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1.
J Vet Dent ; 37(2): 94-99, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815477

RESUMO

A 15-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was presented for investigation of fever, right temporomandibular region swelling, and progressive pain when opening the mouth. Right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sepsis was diagnosed based on synovial fluid analysis, sonographic imaging, and standing robotic cone-beam computed tomography. Concurrent otitis media and temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) were also noted. The horse was treated with arthroscopic debridement and lavage during standing sedation followed by local and systemic antimicrobial therapy. There were no complications associated with the surgical procedure and the gelding's clinical signs resolved. Arthroscopy of the TMJ can be accomplished in the standing horse and should be considered when arthroscopic exploration or debridement of this joint is indicated. This is also the first case report of concurrent otitis media, TMJ sepsis, and THO; due to their close anatomic relationship, it is possible that septic otitis media could lead to pathology in the TMJ and temporohyoid joint, as described in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Sepse , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Animais , Artroscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/veterinária , Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/veterinária , Irrigação Terapêutica/veterinária
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2955-2963, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647992

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, and a recently reported new species, T. haneyi. Infections by these apicomplexan parasites limit performance and cause economic losses for the horse industry. Equine piroplasmosis is widespread in the northern regions of Nigeria, where an increasing portion of the animal population is composed of horses. This disease has remained epidemiologically challenging, especially as the movement of horses increases across Nigeria. In this study, blood samples from 300 horses were collected in three states of northwestern Nigeria. The presence of piroplasms was screened by nested PCR targeting 18S rDNA and positive samples were analyzed using species-specific-nested PCR-targeting genes including ema1 (T. equi), rap1 (B. caballi), and a gene coding a protein of unknown function (T. haneyi). Species-specific-nPCR results demonstrated that the prevalence of T. equi was 13.0% (39/300), B. caballi was 3.3% (10/300) and T. haneyi was 2.7% (8/300). Mixed infections with T. equi and B. caballi was 2.7% (8/300) while T. equi, B. caballi, and T. haneyi multiple infection prevalence was 0.6% (2/300). We used 18S rDNA sequences to determine close relationships between T. equi by phylogenetic analysis and demonstrated that among 57 sequences of Theileria parasites, 28 samples belonged to clade A (49%), 13 samples were found to be clade C (22%), and 16 were clade D (28%). These results demonstrate the genetic diversity of T. equi circulating in horses from Nigeria.


Assuntos
Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/genética , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469939

RESUMO

A prolonged break-over phase might be an indication of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders and can be measured with optical motion capture (OMC) systems, inertial measurement units (IMUs) and force plates. The aim of this study was to present two algorithms for automatic detection of the break-over phase onset from the acceleration and angular velocity signals measured by hoof-mounted IMUs in walk and trot on a hard surface. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated by internal validation with an OMC system and a force plate separately. Seven Warmblood horses were equipped with two wireless IMUs which were attached to the lateral wall of the right front (RF) and hind (RH) hooves. Horses were walked and trotted over a force plate for internal validation while simultaneously the 3D position of three reflective markers, attached to lateral heel, lateral toe and lateral coronet of each hoof, were measured by six infrared cameras of an OMC system. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated by linear mixed model analysis. The acceleration algorithm was the most accurate with an accuracy between -9 and 23 ms and a precision around 24 ms (against OMC system), and an accuracy between -37 and 20 ms and a precision around 29 ms (against force plate), depending on gait and hoof. This algorithm seems promising for quantification of the break-over phase onset although the applicability for clinical purposes, such as lameness detection and evaluation of trimming and shoeing techniques, should be investigated more in-depth.


Assuntos
Casco e Garras/fisiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/fisiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/veterinária , Algoritmos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Casco e Garras/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Caminhada , Tecnologia sem Fio
5.
Lab Chip ; 20(9): 1621-1627, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116332

RESUMO

Rapid, sensitive and specific detection and reporting of infectious pathogens is important for patient management and epidemic surveillance. We demonstrated a point-of-care system integrated with a smartphone for detecting live virus from nasal swab media, using a panel of equine respiratory infectious diseases as a model system for corresponding human diseases such as COVID-19. Specific nucleic acid sequences of five pathogens were amplified by loop-mediated isothermal amplification on a microfluidic chip and detected at the end of reactions by the smartphone. Pathogen-spiked horse nasal swab samples were correctly diagnosed using our system, with a limit of detection comparable to that of the traditional lab-based test, polymerase chain reaction, with results achieved in ∼30 minutes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Smartphone , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Aplicativos Móveis , Nariz/microbiologia , Nariz/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/microbiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/virologia , Streptococcus equi/isolamento & purificação
6.
Lab Chip ; 20(9): 1621-1627, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334422

RESUMO

Rapid, sensitive and specific detection and reporting of infectious pathogens is important for patient management and epidemic surveillance. We demonstrated a point-of-care system integrated with a smartphone for detecting live virus from nasal swab media, using a panel of equine respiratory infectious diseases as a model system for corresponding human diseases such as COVID-19. Specific nucleic acid sequences of five pathogens were amplified by loop-mediated isothermal amplification on a microfluidic chip and detected at the end of reactions by the smartphone. Pathogen-spiked horse nasal swab samples were correctly diagnosed using our system, with a limit of detection comparable to that of the traditional lab-based test, polymerase chain reaction, with results achieved in ∼30 minutes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Smartphone , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Aplicativos Móveis , Nariz/microbiologia , Nariz/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/microbiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/virologia , Streptococcus equi/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 283-290, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296849

RESUMO

The erythrocytic-stage surface protein equi merozoite antigen 1 (EMA-1) of Theileria equi is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant EMA-1 to prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against T. equi EMA-1, and 1 mAb 5H2 was obtained that showed good reaction with infected red blood cells (RBC) in the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). To develop a rapid serological detection method for T. equi infection in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, recombinant EMA-1 originating from the local T. equi strain and the mAb to EMA-1 were employed to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect antibodies to T. equi in horse sera. The ICT showed high sensitivity and specificity and no cross-reaction with Babesia caballi. Ninety-two horse serum samples collected from Ili, Xinjiang, were tested by ICT and compared with the detection results of a commercial ELISA kit. The results showed that 56 of 92 (61%) serum samples were seropositive according to the ICT assay, and 50 (54%) samples were seropositive according to the ELISA kit. The ICT had a high coincidence (91.3%) but was more sensitive than the reference ELISA kit. To confirm whether the horses were infected by T. equi, 30 blood DNA samples from 92 horses were examined by PCR. The results showed that 14 of 30 (47%) horses were confirmed to be infected with T. equi by PCR, while 16 of 30 (53%) horses were seropositive by ICT. All PCR-positive horses were ICT-positive. The findings indicate that T. equi is endemic in Ili, Xinjiang, and that the ICT is reliable as a serological diagnosis method. The ICT developed in this study could be an efficient diagnostic tool to detect T. equi infection in horses in the Xinjiang area.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , China , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Hibridomas/citologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Theileria/imunologia , Theileriose/sangue , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 161-171, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145834

RESUMO

Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to benchtop diagnostic modalities that have been translated into portable and easy-to-use formats suitable for patient-side use. Recent advances in diagnostic technology have allowed the development of a growing collection of POCT assays available to equine practitioners. Advantages include rapid results that reduce initial guesswork and promote diagnosis-targeted patient care, which may ultimately provide better clinical outcomes. Small handheld devices comprise most POCT technologies, providing qualitative or quantitative determination of an increasing range of analytes, including critical care analyzers and, more recently, hematology and immunology analyzers. This article discusses commercially available equine POCT.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica
9.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 73-85, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145835

RESUMO

The dynamic physiologic changes and unique diet during the neonatal period contribute to key differences in clinicopathologic test results of healthy foals relative to healthy adult horses. When reporting results, most diagnostic laboratories only provide reference intervals for mature horses. Thus, failure to recognize the unique differences that occur in foals relative to adult horses can lead to erroneous interpretation of neonatal clinical pathologic values. Thus, the main objective of this article was to review distinct features of common clinicopathologic tests in foals, relative to mature horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica
10.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 87-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145836

RESUMO

Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Asma/veterinária , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
11.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 147-160, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007299

RESUMO

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a marker of inflammation and infection in the horse that can be assessed in the field, with rapid and marked changes seen following initiation of an inflammatory stimulus. This quality of SAA also makes its clinical use challenging, because even small inflammatory conditions can cause large changes in SAA levels. Review of the current literature provides guidelines for responses of SAA to various conditions, which can be applied to specific clinical cases. The practitioner is encouraged to use SAA in conjunction with physical examination and other diagnostic modalities to guide treatment and monitor case progression.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Inflamação/veterinária , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Inflamação/sangue
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069321

RESUMO

This study has investigated the immediate effect of induced hindlimb length difference on hindlimb lameness measured as differences in minimum (Pmin) and maximum (Pmax) pelvic heights in 16 horses trotting in a straight line and lungeing on both hard and soft surfaces with body-mounted inertial sensors. Hindlimb length differences were induced by applying an Easyboot Glue-on shoe to one hindlimb. Changes in Pmin and Pmax with induced hindlimb length difference were assessed with a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with trial (straight, lunge with inside limb elevation, lunge with outside limb elevation) and surface (hard, soft) as within-subject factors. Change in Pmin, indicating an impact-type lameness, in the hind limb with the elevation, was significant in both the straight line and while lunging on both hard and soft surfaces. Change in Pmax, indicating pushoff-type lameness, in the opposite, non-elevated hind limb, was significant when trotting in a straight line but not while lunging.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiopatologia
13.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098825

RESUMO

Potomac horse fever (PHF), a severe and frequently fatal febrile diarrheal disease, has been known to be caused only by Neorickettsia risticii, an endosymbiont of digenean trematodes. Here, we report the cell culture isolation of a new Neorickettsia species found in two locations in eastern Ontario, Canada, in 2016 and 2017 (in addition to 10 variable strains of N. risticii) from N. risticii PCR-negative horses with clinical signs of PHF. Gene sequences of 16S rRNA and the major surface antigen P51 of this new Neorickettsia species were distinct from those of all previously characterized N. risticii strains and Neorickettsia species, except for those from an uncharacterized Neorickettsia species culture isolate from a horse with PHF in northern Ohio in 1991. The new Neorickettsia species nonetheless had the characteristic intramolecular repeats within strain-specific antigen 3 (Ssa3), which were found in all sequenced Ssa3s of N. risticii strains. Experimental inoculation of two naive ponies with the new Neorickettsia species produced severe and subclinical PHF, respectively, and the bacteria were reisolated from both of them, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Serological assay titers against the new Neorickettsia species were higher than those against N. risticii Whole-genome sequence analysis of the new Neorickettsia species revealed unique features of this bacterium compared with N. risticii We propose to classify this new bacterium as Neorickettsia finleia sp. nov. This finding will improve the laboratory diagnosis of and vaccine for PHF, environmental risk assessment of PHF, and understanding of PHF pathogenesis and Neorickettsia biology in general.IMPORTANCE Despite the detection of Neorickettsia species DNA sequences in various trematode species and their hosts, only three Neorickettsia species have been cell culture isolated and whole-genome sequenced and are known to infect mammals and/or cause disease. The molecular mechanisms that enable the obligatory intracellular bacterium Neorickettsia to colonize trematodes and to horizontally transmit from trematodes to mammals, as well as the virulence factors associated with specific mammalian hosts, are unknown. Potomac horse fever (PHF) is a severe and acute systemic infectious disease of horses, with clinical signs that include diarrhea. Neorickettsia risticii is the only known bacterial species that causes PHF. Ingestion of insects harboring N. risticii-infected trematodes by horses leads to PHF. Our discovery of a new Neorickettsia species that causes PHF and whole-genome sequence analysis of this bacterium will improve laboratory diagnosis and vaccine development for PHF and will contribute to our understanding of Neorickettsia ecology, pathogenesis, and biology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Neorickettsia/classificação , Neorickettsia/genética , Neorickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Canadá , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Neorickettsia/patogenicidade , Neorickettsia risticii/genética , Neorickettsia risticii/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência , Trematódeos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 239-245, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052697

RESUMO

Enteric disease in horses may be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including several clostridial species. Paeniclostridium sordellii (previously Clostridium sordellii) has been frequently associated with gas gangrene in humans and several animal species, including horses. However, its role in enteric diseases of animals has not been fully determined. We describe herein 7 cases of enteric disease in horses associated with P. sordellii infection. Grossly, the small and/or large intestines were necrotic, hemorrhagic, and edematous. Microscopically, there was severe mucosal necrosis and hemorrhage of the small and/or large intestine of all horses. P. sordellii was isolated and/or demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and/or PCR in the intestine of all horses. All other known causes of enteric disease in horses were ruled out in these 7 cases. P. sordellii should be considered among the differential diagnoses in cases of enteric disease in horses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium/fisiologia , Enterocolite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium sordellii , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 230-238, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081091

RESUMO

The role of type A Clostridium perfringens in canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome and foal necrotizing enteritis is poorly characterized. However, a highly significant association between the presence of novel toxigenic C. perfringens and these specific enteric diseases has been described. These novel toxigenic strains produce 3 novel putative toxins, which have been designated NetE, NetF, and NetG. Although not conclusively demonstrated, current evidence suggests that NetF is likely the major virulence factor in strains responsible for canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome and foal necrotizing enteritis. NetF is a beta-pore-forming toxin that belongs to the same toxin superfamily as CPB and NetB toxins produced by C. perfringens. The netF gene is encoded on a conjugative plasmid that, in the case of netF, also carries another putative toxin gene, netE. In addition, these strains consistently also carry a cpe tcp-conjugative plasmid, and a proportion also carry a separate netG tcp-conjugative plasmid. The netF and netG genes form part of a locus with all the features of the pathogenicity loci of tcp-conjugative plasmids. The netF-positive isolates are clonal in origin and fall into 2 clades. Disease in dogs or foals can be associated with either clade. Thus, these are strains with unique virulence-associated characteristics associated with serious and sometimes fatal cases of important enteric diseases in 2 animal species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/veterinária
16.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 884-890, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic examinations are essential for diagnosis and treatment of strangles (S equi infection) in horses. However, even after disinfection, endoscopes may retain viable bacteria or bacterial DNA. Twitches are commonly used during endoscopic examinations and can thus also potentially transmit the organism to other horses. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of different disinfectant methods to eliminate S equi from experimentally contaminated endoscopes and twitches and the effectiveness of field disinfection of endoscopes used in sampling carriers of S equi. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental contamination and observational field study. METHODS: One endoscope and 30 twitches were contaminated with standardised S equi broth solutions. The endoscope was disinfected following three protocols using various disinfectants for manual disinfection. A fourth protocol used an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER). The twitches (n = 30) were disinfected following eight different disinfecting protocols. Three endoscopes used in sampling for silent carriers were disinfected following a field-based protocol. After each protocol the endoscopes and twitches were sampled for S equi by culture and qPCR. RESULTS: Following experimental contamination all endoscope disinfection protocols, apart from 1/6 of the ethanol protocol were S equi culture negative. However, no endoscope disinfection protocol completely eliminated retention of S equi DNA. Field disinfection of endoscopes after sampling carriers yielded no culture positives and all but one (13/14) were qPCR negative. All twitches disinfected following experimental contamination were culture negative but sodium hypochlorite was the only disinfectant that completely eliminated detection of S equi DNA. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Experimental contamination may not reflect the numbers of S equi transferred to endoscopes or twitches during use on silent carriers and purulent secretions from infected horses may influence survival of S equi. CONCLUSIONS: While most disinfection methods appear to ensure removal of cultivable S equi, residual DNA can remain on both endoscopes and twitches.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus equi , Animais , Desinfecção , Endoscópios , Cavalos
17.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 105-120, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982231

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract and liver comprise key components of the equine digestive system and together have important functions in metabolism, digestion, absorption, detoxification, and synthesis. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and liver are common in clinical practice and can cause a variety of clinical signs. Hematologic and biochemical analysis can be helpful for identifying organ dysfunction, narrowing down the differential diagnostic list, and monitoring progress and response to treatment. This article details hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of intestinal and hepatic diseases and reviews bloodwork trends frequently observed in adult horses affected by enteropathy or hepatopathy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/patologia , Patologia Clínica
18.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 1-14, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987706

RESUMO

Clinical pathology results are only as good as the quality of samples and accompanying information submitted to the diagnostic laboratory. The frustration of nondiagnostic or equivocal test results can often be avoided by taking the time to follow sample handling and submission guidelines. This article discusses preanalytical errors that commonly affect the accuracy of hematology, chemistry, and cytology testing, and offers practical tips for preventing these errors and maximizing diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/sangue , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/economia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Análise Química do Sangue/economia , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Técnicas Citológicas/economia , Técnicas Citológicas/veterinária , Hematologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Estados Unidos
19.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 53-71, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987707

RESUMO

Horses with clinical signs of unprovoked or excessive hemorrhage should be evaluated for underlying platelet defects or coagulopathies. This article provides an overview of preliminary screening and definitive tests to assess coagulation and identify hemostatic defects in horses, as well as a review of the hemostatic disorders most frequently encountered in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/sangue , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/veterinária , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico
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