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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929561

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disease complex and the leading infectious disease in post-weaned beef cattle. Clinical manifestations of BRD are recognized in beef calves within a high-risk setting, commonly associated with weaning, shipping, and novel feeding and housing environments. However, the understanding of complex host immune interactions and genomic mechanisms involved in BRD susceptibility remain elusive. Utilizing high-throughput RNA-sequencing, we contrasted the at-arrival blood transcriptomes of 6 beef cattle that ultimately developed BRD against 5 beef cattle that remained healthy within the same herd, differentiating BRD diagnosis from production metadata and treatment records. We identified 135 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the differential gene expression tools edgeR and DESeq2. Thirty-six of the DEGs shared between these two analysis platforms were prioritized for investigation of their relevance to infectious disease resistance using WebGestalt, STRING, and Reactome. Biological processes related to inflammatory response, immunological defense, lipoxin metabolism, and macrophage function were identified. Production of specialized pro-resolvin mediators (SPMs) and endogenous metabolism of angiotensinogen were increased in animals that resisted BRD. Protein-protein interaction modeling of gene products with significantly higher expression in cattle that naturally acquire BRD identified molecular processes involving microbial killing. Accordingly, identification of DEGs in whole blood at arrival revealed a clear distinction between calves that went on to develop BRD and those that resisted BRD. These results provide novel insight into host immune factors that are present at the time of arrival that confer protection from BRD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Doenças Respiratórias/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 690-701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704009

RESUMO

Our objectives were to evaluate the association of subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) dynamics with the risk of early lactation disease, removal, and milk production. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in 407 Holstein cows in 2 dairy herds in New York. Cows were stratified by parity group (144 primiparous, 263 multiparous) and classified into 1 of 4 groups based on postpartum plasma Ca concentrations previously associated with improved milk production or increased risk of disease: normocalcemic (NC; primiparous [Ca] >2.15 mmol/L at 1 and 2 d in milk, n = 67; multiparous [Ca] >1.77 at 1 d in milk and 2.20 mmol/L at 4 d in milk, n = 109); transient SCH (tSCH; primiparous [Ca] ≤2.15 at 1 d in milk and >2.15 mmol/L at 2 d in milk, n = 25; multiparous [Ca] ≤1.77 at 1 d in milk and >2.20 mmol/L at 4 d in milk, n = 50); persistent SCH (pSCH; primiparous [Ca] ≤2.15 mmol/L at 1 and 2 d in milk, n = 33; multiparous [Ca] ≤1.77 at 1 d in milk and ≤2.20 mmol/L at 4 d in milk, n = 34); or delayed SCH (dSCH; primiparous [Ca] >2.15 at 1 d in milk and ≤2.15 mmol/L at 2 d in milk, n = 19; multiparous [Ca] >1.77 at 1 d in milk and ≤2.20 mmol/L at 4 d in milk, n = 70). Evaluated outcomes were development of an adverse event [hyperketonemia (blood ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L at 3, 5, 7, or 10 d in milk), metritis, displaced abomasum, or herd removal in the first 60 d in milk] and average milk yield per day across the first 10 wk of lactation. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to analyze the adverse event outcome and generalized linear mixed models for milk yield analysis. Primiparous cows with tSCH were no more likely to have an adverse event than NC cows [risk ratio = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5 to 3.2], whereas multiparous cows tended to have a higher risk for an adverse event than NC cows (risk ratio = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.1). However, pSCH cows were 4.1 (95% CI = 2.1 to 7.9, primiparous) and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2 to 2.7, multiparous) times more likely, and dSCH cows 3.2 (95% CI = 1.5 to 7.0, primiparous) and 1.9 (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.6, multiparous) times more likely, to have an adverse event than NC cows. Primiparous and multiparous cows with tSCH made more milk per day than NC, pSCH, or dSCH cows across the first 10 wk of lactation. Primiparous cows averaged 28.5 ± 0.7, 31.9 ± 1.1, 29.7 ± 0.9, and 28.7 ± 1.2 kg/d, and multiparous cows averaged 44.6 ± 0.7, 49.1 ± 1.1, 46.4 ± 1.3, and 41.4 ± 0.9 kg/d for NC, tSCH, pSCH, and dSCH cows, respectively. Our results suggest that cows with tSCH adapt well to early lactation, develop fewer disease or removal events than pSCH or dSCH cows, and make more milk than NC, pSCH, or dSCH cows. Cows with pSCH or dSCH, regardless of parity group, are at an increased risk for early lactation disease or removal events.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hipocalcemia/sangue , Lactação/sangue , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Theriogenology ; 141: 128-133, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539641

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine if circulating concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) on day 24 of gestation can be utilized to diagnose pregnancy and embryo viability in beef cattle. Postpartum beef cows (n = 677) and heifers (n = 127) were exposed to a 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization protocol followed by fixed-time AI (FTAI) on day 0. Blood samples were collected at day 24 after TAI to assess circulating concentrations of PAG utilizing an in-house ELISA. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 and 100 days after FTAI via transrectal ultrasonography. Mean circulating PAG concentration at day 24 differed (P < 0.001) between animals diagnosed pregnant and non-pregnant at day 30 (1.69 ±â€¯0.10 ng/mL vs 0.30 ng/mL ±â€¯0.07 ng/mL; mean ±â€¯SEM; respectively). Pregnant heifers had increased PAG concentration at day 24 compared with pregnant cows (P < 0.01; 3.29 ±â€¯0.36 ng/mL vs 1.39 ±â€¯0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, serum concentration of PAG at day 24 ≥ 0.33 ng/mL in cows and ≥0.54 ng/mL in heifers was 95% accurate at determining pregnancy status at day 30. Heifers that experienced late embryonic mortality between day 30 and 100 of gestation had decreased circulating concentrations of PAG on day 24 (2.02 ng/mL ±â€¯0.73) compared with heifers that maintained an embryo until day 100 (3.69 ng/mL ±â€¯0.39; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in day 24 PAG concentration (P = 0.39) between cows that maintained or lost a pregnancy (1.31 ng/mL ±â€¯0.25 vs 0.92 ng/ml ±â€¯0.50). In summary, circulating PAG concentration on day 24 of gestation may be a useful marker for early pregnancy detection in beef cattle, and might be a potential marker for predicting embryonic loss.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Bovinos/sangue , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Paridade , Gravidez
4.
Theriogenology ; 141: 173-179, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550600

RESUMO

To investigate the association of health status and parity with hormone profiles during the transition period and reproductive parameters in Holstein dairy cows, a prospective observational cohort study was carried out including only healthy primiparous (PP, n = 116) and multiparous (MP, n = 172) cows at the beginning of the study. A subset of 120 healthy and sick cows was randomly selected for insulin, IGF-I, leptin and adiponectin determination. Primiparous cows had greater IGF-I and adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05) and tended (P=0.07) to have greater insulin concentrations than MP cows. While healthy and sick MP and sick PP cows presented a sharp decrease in IGF-I concentrations after calving, healthy PP cows maintained them. Postpartum adiponectin concentrations were lower in sick than in healthy MP cows. A greater percentage of healthy cows ovulated during the first 7 weeks after calving when compared to sick cows (67.9% vs 50%, P=0.002) and a similar trend was found for MP vs PP cows (64% vs 53%, P=0.01). More healthy cows were inseminated in comparison to sick cows (94% vs 76.5%, P < 0.01) and more PP than MP cows (90.4% vs 82.7%, P < 0.05). Similarly, healthy cows presented a greater proportion of pregnancy than sick cows (75% vs 54%, P < 0.01) and the proportion of pregnancy was higher in PP than in MP cows (74% vs 56%, P=0.04). Health status interacting with parity yielded different endocrine profiles, which may partially explain the differences in reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Paridade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Gravidez
5.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 1-15, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858882

RESUMO

Background: Displaced abomasum (DA) is a condition of dairy cows that severely impacts animal welfare and causes huge economic losses.Objective: To assess the metabolic status of the disease using metabolomics in serum, urine and liver samples aimed at both water soluble and lipid soluble fractions.Methods: Fifty Holstein multiparous cows with DA (42 left, 8 right) and 20 clinically healthy Holstein multiparous cows were used. Left DA was associated with concomitant ketosis in 19 animals and right in two. NMR-based metabolomics approach and hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. Statistical analysis was carried out on 1H-NMR data after they have been normalized using PQN method.Results: Contrary to generated PCA score plots the OPLS-supervised method revealed differences between healthy animals and diseased ones based on serum water-soluble samples. While water and lipid soluble metabolites decreased in serum samples, fatty acid fractions and cholesterol were increased in liver samples in DA affected cows. The metabolomic and chemical profiles clearly revealed that cows with DA (especially with LDA) were at risk of ketosis and fatty liver. Serum hippuric acid concentration was significantly higher in healthy cows in comparison with LDA, whereas serum glycine concentration was reported higher for healthy when compared to RDA affected animals.Conclusion: A biochemical network and pathway mapping revealed 'valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis' and 'phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis' as the most probable altered metabolic pathway in DA condition. Serum was advocated as the optimal biological matrix for the 1H-NMR analysis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Gastropatias/veterinária , Abomaso/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/urina , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Hipuratos/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metaboloma , Gastropatias/sangue , Gastropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastropatias/fisiopatologia
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 295-302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880874

RESUMO

The article presents data on serological studies of 573 sera samples of cattle that were collected from the farms affected by leptospirosis in different regions of Ukraine in the period of 2014-2015. Samples were investigated by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which was conducted within eight serological groups of Leptospira and nine serovars: Sejroe (serovars polonica and hardjo), Hebdomadis (serovar kabura), Tarassovi (serovar tarassovi), Pomona (serovar pomona), Grippotyphosa (serovar grippotyphosa), Canicola (serovar canicola), Icterohaemorrhagiae (serovar copenhageni), and Australis (serovar bratislava). The circulation of L. interrogans serovar hardjo among cattle has been observed in all 11 regions of Ukraine investigated within 25.8-60.0% of the leptospirosis-positive serum samples in these regions. Antibodies in the cattle sera against serovar hardjo (serogroup Sejroe) were detected in 139 of the 370 cows reacting positively in MAT. Overall, they were detected in 24.3% animals out of the total of 573 cows investigated. These are the preliminary results, however, in our opinion, they should allow to include the serovar hardjo in a standard panel of strains for MAT in Ukraine.The article presents data on serological studies of 573 sera samples of cattle that were collected from the farms affected by leptospirosis in different regions of Ukraine in the period of 2014­2015. Samples were investigated by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which was conducted within eight serological groups of Leptospira and nine serovars: Sejroe (serovars polonica and hardjo), Hebdomadis (serovar kabura), Tarassovi (serovar tarassovi), Pomona (serovar pomona), Grippotyphosa (serovar grippotyphosa), Canicola (serovar canicola), Icterohaemorrhagiae (serovar copenhageni), and Australis (serovar bratislava). The circulation of L. interrogans serovar hardjo among cattle has been observed in all 11 regions of Ukraine investigated within 25.8­60.0% of the leptospirosis-positive serum samples in these regions. Antibodies in the cattle sera against serovar hardjo (serogroup Sejroe) were detected in 139 of the 370 cows reacting positively in MAT. Overall, they were detected in 24.3% animals out of the total of 573 cows investigated. These are the preliminary results, however, in our opinion, they should allow to include the serovar hardjo in a standard panel of strains for MAT in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Ucrânia
7.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 279-283, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599554

RESUMO

A case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurred in a 4­month­old calf housed in a semi­intensive herd in central Italy is described. The herd was in strict cohabitation with a group of domestic sheep. The calf displayed clinical signs that resembled the acute form of MCF and, after a few days of antibiotic and anti inflammatory therapy, died in September 2016. The diagnosis was confirmed in vivo in blood by detection of ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA through real­time PCR. At necropsy, the gross post­mortem findings were typical of MCF and the histological and molecular assays confirmed the presence of the virus. The sheep flock was suspected to be the source of the infection. In Italy, as well as in Europe, there is little data regarding the epidemiology and the recurrence of the disease in herds of cattle, due to the lack of an active surveillance plan and to a major consideration of MCF between differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Febre Catarral Maligna/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Itália , Febre Catarral Maligna/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
8.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 313-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571732

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers with 2 doses of a killed-virus (KV) vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) on the serum concentrations of antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 in heifers and their calves and on the IgG concentration in the calves. Of the 47 pregnant beef heifers selected, 26 received 2 doses of the vaccine at 6.5 to 8 mo of gestation (at pregnancy check), and 21 received 2 doses of saline. The mean log2 serum titers of neutralizing antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 before vaccination did not differ significantly between the treatment groups; however, at calving all 3 mean titers were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated heifers than in the control heifers. At 24 h after birth the mean serum IgG levels in the calves did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, at 30.18 and 32.28 g/L, respectively (P < 0.05); however, the mean log2 serum titers of antibody to all 3 viruses were greater in the calves nursing colostrum from the vaccinated heifers than in the calves nursing colostrum from the nonvaccinated heifers and significantly so for BoHV-1 and BVDV-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Thus, late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers could result in a greater and more consistent deposition of specific antibodies in colostrum, reducing the variability of initial titers in calves and increasing the duration of maternal immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 369, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging bovine pathogen, leading to significant economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Infection can result in a variety of clinical signs, such as arthritis, pneumonia, mastitis and keratoconjunctivitis, none of which are M. bovis-specific. Laboratory diagnosis is therefore important. Serological tests to detect M. bovis antibodies is considered an effective indicator of infection in a herd and often used as a herd test. Combined with clinical judgement, it can also be used to implement control strategies and/or to estimate the disease prevalence within a country. However, due to lack of harmonisation of approaches to testing, and serological tests used by different laboratories, comparisons of prevalence data between countries is often difficult. A network of researchers from six European countries designed and participated in an inter-laboratory trial, with the aim of evaluating the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of two commercially available ELISA tests (ID Screen® ELISA (IDvet) and BIO K302 ELISA (BIO-X Diagnostics)) for diagnosis of M. bovis infection. Each laboratory received a blinded panel of bovine sera and tested independently, according to manufacturer's instructions. Western blot analyses (WB) performed by one of the participating laboratories was used as a third diagnostic test in the statistical evaluation of Se and Sp values using latent class analysis. RESULTS: The Se of WB, the ID Screen® ELISA and the BIO K302 ELISA were determined to be 91.8, 93.5 and 49.1% respectively, and corresponding Sp of the three tests were 99.6, 98.6 and 89.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to present an inter-laboratory comparison of the BIO K302 ELISA and the ID Screen® ELISA. Based on our results, the ID Screen® ELISA showed high consistency with WB and performed with higher precision and accuracy than the BIO K302 ELISA.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Animais , Western Blotting/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma bovis/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 367, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma ß-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and conjugated linoleic acid in postpartum Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF) cows. The experiment was carried out at an experimental dairy farm, where a herd of approximately 350 cows was kept. Samples were taken at six time points: between days 5-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35, and 36-42, resulting in 510 samples of both milk and blood. The cows involved in the experiment were divided into two groups - ketotic and healthy - by taking into account general health symptoms, blood serum BHBA, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration at 5-7 days postpartum. RESULTS: In the first week of lactation, at 5-7 day in milk (DIM), the study showed a 53% lower level of C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (CLA9) and an 80% lower level of C18:2 trans-10 cis-12 (CLA10) in cows with diagnosed ketosis compared to healthy cows. In the second week of lactation (8-14 DIM), a 34% lower level of CLA9 and a 54% lower level of CLA10 was found in the group of cows with BHBA levels > 1.2 mmol/L. Additionally, Pearson correlation analysis showed significant negative correlation between BHBA x CLA9 and BHBA x CLA10 in the first week of lactation: - 0.732and - 0.821, respectively. CONCLUSION: The study shows that that both CLA9 and CLA10 can be used as markers for the early diagnosis of elevated blood levels of BHBA in postpartum Polish Holstein-Friesian cows.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Leite/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/diagnóstico , Lactação/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo
11.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3459-3468, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659452

RESUMO

Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) is an emerging parasitic disease of cattle in Europe. This study reports a case of bovine besnoitiosis in a dairy farm housing 217 cattle in Italy. A serological screening was performed on the whole herd using the recommended approach of ELISA and confirmatory Western Blot. Seropositive animals were clinically examined to reveal symptoms and lesions of besnoitiosis. Risk factors and the effects of the parasite infection on reproductive and productive performances were evaluated. Histopathology and molecular analyses on tissues from a slaughtered cow affected by the chronic phase of the disease were carried out. An overall seroprevalence of 23.5%, which increased up to 43.5% considering only cows, was recorded. Clinical examination of 33 of the seropositive cows evidenced the presence of tissue cysts in at least one of the typical localizations (sclera, vulva, or skin) in 25 animals. Statistical analysis did not evidence any significative impact of the parasite infection on herd efficiency; however, a decrease of productive parameters was recorded in cows showing cutaneous cysts. Concerning the chronically affected cow, histopathology revealed B. besnoiti tissue cysts in the skin of the neck, rump, hind legs, eyelid and vulva, in the muzzle, in mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract, and in the lungs. Parasite DNA was detected also in masseter muscles, tonsils, mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, cardiac muscle, aorta wall, ovaries, uterus, and vulva. Bovine besnoitiosis continues to spread in the Italian cattle population. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of this parasitic disease, and control programs should be developed based on surveillance through a diagnostic procedure including both clinical examination and laboratory tests.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodução , Sistema Respiratório/parasitologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Útero/parasitologia , Útero/patologia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10202-10212, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477288

RESUMO

Acute abdominal emergencies in calves due to abomasal disorders, gastrointestinal ileus, or peritonitis are characterized by a rapid disease progression and usually require immediate surgical intervention. Those conditions are associated with a guarded prognosis, and the aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic relevance of preoperatively measured plasma l-lactate concentrations (l-LAC) in a large study population of calves with a broad spectrum of acute abdominal emergencies. For the purpose of this study, the medical records of 587 calves admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital over a 10-yr period were analyzed retrospectively. Plasma l-LAC was measured as part of a routinely performed biochemistry panel before initiation of surgical intervention. Hyper-l-lactatemia (plasma l-LAC >2.2 mmol/L) was evident in 75% of calves, and the overall survival rate until hospital discharge was 31%. Calves with a negative outcome were younger (median: 3.4 vs. 6 wk) and had higher plasma l-LAC (median: 4.96 vs. 3.09 mmol/L) than calves with a positive outcome. At the individual diagnosis level, l-LAC was associated with mortality in calves with a diagnosis of mesenteric torsion, right-sided dilated abomasum, small intestinal volvulus, or paralytic ileus, but not in calves suffering from peritonitis, malformations, abomasal volvulus, bloat, or small intestinal intussusceptions. Considering the whole study population, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for plasma l-LAC was 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.70]. A classification tree analysis indicated that l-LAC >8.84 mmol/L and age categories of <3 wk and <1 wk were independent predictors of mortality. The area under the ROC curve of this model was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71-0.79) and the resulting sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of nonsurvival at the optimal probability cut-point of 0.62 were 67.7 and 76.6%, respectively. In conclusion, hyper-l-lactatemia is common in calves suffering from acute abdominal emergencies. Markedly increased plasma l-LAC is associated with an increased mortality risk, but it is not possible to reliably predict the outcome of affected calves based on a single, preoperative measurement. However, a clinically important finding of this study was that the ability to predict a negative outcome is improved when the age of the calf is considered in addition to plasma l-LAC.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Peritonite/veterinária , Abomaso/cirurgia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Emergências/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Peritonite/mortalidade , Peritonite/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(3): 557-564, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560473

RESUMO

A negative energy balance is a common condition in high yielding dairy cows causing the production of ketone bodies (KB), including beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), defined as subclinical ketosis (SCK) if clinical signs are missing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a handheld electronic device for the detection of SCK (BHB-concentration > 1.2 mmol/l), in capillary blood and venous whole blood in cows (WellionVet BELUA, MED TRUST Handels GmbH, Marz, Austria) as well as the feasibility of the puncture of the external vulva with a single use lancet. For this purpose, the blood BHB-concentration was tested in 250 venous and capillary blood samples and compared to the results of a certified laboratory. The majority (76.3%) of the animals displayed no signs of discomfort related to the puncture and in 74.2% the procedure was successful on the first attempt. The BHB-concentrations detected in capillary blood showed good agreement with the reference method, both in capillary (correlation coefficient 0.94 (p⟨0.001), Kappa-value 0.89) and venous whole blood (correlation coefficient of 0.95 (p⟨0.001), Kappa-value 0.89). Altogether, 98% of all the samples were correctly classified as SCK or non-SCK by the handheld device in capillary blood (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.98) and 97.4% in venous whole blood (sensitivity 0.889, specificity 0.991), respectively. An increase in the correlation by the adaptation of the cut off level could not be achieved for both sampling sites.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Cetose/veterinária , Vulva/química , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cetose/diagnóstico
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 127-130, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479828

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether abnormalities in plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity reflect the degree of intestinal mucosal disorder in calves with diarrhea. A total of 50 Holstein calves were enrolled. Thirty-six of the 50 calves presented diarrhea and were sub-classified by severity based on fecal status (0: firm, 1: pasty, 2: loose, and 3: watery) and blood pH (acidemia: blood pH <7.25) as follows: Seventeen calves exhibiting watery diarrhea and/or fall into acidemia were sub-categorized into the severe group. The other nineteen calves exhibiting pasty or loose diarrhea and not fall into acidemia were sub-categorized into the moderate group. The remaining 14 calves without diarrhea were assigned to the control group. The plasma DAO activity was significantly lower (p < .01) in the calves with severe or moderate diarrhea than in the control group. In addition, the plasma DAO activity was significantly lower (p < .05) in the severe group than in the moderate group. The relationship between plasma DAO activity and fecal score (r = -0.55, p < .01) in calves with diarrhea were found to have significantly and negatively correlated by Spearman's rank test in this study. Our results suggested that plasma DAO activity reflect the degree of intestinal mucosal disorder due to diarrhea.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , D-Aminoácido Oxidase/sangue , Diarreia/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Acidose , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/patologia , Fezes
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10554-10563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495623

RESUMO

Ketosis is an important metabolic disease that can negatively affect the production efficiency of dairy cows. Earlier studies have revealed metabolic and inflammatory alterations in the blood associated with ketosis; however, a link between ketosis and hepatic inflammation has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were activated in the liver of ketotic cows. Liver and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15, control group) and ketotic (n = 15, ketosis group) cows that had a similar number of lactations (median = 3, range = 2 to 4) and days in milk (median = 6 d, range = 3 to 9 d). Results showed that serum levels of fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were higher and glucose was lower in ketotic cows. Concentrations of serum proinflammatory cytokines IL18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL1B were greater and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 was lower in the ketosis group. Cows with ketosis had triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver. Upregulation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB and p-inhibitor of κB (IκB)α protein abundance in cows with ketosis indicated that the hepatic NF-κB signaling pathway was overactivated. The mRNA abundance of TNFA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), IL18, and IL1B were greater and IL10 was lower in ketotic cows. More importantly, the mRNA and protein abundance of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (CASP1) along with CASP1 activity were greater in the liver of cows with ketosis. Overall, the data indicate that the onset of ketosis is accompanied by activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in a state of inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Domínio Pirina/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Cetose/metabolismo , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Regulação para Cima
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10129-10139, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495624

RESUMO

Partial least squares regression estimates of milk and blood constituents using Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FTIR) analysis have shown promise as a tool for monitoring early-lactation excessive energy deficit in dairy herds. Our objective was to analyze milk via FTIR to determine the association of early-lactation predicted milk ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations, predicted blood nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and predicted milk de novo fatty acid (FA) percentages relative to total FA concentrations, with the risk of disease or removal in early lactation (hyperketonemia, displaced abomasum, metritis, culling, or death) and average daily milk yield during the first 15 wk of lactation. We enrolled 517 multiparous Holstein cows from 2 dairy farms in New York. Composite milk samples were collected twice weekly from 3 to 18 DIM for a total of 4 timepoints (T1, T2, T3, T4) and analyzed using FTIR spectrometry for milk BHB and FA composition and predicted blood NEFA. Blood samples were collected for hyperketonemia determination (BHB ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) using a handheld meter, and farm-diagnosed occurrence of disease or removal during the first 30 DIM and average daily milk yield during the first 15 wk of lactation were collected from herd management software. The incidence of disease or removal between 3 and 18 DIM was 20.2%. Explanatory models for disease or removal were developed for each predicted constituent of interest at each timepoint using fixed-effect multivariable Poisson regression. Repeated measures ANOVA models were developed for each predicted constituent to assess differences in average daily milk yield. For all timepoints, increased risk of disease or removal was associated with higher predicted milk BHB [relative risk (RR)T1 = 2.0; RRT2 = 3.4; RRT3 = 5.2; RRT4 = 9.1], higher predicted blood NEFA (RRT1 = 2.7; RRT2 = 2.5; RRT3 = 3.8; RRT4 = 10.0), and lower predicted milk de novo FA relative percentages (RRT1 = 2.9; RRT2 = 3.3; RRT3 = 5.8; RRT4 = 7.2). Average daily milk yield was increased for cows above the cut point for predicted milk BHB (2.1 kg/d) and predicted blood NEFA (3.5 kg/d) and below the cut point for de novo FA relative percentages (2.3 kg/d). Our results suggest that FTIR-predicted milk BHB, blood NEFA, and milk de novo FA relative percentages are promising indicators of subsequent disease or removal in early lactation; their positive relationship with milk yield warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Leite/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/metabolismo , New York
17.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(4): 215-224, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485844

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate blood levels of various hormones and compounds related to energy metabolism in cows with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). We investigated 11 lactating cows presumed to have SARA based on duration of ruminal pH <5.6 and reticulum pH <6.3 in 2015-2016. Kraft pulp (KP) was used to supplement feed of 7 of the cows studied in an effort to reduce SARA. We continuously monitored ruminal pH and measured blood concentrations of hormones and metabolites related to energy metabolism. Blood measurements included glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), insulin, adiponectin (ADN), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Additionally, we analyzed milk data (milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen, and protein fat ratio) and reproduction data. The results demonstrated that ADN levels at 4 weeks post-parturition correlated with the total amount of time that the ruminal or reticulum fluid pH was under the threshold during 1 week post-parturition, as well as the numbers of days the cows were diagnosed with SARA (SARA-positive days) up to 30 days post-parturition. SARA-positive days in 2016 were higher than those in 2015. In both years, numbers of SARA-positive days for cows supplemented with KP were lower than those for cows without KP. Increased ADN levels may be a compensatory reaction to frequent SARA which modulates the inflammatory response against high LPS levels and improves insulin resistance caused by LPS. ADN may serve as an estimative index for SARA.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/veterinária , Gastropatias/veterinária , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/normas , Feminino , Rúmen/patologia , Gastropatias/sangue , Gastropatias/diagnóstico
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1385-1388, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366816

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to elucidate the utility of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and blood lactate concentration (bLac) measurement to diagnose cows with severe uterine torsion. We investigated the association of TRUS and bLac measurement with macroscopic findings on laparotomy for severe uterine torsion in nine cows. We found that an increased ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness (15-25 mm) and multiple hypoechogenic areas corresponded to macroscopic vascular compromise in the uterus on laparotomy. In addition, bLac was elevated (≥5.0 mmol/l) in cows showing uterine necrosis on laparotomy. A combined diagnostic approach with TRUS and bLac measurement enables assessment of the uterine vascular status and has utility for selecting the treatment option (including laparotomy) and predicting the outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Anormalidade Torcional/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Laparotomia/veterinária , Necrose , Gravidez , Anormalidade Torcional/sangue , Anormalidade Torcional/diagnóstico , Anormalidade Torcional/patologia , Doenças Uterinas/sangue , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico , Doenças Uterinas/patologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9285-9297, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400891

RESUMO

Most dairy cows experience a transient decrease in feed intake in the 1 to 2 wk before calving, which has been associated with systemic inflammation (SI), indicated by increased blood haptoglobin (Hp) concentration. We aimed to characterize the association between prepartum decrease in feed intake and the onset of SI and, if present, the ability of meloxicam (MEL), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to mitigate SI. Holstein cows (n = 45) were assigned to control (n = 13), feed restriction (FR) untreated (FR-U; n = 15), and FR treated with MEL (FR-T; n = 17) groups. Daily feed intake was measured from -22 d from expected parturition until 35 d postpartum. Control cows were fed ad libitum, whereas FR-U and FR-T cows were reduced to 60% of their average intake for 4 consecutive days (-15 to -12 d from expected calving). The FR-T cows received MEL (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) once daily for 4 consecutive days (-13 to -10 d from expected calving). Blood samples were collected -22, -15, -14, -13, -12, -10, -7, -5, -3, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, 22, and 35 d relative to calving to measure serum concentrations of total calcium, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, urea, glucose, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ß-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, Hp, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein were measured -22, -15, -14, -13, -12, and -10 d from expected calving. Simplified glucose tolerance tests were performed on -15, -12, -5, 1, and 5 d relative to calving. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess the effects of FR and MEL on each metabolite. The interaction between treatment group and blood sampling day was forced into each model. All models accounted for body condition score, parity, and the cow as a random effect. Nonesterified fatty acids concentrations in both the FR-U and FR-T groups significantly increased from the second until the last day of FR. Feed restriction increased urea concentrations compared with the control group on -14 d but decreased urea concentrations on -10 d from expected calving. Control cows had greater ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with FR cows on 15, 21, and 35 d postpartum. For all other metabolites, no differences were found. This model of FR produced substantial fat mobilization but based on serum Hp and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein concentrations did not generate measurable SI; therefore, we were unable to evaluate the ability of MEL to mitigate SI.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/dietoterapia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Lactação , Leite , Paridade , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
20.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374089

RESUMO

Cattle with subclinical endometritis (SCE) are sub-fertile and diagnosing subclinical uterine disease remains a challenge. The hypothesis for this study was that endometrial inflammation is reflected in mRNA expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes. Transcriptome profiles were evaluated in healthy cows and in cows with SCE using circulating white blood cells (WBC) and endometrial biopsy samples collected from the same animals at 45-55 days postpartum. Bioinformatic analyses of microarray-based transcriptional data identified gene profiles associated with distinct biological functions in circulating WBC and endometrium. In circulating WBC, SCE promotes a pro-inflammatory environment, whereas functions related to tissue remodeling are also affected in the endometrium. Nineteen differentially expressed genes associated with SCE were common to both circulating WBC and the endometrium. Among these genes, transcript abundance of immune factors C3, C2, LTF, PF4 and TRAPPC13 were up-regulated in SCE cows at 45-55 days postpartum. Moreover, mRNA expression of C3, CXCL8, LTF, TLR2 and TRAPPC13 was temporally regulated during the postpartum period in circulating WBC of healthy cows compared with SCE cows. This observation might indicate an advantageous modulation of the immune system in healthy animals. The transcript abundance of these genes represents a potential source of indicators for postpartum uterine health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Endometrite/veterinária , Endométrio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/sangue , Endometrite/genética , Feminino , Leucócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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