Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.835
Filtrar
1.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397469

RESUMO

Psoroptic mange is a common disease of livestock, caused by Psoroptes ovis. Compared to Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, the Belgian Blue (BB) cattle breed is highly susceptible to the infestation. However, the mechanism for this difference is still unclear. To determine the factors responsible for this breed susceptibility, the immune response to P. ovis was studied in experimentally infested BB and HF cattle, using clinical signs, histology, immunohistochemical profiling and gene expression analysis of skin biopsies. The mite numbers and lesion area of BB cattle were greater than in HF during the whole study period. Significant influxes of eosinophils in the epidermis and dermis were detected in comparison with the pre-infestation samples in both breeds, with significantly higher eosinophils in BB at 6 weeks post infestation (wpi). Mast cell numbers were unaffected at all stages of infestation in HF, but were significantly elevated relative to pre-infestation in BB cattle at 2 and 6 wpi. The more pronounced cutaneous eosinophilia and higher IL-4 levels at 6 wpi in BB cattle suggest that a Th2-type immune response is underlying the higher susceptibility of the BB breed. In naturally infested BB cattle, development of the psoroptic mange lesions and eosinophils and CD3+ T cell areas were severely depressed after anti-inflammatory treatment with dexamethasone. Together, these results suggest that a stronger Th2-type immune response to P. ovis causes the skin lesions in psoroptic mange in BB cattle and that local anti-inflammatory treatment could potentially be an alternative to control the pathology caused by this parasite.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Psoroptidae/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2410-2421, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358164

RESUMO

Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing 40 mg/kg of dietary Zn from Zn sulfate (ZS) with Zn amino acid complex (ZA; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) on inflammation and intestinal integrity in heat-stressed and pair-fed (PF) ruminants. Forty Holstein steers (173.6 ± 4.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary-environmental treatments: (1) thermoneutral (TN) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) ZS (ZSCON); (2) TN pair-fed with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSPF); (3) TN pair-fed with 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAPF); (4) heat stress (HS) ad libitum with 75 mg/kg DM ZS (ZSHS); and (5) HS ad libitum 40 mg/kg DM ZA and 35 mg/kg DM ZS (ZAHS). Before study initiation, calves were fed their respective diets for 21 d. Following the pre-feeding phase, steers were transferred into environmental chambers and were subjected to 2 successive experimental periods. During period 1 (5 d), all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and housed in TN conditions (20.2 ± 1.4°C, 30.4 ± 4.3% relative humidity). During period 2 (6 d), ZSHS and ZAHS steers were exposed to cyclical HS conditions (27.1 ± 1.5°C to 35.0 ± 2.9°C, 19.3 ± 3.5% relative humidity), whereas the ZSCON, ZSPF, and ZAPF steers remained in TN conditions and were fed ad libitum or pair-fed relative to their ZSHS and ZAHS counterparts. Overall, steers exposed to HS had markedly increased rectal temperature (0.83°C), respiration rate (26 breaths per min), and skin temperature (8.00°C) relative to TN treatments. Rectal temperature from ZAHS steers was decreased (0.24°C) on d 4 to 6 of HS relative to ZSHS steers. Regardless of diet, HS decreased DMI (18%) relative to ZSCON steers. Circulating glucose from HS and PF steers decreased (16%) relative to ZSCON steers. Heat stress and nutrient restriction increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids 2- and 3-fold, respectively, compared with ZSCON steers. Serum amyloid A increased ~2-fold in PF relative to ZSCON and HS steers. We detected no treatment effect on blood pH; however, ZAHS steers had increased HCO3 relative to ZSHS. Relative to ZSHS, ZAHS steers had increased jejunum villi height (25%), a tendency for increased ileum villi height (9%), and decreased duodenal villi width (16%). In summary, ZA supplementation has some beneficial effects on thermal indices, intestinal architecture characteristics, and biomarkers of leaky gut in heat-stressed steers, indicative of an ameliorated heat load, and thus may be a nutritional strategy to minimize negative consequences of HS.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Cutânea
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2185-2194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309356

RESUMO

Our objective was to investigate the effect of i.v. dextrose as an adjunct therapy to oral propylene glycol on the resolution of hyperketonemia (HYK; blood ß-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L), disease incidence, and early lactation milk yield. Cows (n = 1,249) between 3 and 16 d in milk (DIM) from 4 New York dairy farms were screened once weekly for HYK for 2 wk. Those with HYK and no previous history of retained placenta, metritis, or HYK were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 300 mL of oral 100% propylene glycol for 3 d (PG3); 300 mL of oral 100% propylene glycol for 3 d plus 500 mL i.v. 50% dextrose on d 1 (PG3D1); or 300 mL of oral 100% propylene glycol for 3 d plus 500 mL i.v. 50% dextrose on all 3 d (PG3D3). Cows with a blood ß-hydroxybutyrate <1.2 mmol/L at initial screening were re-screened the following week and randomly assigned to the above treatment groups if blood ß-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Cows were assessed for post-treatment HYK resolution 1 and 2 wk after initial HYK diagnosis. We collected farm-diagnosed occurrence of adverse events (sold, died, metritis, displaced abomasum, or ketosis) during the first 60 DIM and milk yield data from the first 10 wk of lactation from herd management software. We used mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the risk of post-treatment HYK resolution at 1 and 2 wk following initial HYK diagnosis and adverse event occurrence among treated cows. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to assess differences in average daily milk yield between treatments. The overall HYK incidence was 30.1% (n = 373). Sixty-four percent of cows (n = 237) were assigned to a treatment group in the first week (3 to 9 DIM), and 36% (n = 136) assigned the second week (10 to 16 DIM). The incidence of 1 or more adverse events during the first 60 DIM was 9.4% (n = 35). We found no effect of treatment on risk of post-treatment HYK resolution at wk 1 (PG3 56.9%, PG3D1 45.0%, PG3D3 50.0%) or wk 2 (PG3 60.0%, PG3D1 52.1%, PG3D3 59.5%) following initial diagnosis, or for risk of adverse event occurrence (PG3 7.4%, PG3D1 8.0%, PG3D3 12.6%). Average daily milk yield (mean ± SE) was similar between treatment groups (PG3: 42.7 ± 0.6 kg/d, PG3D1: 42.4 ± 0.6 kg/d, PG3D3: 42.6 ± 0.6 kg/d). The addition of dextrose for 1 or 3 d provided no improvement in resolution of ketosis assessed once weekly, reduction in adverse events during the first 60 d of lactation, or a difference in average daily milk yield during the first 10 wk of lactation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Cetose/veterinária , Propilenoglicol/uso terapêutico , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Cetose/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Leite , New York , Gravidez , Gastropatias/veterinária
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2040-2055, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309349

RESUMO

Both the economic loss and welfare implications of lameness affect the dairy industry. Currently no analgesic drugs are approved to alleviate lameness-associated pain in lactating dairy cattle in the United States. In this randomized controlled trial, 48 lactating Holsteins were enrolled to evaluate the effect of oral meloxicam and i.v. flunixin meglumine on induced lameness. Cows were allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 12 per group): lameness and flunixin meglumine (LAME + FLU); lameness and meloxicam (LAME + MEL); lameness and placebo (LAME + PLBO); or sham induction and placebo (SHAM + PLBO). Six hours before treatment, arthritis-synovitis was induced in the distal interphalangeal joint with 20 mg of amphotericin B, whereas SHAM cows were given an intra-articular injection of an equal volume (4 mL) of isotonic saline. Cows in LAME + FLU received 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine i.v. and whey protein placebo orally; LAME + MEL were administered 1 mg/kg meloxicam orally and 2 mL/45 kg sterile saline placebo i.v.; LAME + PLBO were administered 2 mL/45 kg sterile saline placebo i.v. and whey protein placebo orally; and SHAM + PLBO received 2 mL/45 kg sterile saline placebo i.v. and whey protein placebo orally. The initial treatment of MEL, FLU, or PLBO was identified as time 0 h and followed by a second dose 24 h later with data collection for 120 h. The methods used to assess analgesic efficacy were electronic pressure mat, visual lameness assessment, visual analog score, plasma cortisol concentration, plasma substance P concentration, mechanical nociception threshold, and infrared thermography imaging. Linear mixed effect modeling was the primary method of statistical analysis. Visual lameness scoring indicated a lower proportion of the FLU + LAME group was lame at the T2 h and T8 h time points in comparison to the positive controls, whereas MEL therapy resulted in a lower proportion of lame cows at the T8 h time point. Cortisol area under the effect curve was lower following FLU therapy compared with LAME + PBLO for the 0-2 h (LSM difference = 35.1 ng·h/mL, 95% CI: 6.8, 63.3 ng·h/mL), 2-8 h (LSM difference = 120.6 ng·h/mL, 95% CI: 77.2, 164.0 ng·h/mL), and 0-24 h (LSM difference = 226.0 ng·h/mL, 95% CI: 103.3, 348.8 ng·h/mL) time intervals. Following MEL therapy, cortisol area under the effect curve was lower than LAME + PLBO for both the 2 to 8 h (LSM difference = 93.6 ng·h/mL, 95% CI: 50.2, 137.0 ng·h/mL) and 0 to 24 h time intervals (LSM difference = 187.6 ng·h/mL, 95% CI: 64.9, 310.4 ng·h/mL). Analysis of data from other assessment modalities failed to discern biologically relevant differences between treatment groups. We conclude that meaningful differences were evident for visual lameness assessment and cortisol from MEL and FLU treatment versus the positive control. Further clinical research is needed toward development of a model that will create reproducible events that are more pronounced in severity and duration of lameness which can be validated as a substitute for naturally occurring lameness cases.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Dor/veterinária , Administração Oral , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Clonixina/administração & dosagem , Clonixina/uso terapêutico , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2056-2073, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309374

RESUMO

Our objectives were to compare the effects of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) and ampicillin trihydrate (AMP) treatments of cows diagnosed with metritis on uterine health, behavior, reproductive, and productive responses. A controlled randomized clinical trial was designed. Metritis was defined as vaginal discharge (VD) = 5 (fetid, watery, red/brown) within 21 d in milk (DIM) and rectal temperature (RT) <39.5°C, whereas VD = 5 and RT ≥39.5°C was defined as puerperal metritis. On the day of diagnosis (d 0), cows were paired by parity and severity of metritis (metritis vs. puerperal metritis) and assigned randomly to the AMP and CCFA treatments. Cows enrolled in the AMP (n = 308) treatment were moved to a nonsalable-milk pen, where they were treated once daily for 5 d, and were moved back to their original pen 72 h after the last treatment (d 7). Cows enrolled in the CCFA (n = 310) treatment remained in their original pen and received 2 treatments of CCFA, 72 h apart. Rectal temperature was measured daily from d 0 to 6 and on d 11. Vaginal discharge was evaluated on d 4, 6, and 11 to assess cure. Cure was defined as the absence of treatment with additional antimicrobial before experiment d 11, VD <5, and RT <39.5°C. Cows were examined at 28 ± 3 DIM for purulent VD (PVD) and at 35 ± 3 DIM for cytological endometritis. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40 ± 3 and 60 ± 7 d after first and second artificial inseminations. Cure of metritis did not differ between treatments on d 11 (AMP = 64.6 ± 3.1, CCFA = 63.5 ± 3.1%). Cows treated with AMP had greater RT from experiment d 1 to 6 compared with cows treated with CCFA (AMP = 39.1 ± 0.02, CCFA = 39.0 ± 0.02°C). Cows in the AMP treatment had greater prevalence of PVD at 28 ± 3 DIM (AMP = 82.6 ± 2.3, CCFA = 74.4 ± 2.7%) and tended to have greater prevalence of cytological endometritis at 35 ± 3 DIM (AMP = 77.8 ± 6.2 vs. CCFA = 61.7 ± 7.5%) than CCFA-treated cows. Treatment did not affect the hazard of pregnancy among multiparous cows; however, among primiparous cows, CCFA treatment reduced the hazard of pregnancy and increased the median days to pregnancy (AMP = 145 vs. CCFA = 169 d). Finally, average daily milk yield up to 14 wk postpartum was not affected by treatment (AMP = 38.0 ± 0.4, CCFA = 37.5 ± 0.4 kg). We conclude from the current experiment that CCFA was more effective in reducing RT and improving uterine health of metritic cows; however, the improved hazard of pregnancy of primiparous cows treated with AMP is important and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Leite , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Descarga Vaginal/veterinária
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931522

RESUMO

The rising public health threat of antimicrobial resistance, the influence of food service companies, as well as the overall lack of positive image of using medical products in intensive farming are major drivers curbing antimicrobial use. In the future, government policies may affect practices of antimicrobial use in beef production in feedlots, a prominent current user of antimicrobials in animal agriculture, but also the agricultural industry generating the highest cash receipt in the U.S. Our objective was to estimate the cost effect from the following policies in feedlots: 1) using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment; 2) using antimicrobials only for treatment of disease; and 3) not using antimicrobials for any reason. We modelled a typical U.S. feedlot, where high risk cattle may be afflicted by diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, namely respiratory diseases, liver abscesses and lameness. We calculated the net revenue loss under each policy of antimicrobial use restriction. With moderate disease incidence, the median net revenue loss was $66 and $96 per animal entering the feedlot, for not using antimicrobials for disease prevention and control, or not using any antimicrobials, respectively, compared to using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment. Losses arose mainly from an increase of fatality and morbidity rates, almost doubling for respiratory diseases in the case of antimicrobial use restrictions. In the case of antimicrobial use prohibition, decreasing the feeder cattle price by 9%, or alternatively, increasing the slaughter cattle price by 6.3%, would offset the net revenue losses for the feedlot operator. If no alternatives to antimicrobial therapy for prevention, control and treatment of current infectious diseases are implemented, policies that economically incentivize adoption of non-antimicrobial prevention and control strategies for infectious diseases would be necessary to maintain animal welfare and the profitability of beef production while simultaneously curbing antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Antibacterianos/normas , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Fazendas/economia , Políticas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas/normas , Incidência , Modelos Econômicos , Carne Vermelha/economia
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780814

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of oral supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP; SmartCare and NutriTek; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on immune function and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in preweaned dairy calves. Twenty-four Holstein × Angus, 1- to 2-d-old calves (38.46 ± 0.91 kg initial body weight [BW]) were assigned two treatment groups: control or SCFP treated, milk replacer with 1 g/d SCFP (SmartCare) and calf starter top-dressed with 5 g/d SCFP (NutriTek). The study consisted of one 31-d period. On days 19 to 21 of the supplementation period, calves were challenged via aerosol inoculation with BRSV strain 375. Calves were monitored twice daily for clinical signs, including rectal temperature, cough, nasal and ocular discharge, respiration effort, and lung auscultation. Calves were euthanized on day 10 postinfection (days 29 to 31 of the supplementation period) to evaluate gross lung pathology and pathogen load. Supplementation with SCFP did not affect BW (P = 0.762) or average daily gain (P = 0.750), percentages of circulating white blood cells (P < 0.05), phagocytic (P = 0.427 for neutrophils and P = 0.460 for monocytes) or respiratory burst (P = 0.119 for neutrophils and P = 0.414 for monocytes) activity by circulating leukocytes either before or following BRSV infection, or serum cortisol concentrations (P = 0.321) after BRSV infection. Calves receiving SCFP had reduced clinical disease scores compared with control calves (P = 0.030), reduced airway neutrophil recruitment (P < 0.002), reduced lung pathology (P = 0.031), and a reduced incidence of secondary bacterial infection. Calves receiving SCFP shed reduced virus compared with control calves (P = 0.049) and tended toward lower viral loads in the lungs (P = 0.051). Immune cells from the peripheral blood of SCFP-treated calves produced increased (P < 0.05) quantities of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in response to toll-like receptor stimulation, while cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of SCFP-treated calves secreted less (P < 0.05) proinflammatory cytokines in response to the same stimuli. Treatment with SCFP had no effect on virus-specific T cell responses in the blood but resulted in reduced (P = 0.045) virus-specific IL-17 secretion by T cells in the BAL. Supplementing with SCFP modulates both systemic and mucosal immune responses and may improve the outcome of an acute respiratory viral infection in preweaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/veterinária , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Leite , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/imunologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107958, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730769

RESUMO

Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of the severe bovine anaplasmosis. The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the main vectors of A. marginale in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. After the tick bite, the bacterium invades and proliferates within the bovine erythrocytes leading to anemia, impairment of milk production and weight loss. In addition, infection can cause abortion and high mortality in areas of enzootic instability. Immunization with live and inactivated vaccines are employed to control acute bovine anaplasmosis. However, they do not prevent persistent infection. Consequently, infected animals, even if immunized, are still reservoirs of the bacterium and contribute to its dissemination. Antimicrobials are largely employed for the prophylaxis of bovine anaplasmosis. However, they are often used in sublethal doses which may select pre-existing resistant bacteria and induce genetic or phenotypic variations. Therefore, we propose a new standardized in vitro assay to evaluate the susceptibility of A. marginale strains to different antimicrobials. This tool will help health professionals to choose the more adequate treatment for each herd which will prevent the selection and spread of resistant strains. For that, we initially evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of two field isolates of A. marginale (Jaboticabal and Palmeira) infecting bovines. The least susceptible strain (Jaboticabal) was used for the standardization of an antimicrobial assay using a culture of Ixodes scapularis-derived tick cell line, ISE6. Results showed that enrofloxacin (ENRO) at 0.25, 1 or 4 µg/mL and oxytetracycline (OTC) at 4 or 16 µg/mL are the most efficient treatments, followed by OTC at 1 µg/mL and imidocarb dipropionate (IMD) at 1 or 4 µg/mL. In addition, this proposed tool has technical advantages compared to the previously established bovine erythrocyte culture. Thereby, it may be used to guide cattle farmers to the correct use of antimicrobials. The choice of the most suitable antimicrobial is essential to eliminate persistent infections, prevent the spread of resistant strains and help controlling of bovine anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/efeitos dos fármacos , Anaplasmose/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/citologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Rhipicephalus/citologia , Anaplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/microbiologia , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/farmacologia , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Oxitetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10174, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576851

RESUMO

This research study was conducted to determine if bird depredation in feedlots is associated with the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in cattle and to determine if removal of invasive bird species could be an effective management strategy to help reduce ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in cattle within the United States. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were collected from feedlots within multiple geographic regions within the United States and European starlings within all regions tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, but prevalence differed by region. Total number of birds on feedlots were positively associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Targeted control of invasive European starlings reduced bird numbers on feedlots by 70.4%, but decreasing populations of European starlings was not associated with corresponding reductions in bovine fecal prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. These data provide evidence for the role of wild bird depredation in feedlots contributing to fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, but a single month of European starling control in feedlots was not sufficient to impact the fecal carriage of this organism in cattle.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estorninhos/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7377-7391, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505402

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrauterine administration of chitosan microparticles (CM) in curing metritis in dairy cows. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of metritis treatments on milk yield, survival, and reproductive performance. Cows with a fetid, watery, red-brownish vaginal discharge were diagnosed with metritis. Holstein cows (n = 826) with metritis from 3 dairies located in northern Florida were blocked by parity (primiparous or multiparous) and, within each block, randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: CM (n = 276) = intrauterine infusion of 24 g of CM dissolved in 40 mL of sterile distilled water at the time of metritis diagnosis (d 0), 2 (d 2), and 4 (d 4) d later; ceftiofur (CEF; n = 275) = subcutaneous injection of 6.6 mg/kg ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in the base of the ear at d 0 and d 3; Control (CON; n = 275) = no treatment applied at metritis diagnosis. All groups could receive escape therapy if condition worsened. Cure was considered when vaginal discharge became mucoid and not fetid. A group of nonmetritic (NMET; n = 2,436) cows was used for comparison. Data were analyzed by generalized linear mixed and Cox's proportional hazard models. Cows in CM and CON had lesser risk of metritis cure on d 12 than cows in CEF (58.6 ± 5.0 vs. 61.9 ± 4.9% vs. 77.9 ± 3.9, respectively). The proportion of cows culled within 60 days in milk (DIM) was greater for cows in CM than for cows in CEF and CON (21.5 ± 2.7 vs. 9.7 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 2.0%, respectively). Treatment did not affect rectal temperature or plasma nonesterified fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and haptoglobin concentrations. Milk yield in the first 60 DIM differed for all treatments, and it was lowest for CM (35.8 ± 0.3 kg/d), followed by CON (36.8 ± 0.3 kg/d) and CEF (37.9 ± 0.3 kg/d). The hazard of pregnancy up to 300 DIM was lesser for CM than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.50-0.76), for CM than CON (hazard ratio = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.95) and for CON than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99). Culling was greater, and milk yield and fertility were lesser for CEF than NMET. In summary, CM did not improve the cure of metritis, and was detrimental to milk yield, survival, and fertility compared with CON. In contrast, CEF increased the cure of metritis, milk yield, and fertility compared with CM and CON. Finally, the negative effects of metritis on milk yield culling and fertility could not be completely reversed by CEF.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Florida , Lactação , Leite , Paridade , Tamanho da Partícula , Gravidez , Reprodução
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7451-7461, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448574

RESUMO

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose (RPG) supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk (305ME) yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: (1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or (2) a diet containing RPG (pre-fresh 5.3% of dry matter and 6.0% of dry matter postpartum; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving, and dry matter intake was calculated daily during the same period. Weekly body weight, milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d in milk (DIM), and milk yield was recorded through 105 DIM. Blood samples were collected on d -7, 3, 7, 14, and 28 relative to calving. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with previous 305ME as a covariate. Fecal pH was similar between treatments and decreased (0.6 units) postpartum. Dry matter intake pre- and postpartum were unaffected by treatment, as was milk yield during the first 28 or 105 DIM. Milk fat, protein, and lactose concentration were similar for both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose concentrations were unaffected by treatment; however, results showed increased concentration of circulating insulin (27%), lower nonesterified fatty acids (28%), and lower postpartum ß-hydroxybutyrate (24%) in RPG-fed cows. Overall, circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin did not differ by treatment, but at 7 DIM, RPG-fed cows had decreased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin concentrations (31 and 27%, respectively) compared with controls. Supplemental RPG improved some biomarkers of post-absorptive energetics and inflammation during the periparturient period, changes primarily characterized by increased insulin and decreased nonesterified fatty acids concentrations, with a concomitant reduction in acute phase proteins without changing milk production and composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/análise , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 230-235, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented by the health, agriculture, water resources, forestry, land and resources sectors were retrospectively collected in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, and the completion of each measure, cost of control measures, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and bovines, and snail status were analyzed each year. An index system for assessing the integrated schistosomiasis control effect was constructed using the Delphi method to calculate the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index. In addition, a cost-effect analysis was performed in terms of the decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines, areas with snails in inner embankments, and areas with infected snails. RESULTS: A total of 7 110 926 500 Yuan were invested into the integrated schistosomiasis control program of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019. During the 16-year period, a total of 277 437.12 hm2 snail habitats received molluscicidal treatments, 6 927 230 person-times given expanded chemotherapy, 2 116 247 bovine-times given expanded chemotherapy, 954 850 harmless toilets built, 290 359 bovines fenced, 136 666 bovines eliminated, 141 905 machines used to replace bovines, 39 048.63 hm2 water lands improved as dry lands, 724.12 km irrigation regions improved, 3 994 300 populations covered with safe water, 191 102.89 hm2 forests planted and 38 535.27 hm2 lands leveled. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 4.29% in humans and 4.48% in bovines in Hunan Province in 2004, with 2 449.37 hm2 snail habitats in inner embankments and 3 423.74 hm2 infected snail areas. In 2019, the prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced to 0 in both humans and bovines, and areas of snail habitats reduced to 540.92 hm2 (77.92% reductions), while the areas with infected snails reduced to 0. The overall integrated schistosomiasis control effect index appeared a tendency towards a rise over years since 2004, and the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index was 97.35 in 2019; the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in 100 populations and 100 bovines were 70.11 Yuan and 4 204.78 Yuan, and the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas were 2 010.20 Yuan and 1 298.09 Yuan, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated control measures achieve remarkable effectiveness for schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province, with a remarkable decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines and great shrinking of snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas. Adequate fund investment is required to improve the integrated schistosomiasis control measures and consolidate the control achievements.


Assuntos
Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Moluscocidas/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5495-5500, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307155

RESUMO

A major goal in treatment of calves with diarrhea is to restore hydration and to correct metabolic acidosis. This can be achieved by the administration of oral electrolyte solutions (OES). However, the composition of OES products and the administration protocols in practice vary widely, which can potentially compromise the efficacy and safety of these treatments. In particular, administration of OES in milk replacer (MR) and the absence of water supply in young calves are not unusual and these conditions could compromise calf health. In this light, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OES administered in MR and in water without access to water. Forty-five male Holstein calves (16.6 ± 1.6 d of age and 45.4 ± 2.2 kg at arrival) were purchased from a collection center located in the Netherlands. After arrival, calves went through an adaptation period of 4 d. Calves that developed diarrhea within 6 d after the end of the adaptation period were enrolled in the study, and the remaining calves were sold after being weaned. Upon morning detection of abnormal fecal scores (d 1 starting point), calves were blocked based on initial BW. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, including a control consisting of a small dose of whey (CON; n = 12) and an OES treatment (OES; n = 14). Treatments were blinded to the farm staff by randomly assigning a letter to each treatment. Treatments were simultaneously administered for 4 d in MR (2.5 L at 0800 and 1730 h) and in water (3 L at 1300 and 2200 h). Calves had no supplemental access to plain water. Blood samples were taken at 0600 h for 4 d, and fecal scores (0 = normal; 1 = watery feces) were assessed daily at 0900 h for 15 consecutive days. Additionally, skin turgor and degree of enophthalmos were assessed at 1000 h from d 1 to 4 using a 3-level scoring system. Calves fed OES had a higher prevalence of diarrhea on d 3, 4, and 5 as well as higher prevalence of delayed skin turgor and increased degree of enophthalmos over the 4 monitoring days. Diarrhea duration was longer in calves receiving OES than in calves receiving CON (4.2 d vs. 2.1 d, respectively). The OES treatment resulted in hypernatremia (serum Na+ >145 mmol/L) within 48 h after the first OES administration. Hypernatremia was linked with higher serum Cl- and urea concentrations and thus higher serum osmolarity in OES calves compared with CON calves. Administered under these conditions, OES resulted in various degrees of hypernatremia and a delayed recovery from diarrhea, thus defeating the purpose of OES administration.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/veterinária , Eletrólitos/efeitos adversos , Hipernatremia/veterinária , Substitutos do Leite/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/complicações , Masculino , Países Baixos , Distribuição Aleatória , Água/química , Desmame , Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5422-5430, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331879

RESUMO

Hoof trimming is used to prevent and treat lameness in dairy cows; however, hoof trimming itself increases daily time spent lying down, possibly due to discomfort. We hypothesized that treatment of lame and nonlame cows with an anti-inflammatory analgesic drug at the time of hoof trimming would mitigate discomfort, thereby improving locomotion scores and reducing post-trimming increases in lying time. We further hypothesized that drug treatment would improve post-trimming milk production. Our objective was to determine the effects of treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg of BW) at the time of hoof trimming on locomotion, lying times, and milk production in lame and nonlame lactating dairy cows. All cows were filmed for locomotion scoring 1 d before and 1, 8, and 28 d after hoof trimming. Daily time spent standing and lying was recorded for 4 d before and 4 wk after hoof trimming, and daily milk production was recorded for 1 wk before and 8 wk after trimming. Thirty minutes before hoof trimming, an intravenous injection of flunixin meglumine (n = 34) or isotonic sterile saline solution (n = 34) was administered to each cow. Then, all cows had their hooves trimmed using the Dutch method. The same treatment was repeated 24 h after hoof trimming. Cows were categorized using baseline locomotion scores as lame (score ≥3/5) or nonlame (score <3/5). Drug treatment did not affect post-trimming changes in locomotion scores, daily lying times, or milk production. In both treatment groups, most cows had the same lameness status (lame or nonlame) at baseline and after treatment, and there was no difference between groups in the number of cows that changed lameness status over time. Lame cows (n = 21) had no significant changes in lying times over the course of the study, whereas nonlame cows (n = 47) had mean daily lying times that were significantly higher than baseline all 4 wk after trimming. Hoof trimming in nonlame cows should be scheduled for a time when increased lying behavior after trimming can be accommodated.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Casco e Garras , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Leite , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Clonixina/farmacologia , Feminino , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236331

RESUMO

An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
16.
Can Vet J ; 61(4): 382-388, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255823

RESUMO

There is a paucity of information from western Canadian beef cow-calf producers about how they control gastrointestinal nematodes. The objectives of this study were to describe cow-calf producers' management practices related to control of gastrointestinal nematodes including pasture management and use of parasite control products. A questionnaire was distributed to 105 producers in May 2015. Responses from 97 producers revealed the almost uniform dependence on the use of a pour-on macrocyclic lactone parasite control product in the fall as part of a routine farm management program. Control of external parasites was the primary reason for treatment, while none of the producers chose to treat specifically to manage internal parasites. The predominant management practices identified through this study increase the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance. The results also highlight the need to raise awareness of the importance of an evidence-based gastrointestinal nematode control program in beef cow-calf herds.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal , Nematoides , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Feminino
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 240-246, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234614

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a triatomic form of oxygen. As O3 rapidly dissociates into water and releases a reactive form of oxygen that may oxidize cells, the gas mixture of O3/O2 is used in medicine. ATP is widely available for cellular activity. O3 can be administered via the systemic and local routes. Although O3 is known as one of the most powerful oxidants, it also promotes antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, it stimulates some of the cells of the immune system and inactivates pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, and viruses. Owing to these activities, O3 is used to improve several diseases, both in human and in veterinary medicine. Considering the wide scope of O3 application, the aim of this review was to reiterate the mechanisms of action of O3 and its utilization in different mammalian species (bovine, ovine-caprine, equine, canine, porcine).


Assuntos
Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 127, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoroptic mange is an important disease in Belgian Blue cattle. Treatment failure of macrocyclic lactones against Psoroptes ovis has been reported, but clear evidence of in vivo resistance is lacking. This study assessed the efficacy of macrocyclic lactone products on 16 beef farms in Belgium and the Netherlands in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: On each farm a group of animals (n = 7-14) with psoroptic mange was treated with two subcutaneous injections of a macrocyclic lactone product with 7-10 days interval (15 farms) or a single injection with a long-acting macrocyclic lactone (1 farm). In vivo efficacy was assessed by the reduction in mite counts, clinical index (proportion of the body surface affected by lesions), the proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round and the number of treatment rounds needed to obtain zero mites counts in all animals. A mite population was categorized as sensitive when the mite count reduction after the first treatment round > 95% and the lower limit of the uncertainty interval > 90%. Resistance was detected when both parameters were below their threshold and suspected when one parameter was too low. In vitro knockdown and mortality were evaluated in a contact test. RESULTS: The proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round varied from 0 to 80%. All farms needed two or more treatments rounds to obtain zero mite counts on all animals. Clinical index only started to reduce after the second treatment round. Mite populations from three farms were categorized as sensitive, one as suspected resistant and 12 as resistant. No correlation was found between in vitro lethal dose 50 and knockdown dose 50 values and in vivo efficacy parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Unambiguous treatment failure was detected on 12 out of 16 farms, confirming the presence of macrocyclic lactone resistance on Belgian Blue beef farms. In vitro parameters could not discriminate the farms based on their in vivo sensitivity. The mean reduction in mite counts and the lower limit of the confidence interval are proposed as parameters to identify acaricide resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bélgica , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Fazendas , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Países Baixos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(6): 416-423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190917

RESUMO

Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a foot disease causing lameness in dairy cattle. It is regarded as a polymicrobial infection, although its etiology is not fully understood. PDD is treated by the topical or systemic administration of antibiotics such as lincomycin (LCM); however, the milk of the cows cannot be marketed during the treatment and withdrawal period due to the residual antibiotics in milk. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), an extract of Wasabia japonica (known as wasabi or Japanese horseradish) widely employed as a food additive, can be used as an alternative antimicrobial agent that overcomes this problem. We previously showed that AITC is as effective as LCM in PDD treatment. Here, using the samples obtained in the previous clinical study, we analyzed changes in the bacterial population in the PDD-associated microbiota after AITC treatment and compared those with that following LCM treatment by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based amplicon analysis. Both treatments induced major changes in the bacterial population, and Treponema species, which have been regarded as the major causative agents of PDD, were efficiently eliminated by both agents. However, the AITC-treated samples exhibited higher diversity compared with pretreatment samples, but this trend was not observed for LCM treatment, probably reflecting different antibacterial activities of the two agents. Importantly, this analysis detected population changes before morphological changes in PDD lesions (clinical signs of healing) became evident, indicating that 16S rRNA-based amplicon analysis represents an efficient strategy for analyzing and monitoring the treatment efficiency of PDD as well as other polymicrobial diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Digital/tratamento farmacológico , Isotiocianatos , RNA-Seq/métodos , Treponema , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Lactação , Leite/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Treponema/efeitos dos fármacos , Treponema/genética , Wasabia/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...