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1.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920821

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoV) are widely distributed pathogens of human and animals and can cause mild or severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Antigenic and genetic similarity of some CoVs within the Betacoronavirus genus is evident. Therefore, for the first time in Slovenia, we investigated the genetic diversity of partial 390-nucleotides of RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) for 66 human (HCoV) and 24 bovine CoV (BCoV) positive samples, collected between 2010 and 2016 from human patients and cattle with respiratory disease. The characterized CoV strains belong to four different clusters, in three separate human clusters HCoV-HKU1 (n = 34), HCoV-OC43 (n = 31) and HCoV 229E (n = 1) and bovine grouping only as BCoVs (n = 24). BCoVs from cattle and HCoV-OC43 were genetically the most closely related and share 96.4-97.1% nucleotide and 96.9-98.5% amino acid identity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coronavirus Humano 229E/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus Humano OC43/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Eslovênia
2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(11)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771782

RESUMO

Cattle are asymptomatic carriers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains that can cause serious illness or death in humans. In New Zealand, contact with cattle feces and living near cattle populations are known risk factors for human STEC infection. Contamination of fresh meat with STEC strains also leads to the potential for rejection of consignments by importing countries. We used a combination of PCR/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to evaluate the presence and transmission of STEC on farms and in processing plants to better understand the potential pathways for human exposure and thus mitigate risk. Animal and environmental samples (n = 2,580) were collected from six farms and three meat processing plants in New Zealand during multiple sampling sessions in spring of 2015 and 2016. PCR/MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that 6.2% were positive for "Top 7" STEC. Top 7 STEC strains were identified in all sample sources (n = 17) tested. A marked increase in Top 7 STEC prevalence was observed between calf hides on farm (6.3% prevalence) and calf hides at processing plants (25.1% prevalence). Whole-genome sequencing was performed on Top 7 STEC bacterial isolates (n = 40). Analysis of STEC O26 (n = 25 isolates) revealed relatively low genetic diversity on individual farms, consistent with the presence of a resident strain disseminated within the farm environment. Public health efforts should focus on minimizing human contact with fecal material on farms and during handling, transport, and slaughter of calves. Meat processing plants should focus on minimizing cross-contamination between the hides of calves in a cohort during transport, lairage, and slaughter.IMPORTANCE Cattle are asymptomatic carriers of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, which can cause serious illness or death in humans. Contact with cattle feces and living near cattle are known risk factors for human STEC infection. This study evaluated STEC carriage in young calves and the farm environment with an in-depth evaluation of six farms and three meat processing plants over 2 years. An advanced molecular detection method and whole-genome sequencing were used to provide a detailed evaluation of the transmission of STEC both within and between farms. The study revealed widespread STEC contamination within the farm environment, but no evidence of recent spread between farms. Contamination of young dairy calf hides increased following transport and holding at meat processing plants. The elimination of STEC in farm environments may be very difficult given the multiple transmission routes; interventions should be targeted at decreasing fecal contamination of calf hides during transport, lairage, and processing.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/fisiologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Feminino , Nova Zelândia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605388

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is considered to be one of the main causes of abortion among cattle. The present survey was conducted in the municipality of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State, Brazil. A questionnaire that investigates the epidemiological aspects of neosporosis was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with the animal-level and herd-level prevalence in dairy cattle. A total of 416 bovine blood samples were collected from 30 farms, and N. caninum antibody levels were measured by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Analysis of dairy cattle serum samples revealed the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies to be 47.36% (n = 197). Risk factors associated with N. caninum infection were the management system and access locations of dogs. The results of the present survey indicated that infection of dairy cattle with N. caninum is widespread in the studied region of Western Amazon, which has implications for prevention and control of neosporosis in this region. Therefore, integrated control strategies and measures are recommended to prevent and control N. caninum infection in dairy cattle. In addition, direct contact between dairy cattle, dogs and wild animals, which can influence the epidemiology of neosporosis, should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 563-568, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462709

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected, zoonotic disease in Turkey. The disease is commonly seen in rural areas where the local population is in close contact with livestock and dogs. This research aimed to molecularly identify of hydatid cysts in cattle and human isolates from Konya, Turkey. Following sample collection, direct microscopy was performed. After direct examination, total DNA was extracted, and positive PCR products of cox 1 mitochondrial gene (~ 875 bp) were sequenced. A total of 83 hydatid cysts (cattle n = 57 and human n = 26), 82 were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3 genotypes), and one human isolate was characterized as Echinococcus equinus (G4 genotype). Fertility rates of cysts belonging to cattle for liver and lung cysts were 93.3% and 80%, respectively. Out of 26 human originated isolates, 18 (69.2%) of cysts were found to be fertile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. equinus from human host in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Genótipo , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
5.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 144-152, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428296

RESUMO

Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic among cattle in Western France. However, studies assessing the risk of human infection in such areas are lacking to date, while they may provide information about key specific preventive actions which could be advised to the human populations living with or close to cattle. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in two departments of Western France during the 2017/18 winter in order to explore possible risk factors for seropositivity among two distinct populations, i) an occupational risk group, that is, the cattle farmers, and ii) the general adult population (approached by blood donors). Sera were collected in 176 cattle farmers and 347 blood donors respectively, and tested for phase I and II antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Each participant was asked to fill in a questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, occupational and non-occupational risk exposure. Identified risk factors were: in the general population, working in contact with ruminants, comparatively to any other activity (OR = 4.41; 95% CI: [1.59-6.55]); among farmers, managing an itself infected cattle herd (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: [1.59-6.55]). No other controllable risk factor (lifestyle, outdoor activities, proximity to pets and livestock animals, occupational practices) was here evidenced. In areas with endemically infected cattle, human exposure to Coxiella burnetii is to some extent unavoidable. This strengthens the need for physicians' awareness of the symptoms of Q fever and the appropriateness of general biosecurity measures, especially among at-risk groups living there.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças Endêmicas , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Febre Q/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
6.
Acta Trop ; 214: 105790, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309594

RESUMO

Ngari virus is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae family). This virus is pathogenic to humans and causes severe illness. Ngari virus is present in several African countries, including Madagascar. Here, we report the detection of Ngari virus in ixodid ticks collected from cows in Guinea. A tick survey was conducted in March-November of 2018 in six regions of Guinea. The sample comprised 710 pools, with a total of 2067 ticks belonging to five species collected from 197 cows. At the initial stage, we screened a subsample of tick pools of vector-borne viruses with a multiplex genus-specific primer panel. In the second stage of the study, we narrowed the search and screened all the samples by qPCR for the detection of Ngari virus. All positive samples were sequenced with primers flanking Ngari virus-specific fragments on the S and M segments. We found Ngari virus in 12 pools that were formed from engorged ticks collected from livestock in three villages of the Kindia and Kankan regions. Sequencing of the S and M segments confirmed that the detected viruses belong to Ngari virus, and the viruses were most similar to the strain Adrar, which was isolated in Mauritania. We detected viral RNA in ticks of the following species: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus geigyi, and Rh. (Boophilus) spp. There is no evidence that ixodid ticks are competent vectors of the Ngari virus. Most likely, the ticks obtained the virus through blood from an infected host. The study of engorged ticks can be recommended as a simpler approach for the wide screening of the Ngari virus and subsequent testing of cattle and mosquitos in those locations where the PCR-positive ticks were collected.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/transmissão , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 772-788, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326588

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts excreted by infected cats or ingesting uncooked or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts of T. gondii are the 2 major modes of transmission of T. gondii. Viable T. gondii is more prevalent in pork and lamb than in beef. In the past decade, there have been many articles on the high seroprevalence in cattle, particularly from China. There is a report of an outbreak of acute toxoplasmosis in humans suspected to be linked to the ingestion of Artisan fresh cheese from cow's milk. There are conflicting reports concerning the rate of congenital transmission of T. gondii in cattle, especially from Brazil. In a report from Brazil, viable T. gondii was isolated from the blood of 1 of 60 pregnant cows slaughtered at an abattoir and from 1 fetus. The role of beef in the epidemiology of T. gondii infections is still not clear. Here, we review prevalence, persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology, and public health risks of T. gondii infections in cattle from beef and cow's milk worldwide for the past decade.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Saúde Pública , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Leite/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose Congênita/transmissão
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108828, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866940

RESUMO

Raw milk is a continued threat to public health due to possible contamination with zoonotic pathogens. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal disease. Although there has been some evidence, the role and potential risk of raw milk of dairy animals in the transmission dynamics of E. bieneusi is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in raw milk of dairy animals in several farms of the Central Anatolia Region. We also investigated if there is a relation between the presence of E. bieneusi and mastitis. Genomic DNAs from a total of 450 raw milk including 200, 200 and 50 samples from cattle, sheep and water buffalo respectively were analyzed using nested PCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer of E. bieneusi. Totally milk samples of 9 (4.5%) dairy cattle, 36 (18.0%) sheep, and 1 (2.0%) water buffalo were PCR-positive. A significant relationship was determined between mastitis and the presence of E. bieneusi. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of eight genotypes: two known (ERUSS1, BEB6) and six novel genotypes (named as TREb1 to TREb6). The genotype ERUSS1 and BEB6 were the most common genotypes, found in all cattle and sheep farms. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the identified genotypes in Group 2. This study provides novel findings that contribute to the transmission dynamics and molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Our study also highlighted the potential risk of raw milk for public health with respect to microsporidia infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Turquia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667952

RESUMO

Transmission network modelling to infer 'who infected whom' in infectious disease outbreaks is a highly active area of research. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have been a key focus of transmission network models that integrate genomic and epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to extend Lau's systematic Bayesian inference framework to incorporate additional parameters representing predominant species and numbers of animals held on a farm. Lau's Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm was reformulated, verified and pseudo-validated on 100 simulated outbreaks populated with demographic data Japan and Australia. The modified model was then implemented on genomic and epidemiological data from the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Japan, and outputs compared to those from the SCOTTI model implemented in BEAST2. The modified model achieved improvements in overall accuracy when tested on the simulated outbreaks. When implemented on the actual outbreak data from Japan, infected farms that held predominantly pigs were estimated to have five times the transmissibility of infected cattle farms and be 49% less susceptible. The farm-level incubation period was 1 day shorter than the latent period, the timing of the seeding of the outbreak in Japan was inferred, as were key linkages between clusters and features of farms involved in widespread dissemination of this outbreak. To improve accessibility the modified model has been implemented as the R package 'BORIS' for use in future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/classificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Filogenia , Quarentena/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
12.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414076

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , França/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Seleção Genética/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Expiração , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Gado , Análise Multinível , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 183-189, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314686

RESUMO

In 2018, a large outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like illness in cattle in Rwanda and surrounding countries was reported. From this outbreak, sera samples from 157 cows and 28 goats suspected to be cases of RVF were tested to confirm or determine the etiology of the disease. Specifically, the hypothesis that orthobunyaviruses-Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), Batai virus (BATV), and Ngari virus (NRIV)-were co-circulating and contributed to RVF-like disease was tested. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RVFV RNA was detected in approximately 30% of acutely ill animals, but in all cases of hemorrhagic disease. Seven cows with experienced abortion had positive amplification and visualization by gel electrophoresis of all three segments of either BUNV or BATV, and three of these were suggested to be coinfected with BUNV and BATV. On sequencing, five of these seven cows were conclusively positive for BUNV. However, in several other animals, sequencing was successful for some but not all segments of targeted viruses BUNV and BATV. In addition, there was evidence of RVFV-orthobunyavirus coinfection, through RT-PCR/gel electrophoresis and subsequent Sanger sequencing. In no cases were we able to definitely identify the specific coinfecting viral species. This is the first time evidence for orthobunyavirus circulation has been molecularly confirmed in Rwanda. Furthermore, RT-PCR results suggest that BUNV and BATV may coinfect cattle and that RVFV-infected animals may be coinfected with other orthobunyaviruses. Finally, we confirm that BUNV and, perhaps, other orthobunyaviruses were co-circulating with RVFV and contributed to the burden of disease attributed to RVFV in Rwanda.


Assuntos
Vírus Bunyamwera/genética , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Animais , Vírus Bunyamwera/classificação , Vírus Bunyamwera/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coinfecção , Feminino , Cabras/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/classificação , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Ruanda/epidemiologia
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 79-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174035

RESUMO

The infection and treatment (ITM) procedure remains the only available method of immunization against Theileria parva infection. One constraint to deployment is the perception that the carrier state induced by ITM could result in enhanced disease problems. More than one million cattle have been ITM vaccinated in pastoralist systems in Tanzania over the last 2 decades. We present the results of a longitudinal study of six groups of cattle in Maasai villages in northern Tanzania exposed to natural tick challenge for between 2 weeks and 14 years post-vaccination. The p104 nested PCR revealed a higher frequency of T. parva carriers among vaccinates (30%) compared with controls (8%) (OR = 4.89, p = .000), with the highest frequency of carriers found in calves vaccinated 6 months previously, although carrier state was also detected in cattle vaccinated >10 years prior to the study. Variable number tandem repeat genotype analysis revealed 6 MS7 alleles with sizes ranging from 150 bp to 500 bp, but only two alleles were detected in cattle vaccinated >4 years earlier, relative to five alleles detected in recently vaccinated cattle and controls. In terms of heterozygosity, diversity was maximal in calves vaccinated within the last 2 weeks (h = 0.776) but lowest in cattle vaccinated 4 years earlier (h = 0.375). The analysis suggested close genetic relatedness of parasites in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups and up to 96% of variation was within rather than between the groups. These results confirm that ITM leads to a long-term T. parva carrier state in cattle and the detection of vaccine component VNTR in co-grazing unvaccinated cattle suggests potential vaccine transmission by ticks. However, vaccination stocks did not totally replace local genotypes, at least in cattle populations. These findings should mitigate concerns that ITM modifies T. parva field populations in a way that enhances disease in the medium term.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Portador Sadio , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/transmissão , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 88-98, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174043

RESUMO

The live infection and treatment (ITM) vaccination procedure using the trivalent Muguga cocktail is increasingly being used to control East Coast fever, with potential implications for Theileria parva population genetic structure in the field. Transmission of the Kiambu V T. parva component to unvaccinated cattle has previously been described in Uganda. We monitored the T. parva carrier state in vaccinated and control animals on a farm in West Kenya where an ITM stabilate derived from the Kenyan T. parva Marikebuni stock was evaluated for field efficacy. A nested PCR-based Marikebuni-specific marker identified a carrier state in nine of ten vaccinated animals, detectable for a period of two years. We used 22 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers to determine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of 19 T. parva schizont-infected lymphocyte isolates derived from cattle and field ticks. Two isolates from unimmunized cattle were identical to the Marikebuni vaccination stock. Two cattle isolates were identical to a Muguga cocktail component Kiambu V. Seven isolates from ticks exhibited MLGs that were identical to the Serengeti/Muguga vaccine stocks. Six cattle and two tick-derived stocks exhibited unique MLGs. The data strongly suggest transmission of immunizing genotypes, from Marikebuni vaccine-induced carrier cattle to unimmunized cattle. It is possible that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are present in the field in Western Kenya. An alternative hypothesis is that these parasites may have originated from vaccine trial sites in Eastern Uganda. If correct, this suggests that T. parva stocks used for immunization can potentially be disseminated 125 km beyond the immediate vaccination site. Regardless of their origin, the data provide evidence that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are circulating in the field in East Africa, alleviating concerns about dissemination of 'alien' T. parva germplasm through live vaccination.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Imunização/veterinária , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Genótipo , Quênia/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Theileriose/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Uganda , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 92, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis has been well studied in several countries. Brazil is one of the most important beef exporting countries and has one of the highest cattle population size in the world. In this country, bovine cysticercosis (BCC) remains the most frequent reported zoonosis detected during post-mortem inspection, resulting in costs for the beef sector and public health. We performed a systematic literature review regarding data about BCC epidemiology in Brazil and meta-analyses for its prevalence in different administrative regions and the distribution over time, and based on this discussed possible control strategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to obtain data about BCC in Brazil using the words "bovine cysticercosis" and "Brazil" to construct the search phrase. The inclusion criteria used to select articles were: (i) published from 2000 to 2018; (ii) full text available online in Portuguese or English; and (iii) contain information at least regarding one of the following aspects of BCC in Brazil: prevalence, incidence, spatial distribution, risk-factors, economic burden and measures for control. RESULTS: A set of 42 articles was included, covering the prevalence of BCC in Brazil, ranging between 0.01-18.75%. Prevalence results of 40 articles were included in a meta-analysis per administrative region. The highest prevalence was found in the South (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2%), followed by the Southeast (2.7%; 95% CI: 1.9-3.6%), Northeast (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.6-2.7%), Central-western (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3-1.7%) and North (0.0%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.6%) region. In addition, a reduction in prevalence over time was observed in all the evaluated states except for Alagoas and Pará. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the large availability of data, a critical lack of information about BCC epidemiology remains in Brazil. Nevertheless, the available data on prevalence, high risk-areas and risk factors should contribute to a better understanding of transmission and the formulation of recommendations for control. A One Health approach will be required to reduce T. saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis prevalence and the consequent economic burden for the beef sector in Brazil, one of the most important beef exporters in the world.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Taenia saginata/classificação , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia saginata/fisiologia
18.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 16, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085804

RESUMO

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an important infectious cause of cattle lameness worldwide that has become increasingly prevalent in New Zealand pastoral dairy herds. In this study, a simplified DD scoring system after considering both M and Iowa DD scoring systems was applied to explore the transmission dynamics of DD in a typical spring-calving pastoral New Zealand dairy herd. The modified model only included three compartments: normal skin, early stage lesions and advanced lesions. Lesions regressing after treatment were excluded as DD lesions are rarely treated in New Zealand. Furthermore, sub-classes within each lesion class were not defined due to the lack of variability in DD lesion presentations within New Zealand. The model was validated based on longitudinal field data from three dairy herds in the Waikato region during one lactation season (2017-18). The model suggested that in infected dairy herds, although DD prevalence will tend to increase year-on-year it is likely to remain relatively low (< 18%) even after 10 years of within-herd transmission. It is likely that the low transmission rate during the late lactation (model assumption) results in more cases resolving than developing during this period and therefore results in the low prevalence of infectious cattle at the start of each subsequent lactation. Cattle with advanced lesions had a stronger influence on the establishment and maintenance of DD than cattle with early stage lesions highlighting the importance of targeting these animals for intervention. On-going monitoring of DD is highly recommended to assess the long-term progression of the disease in affected dairy herds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Dermatite Digital/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1633-1644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012445

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects ruminants and pigs. Countries with large exports of livestock products are highly vulnerable to economic damage following an FMD incursion. The faster disease spread is controlled, the lower the economic damage. During the past decades, the structure of livestock production has dramatically changed. To maintain the relevance of contingency plans, it is important to understand the effects of changes in herd structure on the spread and control of infectious diseases. In this study, we compare the spread and control of FMD based on 2006/2007 and 2018 livestock data. Spread of FMD in Denmark was simulated using the DTU-DADS model, applying different control measures. The number of cattle, swine and sheep/goat herds reduced from about 50,000 in total in 2006/2007 to about 33,000 in 2018. During this period, the average number of outgoing animal movements and the exports of swine and swine products increased by about 35% and 22%, respectively. This coincided with an overall increase in herd size of 14%. Using the EU and national control measures (Basic: 3 days standstill, depopulation of detected herds followed by cleaning and disinfection and establishment of control zones, where tracing, surveillance and contact restrictions are implemented), we found that the simulated epidemics in 2018 would be about 50% shorter in duration, affect about 50% fewer herds but cause more economic damage, compared to epidemics using 2006/2007 data. When 2006/2007 data were used, Basic + pre-emptive depopulation (Depop) overall was the optimal control strategy. When 2018 data were used, this was the case only when epidemics were initiated in cattle herds, whereas when epidemics were initiated in sow or sheep/goats herds, basic performed as well as Depop. The results demonstrate that regular assessment of measures to control the spread of infectious diseases is necessary for contingency planning.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 470, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949241

RESUMO

In this study, we describe a new in vitro tick feeding system that facilitates the study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. To optimize the system, we used Dermacentor andersoni and Anaplasma marginale as a tick-pathogen interaction model. Ticks were fed on bovine blood containing 10-fold dilutions of the pathogen to determine the effect of dose on tick infection rate. After feeding on infected blood, ticks were transferred to uninfected blood to stimulate bacterial replication within the tick vector. During stimulation feeding, blood samples were collected daily to determine if infected ticks secreted viable A. marginale. The results demonstrated similar attachment rates between the first and second tick feeding. Tick midgut and salivary glands were infected with A. marginale. However, salivary gland infection rates decreased as the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes decreased during tick acquisition feeding. Bacteria recovered from the in vitro system were able to infect a naïve bovine host. Using the highly transmissible A. marginale St. Maries strain, we demonstrated that the artificial tick feeding system is a suitable tool to study tick-pathogen interactions and that A. marginale tick salivary gland infection is dose dependent. This work demonstrates the utility of an artificial tick feeding system to directly study the association between the number of acquired pathogens and transmissibility by ticks.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/fisiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/transmissão , Vetores Aracnídeos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dermacentor/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Glândulas Salivares/microbiologia , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
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