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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 161, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420064

RESUMO

Calf diarrhea is associated with enteric infections, and also provokes the overuse of antibiotics. Therefore, proper treatment of diarrhea represents a therapeutic challenge in livestock production and public health concerns. Here, we describe the ability of a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), to ameliorate diarrhea and restore gut microbial composition in 57 growing calves. We conduct multi-omics analysis of 450 longitudinally collected fecal samples and find that FMT-induced alterations in the gut microbiota (an increase in the family Porphyromonadaceae) and metabolomic profile (a reduction in fecal amino acid concentration) strongly correlate with the remission of diarrhea. During the continuous follow-up study over 24 months, we find that FMT improves the growth performance of the cattle. This first FMT trial in ruminants suggest that FMT is capable of ameliorating diarrhea in pre-weaning calves with alterations in their gut microbiota, and that FMT may have a potential role in the improvement of growth performance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diarreia/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bacteroidaceae/genética , Bacteroidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genômica , Masculino , Metabolômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2302-2307, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358158

RESUMO

In cattle with foot diseases, application of a block on the healthy partner claw is a common method of pain relief. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of wooden claw blocks on locomotion characteristics and weight distribution in healthy (group C; n = 17) versus lame (group L; n = 17) cattle. Group L was further subdivided into group L1 (lameness score ≤3; n = 7) and group L2 (lameness score >3; n = 10). We performed lameness scoring using a numeric rating system and measured locomotion characteristics using 2 accelerometers (400 Hz; kinematic outcome = stance phase duration; kinetic outcomes = foot load and toe-off) and a 4-scale weighing platform (difference of mean weight distribution across the limbs; ∆weight) before and after application of a claw block. We applied claw blocks to a randomly assigned lateral or medial claw of the fore or hindlimb in group C cows, and on the healthy partner claw in group L cows. Variables were expressed as differences across limbs. We used 1-way ANOVA to determine the differences between groups C and L and between groups L1 and L2 for ∆weight after application of the claw block. We performed paired t tests to compare variables before and after application of the claw block in groups C and L. Group L scored higher on the numeric rating system than group C (mean ± SD, 3.40 ± 0.62 vs. 1.87 ± 0.28) and showed greater differences in relative stance phase duration (16.34 ± 10.78% vs. 2.13 ± 1.94%), foot load (9.68 ± 8.06 g vs. 3.26 ± 3.69 g), toe-off (3.91 ± 3.14 g vs. 0.78 ± 0.66 g), and ∆weight (53.62 ± 28.85% vs. 8.52 ± 6.19%). In group C, we observed an increase of 12.17 percentage points in ∆weight after block application, from 8.52 ± 6.19% to 20.69 ± 17.01%. Compared with the baseline, group L showed a decrease in numeric rating system score (2.88 ± 0.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.62) and a decrease in differences between the limbs in relative stance phase duration (7.66 ± 9.96% vs. 16.34 ± 10.78%) and foot load (4.26 ± 4.14 g vs. 9.68 ± 8.06 g) after application of a claw block. Group L2 showed smaller ∆weight after application of a claw block than group L1 (-7.8 ± 8.7% vs. 10.4 ± 7.6%). After block application in group L, we observed smaller differences across the limbs in variables measured to describe gait-cycle characteristics while walking, but no significant improvement while standing. We concluded that application of a claw block must be combined with other methods of pain relief, such as analgesic medication.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Marcha , Membro Posterior , Locomoção , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
3.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877228

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 264, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal diarrhea remains one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in dairy calves under artificial rearing. It is often caused by infectious agents of viral, bacterial, or parasitic origin. Cows vaccination and colostrum intake by calves during the first 6 h of life are critical strategies to prevent severe diarrhea but these are still insufficient. Here we report the field evaluation of a product based on IgY antibodies against group A rotavirus (RVA), coronavirus (CoV), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. This product, named IgY DNT, has been designed as a complementary passive immunization strategy to prevent neonatal calf diarrhea. The quality of the product depends on the titers of specific IgY antibodies to each antigen evaluated by ELISA. In the case of the viral antigens, ELISA antibody (Ab) titers are correlated with protection against infection in calves experimentally challenged with RVA and CoV (Bok M, et al., Passive immunity to control bovine coronavirus diarrhea in a dairy herd in Argentina, 2017), (Vega C, et al., Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 142:156-69, 2011), (Vega C, et al., Res Vet Sci, 103:1-10, 2015). To evaluate the efficiency in dairy farms, thirty newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned to IgY DNT or control groups and treatment initiated after colostrum intake and gut closure. Calves in the IgY DNT group received 20 g of the oral passive treatment in 2 L of milk twice a day during the first 2 weeks of life. Animals were followed until 3 weeks of age and diarrhea due to natural exposure to infectious agents was recorded during all the experimental time. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that the oral administration of IgY DNT during the first 2 weeks of life to newborn calves caused a delay in diarrhea onset and significantly reduced its severity and duration compared with untreated calves. Animals treated with IgY DNT showed a trend towards a delay in RVA infection with significantly shorter duration and virus shedding compared to control calves. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that IgY DNT is an effective product to complement current preventive strategies against neonatal calf diarrhea in dairy farms. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the only biological product available for the prevention of virus-associated neonatal calf diarrhea.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/virologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunização Passiva/veterinária
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 2809-2816, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681447

RESUMO

Bovine coronaviruses are spread all over the world. They cause two types of clinical manifestations in cattle either an enteric, calf diarrhoea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, or respiratory in all age groups of cattle. The role of coronaviruses in respiratory infections is still a hot topic of discussion since they have been isolated from sick as well as healthy animals and replication of disease is rarely successful. Bovine coronavirus infection is characterised by high morbidity but low mortality. The laboratory diagnosis is typically based on serological or molecular methods. There is no registered drug for the treatment of virus infections in cattle and we are limited to supportive therapy and preventative measures. The prevention of infection is based on vaccination, biosecurity, management and hygiene. This paper will cover epidemiology, taxonomy, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, therapy, economic impact and prevention of coronavirus infections in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Bovino/fisiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/veterinária , Enterocolite Necrosante/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5422-5430, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331879

RESUMO

Hoof trimming is used to prevent and treat lameness in dairy cows; however, hoof trimming itself increases daily time spent lying down, possibly due to discomfort. We hypothesized that treatment of lame and nonlame cows with an anti-inflammatory analgesic drug at the time of hoof trimming would mitigate discomfort, thereby improving locomotion scores and reducing post-trimming increases in lying time. We further hypothesized that drug treatment would improve post-trimming milk production. Our objective was to determine the effects of treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg of BW) at the time of hoof trimming on locomotion, lying times, and milk production in lame and nonlame lactating dairy cows. All cows were filmed for locomotion scoring 1 d before and 1, 8, and 28 d after hoof trimming. Daily time spent standing and lying was recorded for 4 d before and 4 wk after hoof trimming, and daily milk production was recorded for 1 wk before and 8 wk after trimming. Thirty minutes before hoof trimming, an intravenous injection of flunixin meglumine (n = 34) or isotonic sterile saline solution (n = 34) was administered to each cow. Then, all cows had their hooves trimmed using the Dutch method. The same treatment was repeated 24 h after hoof trimming. Cows were categorized using baseline locomotion scores as lame (score ≥3/5) or nonlame (score <3/5). Drug treatment did not affect post-trimming changes in locomotion scores, daily lying times, or milk production. In both treatment groups, most cows had the same lameness status (lame or nonlame) at baseline and after treatment, and there was no difference between groups in the number of cows that changed lameness status over time. Lame cows (n = 21) had no significant changes in lying times over the course of the study, whereas nonlame cows (n = 47) had mean daily lying times that were significantly higher than baseline all 4 wk after trimming. Hoof trimming in nonlame cows should be scheduled for a time when increased lying behavior after trimming can be accommodated.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Casco e Garras , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Leite , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Clonixina/farmacologia , Feminino , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4822-4837, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113780

RESUMO

Prenatal heat stress during late gestation exerts long-term effects on growth and productivity of the dairy calf. Further, direct exposure to heat stress during the preweaning period impairs calf thermoregulation and performance. We examined the effects of heat stress abatement during the prenatal period, postnatal period, or both on calf performance. We hypothesized that calves exposed to pre- and postnatal heat stress abatement would perform most optimally in terms of thermoregulation, growth, and health responses when compared with calves that are heat-stressed at any time in the pre- or postnatal periods. Holstein calves born to heat-stressed (HT) or cooled (CL) dams during late gestation (44 ± 5 d; prenatal HT or CL) were exposed to heat stress or cooling postnatally for 56 d (postnatal HT or CL), resulting in 4 treatments: HT-HT, HT-CL, CL-HT, and CL-CL; n = 12/treatment. Calves were administered 4 L of pooled colostrum and after 2 d of age allotted 10 L/d milk replacer and up to 3 kg/d concentrate in automatic feeder group pens (n = 6/pen). Postnatal cooling was achieved by 2 fans (average wind speed 2 m/s). Thermoregulatory responses (respiration rate and heart rate; rectal, body, and skin temperature), feed intake, growth parameters including average daily gain and medication events were recorded, and blood samples were collected weekly. Thermoregulatory responses were lower in postnatal CL calves compared with postnatal HT. In the afternoon, HT-HT calves had the highest respiration rate and rectal temperature, HT-CL calves had the lowest respiration rate, and CL-HT calves had the lowest heart rate compared with the other treatment groups. Prenatal CL calves weighed more at birth and weaning with a tendency for greater average daily gain compared with prenatal HT calves, whereas postnatal CL calves had increased milk replacer and concentrate intake and a tendency for reduced fever, infection, and total medication events relative to postnatal HT. Prenatal HT calves were esophageal tube fed more often than prenatal CL. Blood hematocrit and 24-h serum IgG concentration were greater in prenatal CL calves relative to prenatal HT. Prenatal heat stress abatement improves weight gain, hematocrit, and immunoglobulin transfer, whereas postnatal heat stress abatement modulates thermoregulatory responses, feed intake, and calf health. This study is the first to characterize the combined effects of pre- and postnatal heat stress or active cooling on the dairy calf.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Baixa , Colostro , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Temperatura Alta , Leite , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 56-67, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174044

RESUMO

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/parasitologia , Portador Sadio , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/terapia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
9.
Vet J ; 255: 105424, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982079

RESUMO

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) in cattle is caused by ingested nails, pieces of wire, and other nonmetallic materials that injure the reticular wall. Clinical signs of acute TRP may include anorexia, fever, drop in milk production, rumen atony and tympany, abdominal pain, an arched back, a tucked up and "guarded" abdomen and spontaneous grunting, but may be obscure or absent in chronic cases. Haematological findings alone are not diagnostic, but total and differential white blood cell counts, the concentration of fibrinogen and total protein and the glutaraldehyde coagulation time may indicate inflammation associated with TRP. The clinical examination is aimed at eliciting a grunt in response to foreign body tests such as back grip, pole test or pain percussion. Inflammatory changes of the reticulum and adjacent organs and impairment of reticular motility are characteristic features of TRP and can be detected via ultrasonography. Radiography is the technique of choice for the visualisation of metallic foreign bodies and for monitoring the efficacy of a magnet. Treatment may be conservative or surgical, but in most cases initial treatment is conservative with administration of a magnet and antibiotics. If the cow fails to respond to medical treatment, surgical treatment is the next option other than euthanasia and ideally is carried out after imaging of the reticulum. If this is not feasible, a second magnet and continuation of antibiotic treatment is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Retículo , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Peritonite/etiologia , Peritonite/terapia , Peritonite/veterinária , Gastropatias/diagnóstico , Gastropatias/etiologia , Gastropatias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 898-901, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704019

RESUMO

Hoof lesions in dairy cows are usually treated by trimming the hoof. However, trimming by itself can cause severe pain or exacerbate already existing pain. Hoof trimming is usually not carried out by trained veterinarians, and pain management is not provided. Pain control during trimming is not only an ethical obligation but also allows for better manipulation and more meticulous treatment. Tri-Solfen (Bayer Animal Health, Pymble, Australia) is a spray gel containing lidocaine, bupivacaine, and cetrimide that is easily applied topically and has demonstrated pain-mitigation effects during and after hoof trimming. In the European Union, these local anesthetics are not approved for use in food-producing animals because of a lack of residue data and concerns about genotoxic effects in cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to assess lidocaine, bupivacaine, and 2,6-xylidine residues in milk after Tri-Solfen application in dairy cows. Five dairy cattle in the dry-off period were enrolled in the study based on clinical evidence of lameness (score ≥3 on a 5-point scale). After cleaning and superficial trimming, we applied 3 to 14 mL of Tri-Solfen to the lesions before continuing treatment. Two milk samples were collected per animal in the following 4 milkings and analyzed in a reference laboratory. Residues of lidocaine above the limits of quantification (0.2 µg/L) were found in milk samples in the first milking 6 h after treatment in only 2 cows. This study shows that excretion of local anesthetics and their metabolites in milk after topical application of Tri-Solfen is negligible and even undetectable after the first milking 6 h post-treatment.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/química , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras/patologia , Leite/química , Anestésicos Locais/farmacocinética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Casco e Garras/cirurgia , Leite/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/veterinária
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 108967, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812121

RESUMO

Neospora caninum infection is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortion in dairy cattle. To intervene in its spread, four potential controls including test-and-cull, medication, vaccination, and selective breeding are considered and assessed in this study. The cost of each control, together with the inevitable annual loss due to population dynamics, is adopted as an assessment criterion from an economic point of view. By performing simulation and sensitivity analysis, our results demonstrate that compared with each single control, combined controls are worthwhile with better financial outcomes. For farm affected with significant prevalence (equal to or greater than 30%), vaccine treatment is the most effective and economical option among all control strategies. On the other hand, for farm where prevalence is relatively low (around 10%), combined control, by applying vaccination followed with test-and-cull, medication or selective breeding, could be alternative treatment to provide better financial outcome against single control in an observed period.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Terapia Combinada/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Coccidiose/economia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/terapia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Neospora/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Vacinas Protozoárias
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11291-11297, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606214

RESUMO

Housing in hospital pens may be beneficial for lame cows due to soft flooring and less competition for resources. We compared recovery from lameness among dairy cows housed in designated hospital pens, with deep-litter straw, with recovery among cows housed together with the rest of the lactating cows in their home pens, with cubicles and slatted or solid concrete floors. Additionally, we compared lying behavior in the 2 groups of cows. A total of 168 lame dairy cows from 5 herds were included in the study. Each herd was visited once weekly, and lame cows (locomotion score 3 or 4 on a 5-point scale) were examined in a hoof-trimming chute, trimmed, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: housing in a hospital pen (termed "treatment"; 72 cows) or housing under the herds' standard conditions together with the rest of the lactating cows in the herd (termed "control"; 96 cows). Cows were locomotion scored weekly until they were no longer lame or until they had been part of the trial for 3 weeks (i.e., 2, 3, or 4 locomotion scorings per cow). We categorized cows to describe the progression of lameness over time: recovery (divided into fast, medium, or slow), improvement without recovery, constant lameness, or worsening of lameness. Lying behavior was recorded in a sample of 60 of the 168 cows for a period of 5 d. Overall, recovery from lameness was significantly different between treatment and control cows. The proportion of cows included in the study with locomotion score 4 and a subsequent improvement was significantly higher among treatment cows than among control cows. Among cows included with locomotion score 4, 40% of treatment cows also had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 46% had improved to a score 3, and 14% were no longer lame. In comparison, 73% of control cows had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 16% had improved to a score 3, and 11% were no longer lame. We found no differences between treatment and control cows for mean daily lying time, number of steps per day, number of daily lying bouts, or mean duration of lying bouts. Housing of lame dairy cows in a hospital pen with a soft surface, easier access to feed and water, a smaller group size, and reduced waiting time for milking may have positive effects on recovery from lameness. Typically, farmers have housed only severely lame cows in hospital pens. However, our results indicate that less severely lame cows may also benefit from a stay in a hospital pen.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Hospitais Veterinários , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Marcha , Hospitalização , Lactação , Locomoção , Leite , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11337-11348, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606222

RESUMO

Neonatal diarrhea remains the primary cause of mortality in dairy calves around the world, and optimal treatment protocols are needed. The main goals of therapy are to restore hydration and electrolyte concentrations, correct strong ion (metabolic) acidemia, and provide nutritional support. Administration of oral electrolyte solutions (OES) has long been the primary method used to treat neonatal diarrhea in humans and calves because OES are capable of addressing each of the primary goals of therapy. In calves with moderate dehydration, we hypothesized that oral electrolytes would be as good as or better than small volumes of intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) fluids. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to compare the ability of a commercially available oral electrolyte solution (OES) administered alone or in combination with hypertonic saline with small volumes of IV or SC fluid therapy to resuscitate calves with diarrhea. Thirty-three Holstein calves from 5 to 14 d of age were utilized in this clinical trial. Diarrhea and dehydration were induced by adding sucrose to the milk replacer. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone were given orally and furosemide intramuscularly. Depression status, clinical hydration scores, fecal consistency, and body weight were recorded at regular intervals. Treatment began when calves had severe diarrhea and had a decrease in plasma volume of at least 10%. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 8 to 9 calves per group: (1) OES; (2) OES with hypertonic saline (4 mL/kg, IV); (3) IV fluids (lactated Ringer's, 2 L); or (4) SC fluids (lactated Ringer's, 2 L). Treatments were given at 0 and 12 h. Changes in plasma volume, blood pH, electrolyte levels, and physical examination scores were determined before therapy and again at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after each treatment. All 4 treatments were ultimately successful in improving hydration as well as increasing blood pH; however, animals in both groups that received OES had much faster resuscitation than those in either the IV or SC fluid group. In conclusion, oral electrolyte products remain the gold standard for resuscitating diarrheic calves with moderate dehydration and acidemia and will likely perform better than small volumes of IV lactated Ringer's solution. Subcutaneous fluids by themselves are a poor treatment option and should be only be used as supportive therapy following the initial correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Hidratação/veterinária , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Desidratação/terapia , Desidratação/veterinária , Diarreia/terapia , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Fezes , Infusões Subcutâneas , Concentração Osmolar , Volume Plasmático , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem
14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223868, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603922

RESUMO

Hypomagnesaemic tetany (HypoMgT) in ruminants is a physiological disorder caused by inadequate intake or impaired absorption of magnesium (Mg) in the gut. If it is not detected and treated in time, HypoMgT can cause the death of the affected animal. A semi-structured questionnaire survey was conducted from July 2016-2017 to assess farmers' awareness of HypoMgT in cattle and sheep in the UK. The questionnaire was distributed to farmers at farm business events and agricultural shows, and through a collaborative group of independent veterinary practices to their clients. Farmers were asked about (i) the incidence of presumed HypoMgT (PHT); (ii) their strategies to treat or prevent HypoMgT; (iii) mineral tests on animals, forage and soil, and (iv) farm enterprise type. A total of 285 responses were received from 82 cattle, 157 mixed cattle and sheep, and 46 sheep farmers, of whom 39% reported HypoMgT in their livestock, affecting 1-30 animals. Treatment and/or prevention against HypoMgT was reported by 96% respondents with PHT and 79% of those without. Mineral tests on animal, forage, and soil was conducted by 24%, 53%, and 66% of the respondents, respectively, regardless of PHT. There was a highly significant association between the use of interventions to tackle HypoMgT and the incidence of PHT (p < 0.01). The top three treatment/prevention strategies used were reported as being free access supplementation (149), in feed supplementation (59) and direct to animal treatments (drenches, boluses and injections) (45) although these did vary by farm type. Although some (9) reported using Mg-lime, no other pasture management interventions were reported (e.g., Mg-fertilisation or sward composition). Generally, the results indicate that UK farmers are aware of the risks of HypoMgT. A more integrated soil-forage-animal assessment may improve the effectiveness of tackling HypoMgT and help highlight the root causes of the problem.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Tetania/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Incidência , Deficiência de Magnésio/complicações , Deficiência de Magnésio/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/terapia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tetania/induzido quimicamente , Tetania/epidemiologia , Tetania/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(10): 619-625, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In most cases, bovine recumbency (downer cow syndrome) is a complication of periparturient hypocalcemia, but may also be caused by other metabolic disorders, trauma, toxic mastitis or metritis. An important treatment measurement in the recumbent cattle is to bring the cow to its feet, in order to avoid quickly occurring secondary damage. Various lifting systems are on the market, such as a cow lift with a supporting harness or hip clamps. Such lifting systems are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. However, these techniques can cause secondary injuries and ischemic pressure damage. An alternative method is the use of a specially designed flotation tank. The buoyancy of the water gently lifts the cattle avoiding secondary, neuromuscular lesions. The success rate in the therapy of recumbent cattle can be significantly improved by the correct and early use of suitable lifting techniques. In this review, the most common lifting techniques for recumbent cattle are summarized.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes , Postura/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Hipocalcemia/complicações , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/efeitos adversos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/métodos , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/veterinária
16.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(10): 677-688, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contracture of the flexor tendons (CFT) is very common in calves and it is usually diagnosed within the first few days after birth (congenital flexural deformity). However, CFT can appear even in older calves caused by chronic pain. The aetiology of CFT is still unknown. In this study, the distribution of sex, age, breed, the severity of flexural deformity, concurrent presence of other diseases, applied treatment methods for flexural deformity, and the outcome of calves with CFT, which were examined at the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna from 2001 to 2016, were evaluated retrospectively. 93 calves were admitted with CFT in the observation period. 70 (75.3%) calves were male and 78 (83.9%) of the affected animals were Simmental calves. The age of calves with CFT varied from one day to 41 days. Twenty-six calves suffered exclusively from CFT, and CFT was diagnosed as an additional finding in 67 calves. 91 animals (97.8%) showed CFT on the front limbs, 79 of them (84.9%) on both front limbs. The distribution of the severity scores was as follows: 69 calves (74.2%) had score 1, 17 calves (18.3%) had score 2, three calves (3.2%) had score 3. Three additional calves (3.2%) had a score 1 CFT on one front limb and a score 2 CFT on the other front limb, and one additional calf showed all three scores on both front limbs and one hind limb. 69 patients (74.2%) could be discharged with a significant improvement in CFT after treatment and 24 calves (25.8%) had to be euthanized due to other severe diseases. The results of the applied pedigree analysis do not show that a single gene mutation is the cause for the development of CFT, but rather a complex hereditary pattern has to be assumed. Depending on the severity of CFT and the presence of other concurrent diseases, an early and consistent therapy has to be carried out to achieve the highest possible success. Since animals with CFT are usually restricted in their movement, sufficient colostrum intake must be ensured within the first hours of life.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/fisiopatologia , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/veterinária , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104767, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518830

RESUMO

Foot lesions causing lameness in dairy cows have been demonstrated to adversely affect milk yield, reproductive performance and longevity, resulting in significant economic burden to individual dairy farmers and the dairy industry. Further, foot lesions compromise dairy cow welfare. Despite this knowledge, foot lesions remain a large problem in many dairy herds woldwide. Therefore, there is potential for dairy farmers to make changes to their current management practices of foot lesions. This study used the social-psychology framework, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), to explore dairy farmers' intentions to make improvements to their current management practices of foot lesions in their dairy cows and to identify the underlying behavioral, normative and control beliefs facilitating and constraining this behavior. In accordance with the theoretical framework, Australian dairy farmers were invited to participate in an online questionnaire which included questions regarding intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Fifty-six dairy farmers completed the questionnaire. The overall intention of these dairy farmers to make improvements to their management practices of foot lesions in the next year was moderate. Dairy farmers believed improving their current management practices of foot lesions would improve animal welfare, increase milk production and was worth the cost involved (behavioral beliefs). They indicated that the opinions of consumers, staff, and animal welfare groups were important in their decision to make improvements (normative beliefs). Better equipment and facilities, improved knowledge and training, and a favorable cost-benefit ratio were perceived as factors that would enable dairy farmers to improve their management practices (control beliefs). While all of these beliefs may be considered as potential drivers to facilitate dairy farmers to change their management practices, the behavioral beliefs were identified as the priority beliefs that industry should target in the development of strategies to increase dairy farmer intentions to make improvements to their management practices of foot lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/psicologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Doenças do Pé/psicologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/complicações , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Humanos , Intenção , Coxeadura Animal/complicações , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10695-10710, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521355

RESUMO

Impaired fertility during periods of heat stress is the culmination of numerous physiological responses to heat stress, ranging from reduced estrus expression and altered follicular function to early embryonic death. Furthermore, heat-stressed dairy cattle exhibit a unique metabolic status that likely contributes to the observed reduction in fertility. An understanding of this unique physiological response can be used as a basis for improving cow management strategies, thereby reducing the negative effects of heat stress on reproduction. Potential opportunities for improving the management of dairy cattle during heat stress vary greatly and include feed additives, targeted cooling, genetic selection, embryo transfer and, potentially, crossbreeding. Previous studies indicate that dietary interventions such as melatonin and chromium supplementation could alleviate some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on fertility, and that factors involved in the methionine cycle would likely do the same. These supplements, particularly chromium, may improve reproductive performance during heat stress by alleviating insulin-mediated damage to the follicle and its enclosed cumulus-oocyte complex. Beyond feed additives, some of the simplest, yet most effective strategies involve altering the timing of feeding and cooling to take advantage of comparatively low nighttime temperatures. Likewise, expansion of cooling systems to include breeding-age heifers and dry cows has significant benefits for dams and their offspring. More complicated but promising strategies involve the calculation of breeding values for thermotolerance, the identification of genomic markers for heat tolerance, and the development of bedding-based conductive cooling systems. Unfortunately, no single approach can completely rescue the fertility of lactating dairy cows during heat stress. That said, region-appropriate combinations of strategies can improve reproductive measures to reasonable levels.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Reprodução , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Lactação , Reprodução/fisiologia
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