or higher than 90 % and specificity values of 100 %. A total of 200 serum samples from cattle in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were also analyzed by rHC and sHC-iELISAs to reveal the seroprevalence of bovine hypodermosis. The results of both iELISAs were consistent with one another and revealed a hypodermosis prevalence of 62 %. Our study provides the first data on molecular characterization of hypodermin genes of H. bovis and indicates the efficacy of recombinant antigen and peptide-based iELISA for serodiagnosis of bovine hypodermosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dípteros/genética , Miíase/veterinária , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/epidemiologia , Miíase/patologia , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Serina Endopeptidases/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 292: 109414, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752038

RESUMO

Dictyocaulus viviparus, the causative agent of bovine parasitic bronchitis, is an important parasite of dairy cattle. Infections can lead to substantial economic losses, due to mortality, reduced weight gain and milk production and treatment costs. There have been relatively few studies investigating herd management risk factors for infections with D. viviparus and lungworm-associated production losses. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the impact of (sub)clinical lungworm infections on productivity in dairy cows and, (2) to identify or confirm risk factors, related to herd management, for infections in grazing dairy cattle. Using a recombinant Major Sperm Protein (MSP)-based ELISA, the presence of D. viviparus antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples was evaluated on 717 and 634 farms at two-week intervals during two grazing seasons (2018 and 2019). Associations between milk antibody levels and production data (mean milk yield in kg/cow/day, percentage of fat and protein) were assessed, as well as associations with putative risk factors in the herd management, gathered through a questionnaire survey. In both years, there was a substantial, but non-significant, difference in the annual mean milk yield on farms with at least one BTM sample above the cut-off of 0.41 ODR, compared with the mean milk yield on farms that stayed under this threshold on each sampling day (-0.17 and -0.70 kg milk/cow/day in 2018 and 2019, respectively). In 2019, this association was stronger, and significant, when the cut-off was exceeded in at least two consecutive BTM samples (-1.74 kg milk/cow/day). BTM results were also significantly negatively associated with the closest milk production data during the two-weekly BTM sampling intervals in 2019. A single or two consecutive positive tests were used in the risk factor analysis as a proxy for lungworm-associated milk yield losses. Purchase of new animals (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.68) and the proportion of the first grazing season covered by preventive anthelmintic treatment (OR up to 3.88, depending on proportion) were positively associated with lungworm-associated milk yield losses, while mowing at least 50 % of the pastures (OR = 0.57) was negatively associated with lungworm-associated milk yield losses. Our results suggest that the ELISA holds promise to identify herds with significant production losses due to lungworm infections, under the condition that BTM sampling is done repeatedly during the grazing season. Based on the confirmed risk factors, adjustments of the farm management could perhaps mitigate these losses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Leite/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/patologia , Feminino , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1915-1919, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740119

RESUMO

This study reports the identification and first molecular characterization of Babesia occultans from naturally infected cows in Iran. Microscopic examination showed pyriform trophozoites, and ring-shaped merozoites (>2.5 µm) in Giemsa-stained blood smears obtained from two symptomatic cows in West-Azarbaijan province, Iran. PCR amplification of the partial 18S rRNA gene including the V4 hypervariable region were carried out on DNA extracted from blood samples. BLAST analyses of the partial 18S rRNA (approximately 400 bp) obtained from two cows revealed the presence of B. occultans and the detected sequences were identical to each other. Comparisons of the partial 18S rRNA sequence of the current isolate with other B. occultans sequences from Tunisia, South Africa, Turkey, Pakistan, and China confirmed the relation of the Iranian isolate to the species B. occultans. Sequence analysis of the obtained B. occultans showed 99.5-100% identity to the previously reported isolates. The sequences of B. occultans had 100% identity to a sequence obtained from ticks in Tunisia. This report is the beginning of a path to further research about B. occultans in vectors and reservoirs throughout Iran.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Bovinos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Carrapatos/genética
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009102, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735243

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease imposing significant impacts on livestock production and public health worldwide. India is the world's leading milk producer and Punjab is the state which produces the most cattle and buffalo milk per capita. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis to provide evidence for control of the disease in Punjab State, India. A cross-sectional study of dairy farms was conducted in humans and livestock in rural Ludhiana district using a multi-stage sampling strategy. The study suggests that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in cattle and buffalo in the study area with 15.1% of large ruminants testing seropositive and approximately a third of dairy farms having at least one animal test seropositive. In total, 9.7% of those in direct contact with livestock tested seropositive for Brucella spp. Persons that assisted with calving and/or abortion within the last year on a farm with seronegative livestock and people which did not assist with calving/abortion had 0.35 (95% CI: 0.17 to 7.1) and 0.21 (0.09 to 0.46) times the odds of testing seropositive compared to persons assisting with calving/abortion in a seropositive farm, respectively. The study demonstrated that persons in direct contact with cattle and buffalo in the study area have high risk of exposure to Brucella spp. Control of the disease in livestock is likely to result in benefits to both animal and public health sectors.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Búfalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Índia , Gado/microbiologia , População Rural , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1563-1570, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788020

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is an ixodid tick with a pantropical distribution that represents a serious threat to livestock. West Africa was free of this tick until 2007, when its introduction into Benin was reported. Shortly thereafter, further invasion of this tick species into other West African countries was identified. In this paper, we describe the first detection of R. microplus in Guinea and list the vector-borne haemoparasites that were detected in the invading and indigenous Boophilus species. In 2018, we conducted a small-scale survey of ticks infesting cattle in three administrative regions of Guinea: N`Zerekore, Faranah, and Kankan. The tick species were identified by examining their morphological characteristics and by sequencing their COI gene and ITS-2 gene fragments. R. microplus was found in each studied region. In the ticks, we found the DNA of Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia sp. The results of this study indicate that R. microplus was introduced into Guinea in association with cows from Mali and/or the Ivory Coast.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Animais , Babesia/genética , Benin , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Costa do Marfim , Ehrlichia/genética , Feminino , Guiné , Gado/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 102, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (southern cattle fever tick; SCFT), collectively known as cattle-fever ticks (CFTs), are vectors of protozoal parasites (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis) that cause bovine babesiosis (also known as cattle fever). One traditional strategy for CFT eradication involves the implementation of a "pasture vacation," which involves removing cattle (Bos taurus) from an infested pasture for an extended period of time. However, vacated pastures are often inhabited by wildlife hosts, such as white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), which can serve as alternate hosts for questing CFTs. We hypothesized that the distribution of host-seeking larvae among habitat types post-pasture vacation would reflect habitat use patterns of WTD, and in turn, affect the subsequent rate of pasture infestation by CFT. METHODS: We adapted a spatially explicit, individual-based model to simulate interactions among SCFT, cattle, and WTD as a tool to investigate the potential effects of WTD habitat use preferences on the efficacy of a pasture vacation. We parameterized the model to represent conditions typical of rangelands in south Texas, USA, simulated a 1-year pasture vacation under different assumptions regarding WTD habitat use preferences, and summarized effects on efficacy through (1) time post-vacation to reach 100% of pre-vacation densities of host-seeking larvae, and (2) the ecological conditions that resulted in the lowest host-seeking larval densities following pasture vacation. RESULTS: Larval densities at the landscape scale varied seasonally in a similar manner over the entire simulation period, regardless of WTD habitat use preferences. Following the removal of cattle, larval densities declined sharply to < 100 larvae/ha. Following the return of cattle, larval densities increased to > 60% of pre-vacation densities ≈ 21 weeks post-vacation, and reached pre-vacation levels in less than a year. Trends in larval densities in different habitat types paralleled those at the landscape scale over the entire simulation period, but differed quantitatively from one another during the pasture vacation. Relative larval densities (highest to lowest) shifted from (1) wood/shrub, (2) grass, (3) mixed-brush during the pre-vacation period to (1) mixed-brush, (2) wood/shrub, (3) grass or (1) wood/shrub, (2) mixed-brush, (3) grass during the post-vacation period, depending on WTD habitat use preferences. CONCLUSIONS: By monitoring WTD-driven shifts in distributions of SCFT host-seeking larvae among habitat types during simulated pasture vacation experiments, we were able to identify potential SCFT refugia from which recrudescence of infestations could originate. Such information could inform timely applications of acaricides to specific refugia habitats immediately prior to the termination of pasture vacations.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Texas
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 291: 109371, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621717

RESUMO

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica , Antígenos CD8/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , África Oriental , África Austral , Animais , Bovinos
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(6): 730-740, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590504

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of animals and humans caused by pathogenic Leptospira, which has major public health concerns. The study is aimed to express the recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) A-like protein (rLoa22) and transmembrane (rOmpL37) protein of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo in the Escherichia coli and their evaluation as a diagnostic antigen in the latex agglutination test (LAT) to detect anti-leptospiral antibodies in the sera of animals. The Loa22 and OmpL37 genes lacking signal peptide coding sequences were individually amplified (522 and 963 bp), by polymerase chain reaction, and directionally cloned into a pETite N-His Kan vector for expression. The expressed purified proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot, which confirmed leptospiral specific reactive protein with a molecular weight of ~19 and 36 kDa, respectively. The sensitized latex beads coated with these OM proteins separately were evaluated in LAT using cattle sera of microscopic agglutination test (MAT) confirmed positive (n = 53) and negative (n = 52) cases of leptospirosis. The rLoa22 LAT and rOmpL37 LAT revealed the relative diagnostic sensitivity of 94·34 and 96·23%, diagnostic specificity of 92·31 and 96·15% and accuracy of 93·33 and 96·19%, with the excellent agreement of Cohen's kappa value of 0·87 and 0·92, respectively. After extensive evaluation, this rapid recombinant protein-based field diagnostic test can be applied as a screening test for the detection of anti-leptospiral antibodies in the sera of animals in the field conditions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Testes de Fixação do Látex/veterinária , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Immunoblotting , Testes de Fixação do Látex/métodos , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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