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1.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 493-514, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672201

RESUMO

Skin disease in donkeys is less common than in horses, but is easily overlooked. Little published material exists on this important area of equine medicine. Skin tumors continue to challenge veterinarians working with donkeys. This article outlines the main disease entities that the author has encountered, although there are many other diseases and disorders that occur in different parts of the world that are not yet appreciated. When investigating a skin disease, a logical and comprehensive clinical approach should always be made; many conditions are similar in clinical presentation or are complicated by comorbidity or secondary infection, infestation, or self-trauma.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Cavalos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 545-560, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672202

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation and preventative care in donkeys should follow similar guidelines as for horses. There are species-specific differences due to the desert-adapted physiology of the donkey. Donkeys are mainly used as pack animals, companions and for production of meat or milk - they may be kept well into old age. Diseases often present late or may go unrecognized leading to poor welfare and quality of life. Basic knowledge of nutrition, blood values, pharmacology and common disease recognition will help veterinarians improve the health and welfare of donkeys.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cavalos , Qualidade de Vida , Vacinação/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
3.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 575-588, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672203

RESUMO

Donkeys and mules often are misunderstood because of their behavioral differences compared with horses. Working with these animals requires more patience and ability to notice the slightest changes in behavior to diagnose disease. Mules and donkeys form strong bonds and trust with familiar people and other equids. Training mules and hinnies from an early age is key to modifying behavior and acceptance of unfamiliar people. Reproductive behavior is different from that of horses and requires more patience when collecting jacks. Practitioners working with mules and donkeys should take a methodological approach and get to know the animal before performing examinations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Equidae/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos
4.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 529-544, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587975

RESUMO

Research and clinical understanding of equine dentistry has progressed in recent years; however, specific knowledge about donkey dentistry is lacking. This article intends to revise unique anatomic features of the head and oral cavity of donkeys, as well as how to correctly examine, diagnose, prevent, and/or treat dental pathology, allowing for a better comprehension of oral and dental disorders affecting these animals throughout their life. It also emphasizes that these disorders need to be taken into account when assessing the welfare of donkeys.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/veterinária , Animais , Odontologia/veterinária , Cavalos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 399-417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587976

RESUMO

The donkey evolved under harsh and arid environmental conditions, developing unique energy-efficiency traits, with an efficiency to rapidly mobilize fat in situations of increased energy demands or when food is scarce. This evolution has led to an inherent predisposition of donkeys to obesity, dyslipidemias, insulin dysregulation/metabolic syndrome, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and endocrinopathic laminitis. Marked differences have been described in hormone dynamics and testing protocols for the diagnosis of these endocrine and metabolic diseases in donkeys compared with horses, underlining the necessity of a species-specific approach in order to avoid misdiagnosis, unnecessary or inadequate treatments, and additional costs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia
6.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 419-432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587977

RESUMO

A review of common gastrointestinal disorders of donkeys and mules is presented. Clinically relevant aspects of donkey behavior, anatomy, and physiology are highlighted. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract from stomach to rectum, including liver and pancreas, are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 43, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal pain, unexplained hind limb lameness, back pain or behavioural problems in geldings could be attributable to painful neuromas that develop as a consequence of crushing and severing the testicular nerves during castration. The presence of neuroma in this anatomical location has never been reported, hence the knowledge of possible clinical relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to histologically investigate the testicular nerves at the castration site in geldings for the presence of neuromas. Proximal spermatic cord remnants were collected from 20 geldings admitted to routine post mortem examination for various reasons. The time of castration was unknown, but it had not been performed during the last year. Spermatic cord specimens were immersed in 10% formalin, trimmed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) for light microscopy. Identification of nerve tissue was done by immuno-localization of nerve specific enolase (NSE). RESULTS: Neuromas were found in 21 spermatic cords from 13 geldings and were bilateral in eight of the horses. The neuromas consisted of areas with small groups of non-neoplastic proliferations of peripheral neural tissue. The tissue included neurofilaments and Schwann cells, intermingled or surrounded with, epineural, perineural and endoneural fibrous tissue. The neural tissue immunostained positive with NSE. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed neuromas of the remnant testicular nerves at the site of castration. Further studies are required to establish if these neuromas in the castration site are painful and if certain castration methods promote their formation. Future studies should also investigate the clinical consequence of these neuromas for the individual horse.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Neuroma/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Neuroma/diagnóstico , Neuroma/etiologia , Neuroma/patologia , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 53-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395205

RESUMO

The detection and quantification of nematode eggs using fecal egg count techniques have an irreplaceable role in equine parasitic control. The reliability, particularly precision and accuracy, of individual techniques have been described only for strongylid infections. The aim of this study was to compare three fecal egg count techniques used for the detection of the two most common equine nematode infections: strongylid and ascarid. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques were tested on spiked fecal samples with various levels of egg concentration (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 3000 eggs per gram) and naturally infected mixed strongylid-ascarid samples with 30 replicates. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques had precision coefficients of variation of 44.33, 35.64 and 18.25% for the strongylid infection and 62.95, 35.71 and 18.95% for the ascarid infection, and percent accuracies (mean count/number of eggs spiked) of 97.53, 88.39 and 74.18% for the strongylid infection and 65.53, 83.18 and 90.28% for the ascarid infection, respectively. Accuracy depended greatly on the type of nematode, but precision did not. The Mini-FLOTAC technique was more precise than the Simple and Concentration McMaster techniques regardless of nematode type. Simple McMaster was the most accurate technique for detecting strongylid eggs, and Mini-FLOTAC was the most accurate technique for detecting ascarid eggs. Our results indicated that none of the current techniques were universally and sufficiently reliable for the simultaneous quantification of both of these common equine nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/diagnóstico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridíase/diagnóstico , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Cavalos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 20-24, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213237

RESUMO

Neosporosis is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide but is rare in horses. Here, the first case of histologically, ultrastructurally, immunohistochemically, and molecularly confirmed equine abortion caused by neosporosis is reported. Samples of lung, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, tongue, brain, and the placenta from a female fetus aborted at 280 days of gestation were fixed in formalin and submitted for diagnosis. Histologically, there was disseminated neosporosis with severe lesions in lungs, liver and the heart. Protozoal tachyzoites in all tissues reacted with polyclonal anti-Neospora caninum rabbit antibodies. Transmission electron microscopic observation on lung tissue revealed tachyzoites consistent with Neospora, including many rhoptries. Polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the Sarcocystidae was performed on DNA extracted from fetal tissues. Comparison of the ITS1 amplified from the foal tissue to sequences available in GenBank revealed 100% sequence identity to the ITS1 from three isolates of Neospora hughesi.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Feto Abortado/ultraestrutura , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neospora/genética , Neospora/ultraestrutura
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 187, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biochemical components of saliva can change in certain pathologies in horses, for example in acute abdominal disease. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate if a panel of biochemical analytes usually used in serum can be measured in saliva of horses and (2) to study the possible changes of these biochemical analytes in saliva of horses affected by acute abdominal disease. A panel of 23 analytes was analytically validated in saliva of horses and possible changes in these analytes in a pilot study with six healthy horses and six horses with acute abdominal disease were evaluated. The analytes with significant changes were then evaluated in a larger population of 20 healthy and 37 diseased horses. RESULTS: Seven analytes showed significant increases in the pilot study which were confirmed in the larger population. The analytes which showed significant changes, and their median fold increase and significance shown in the larger population were salivary γ-glutamyl transferase (gGT, 2.3 fold, P = 0.001), creatine kinase (CK, 6.2 fold, P < 0.001), urea (2.3 fold, P = 0.001), total bilirubin (2.6 fold, P < 0.001), total proteins (3.2 fold, P < 0.001), phosphorus (P, 4.5 fold, P < 0.001) and alpha-amylase (sAA, 8.5 fold, P < 0.001). Total proteins, P and sAA showed sensitivities higher than 70% at their optimal cut-off points and a specificity of 100% in differentiating between healthy horses and those with acute abdominal disease. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 23 biochemical analytes can be measured in saliva of horses, where gGT, CK, urea, total bilirubin, total protein, P and sAA levels are raised in horses with acute abdominal disease.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Saliva/química , Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico , Animais , Bilirrubina/análise , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Fósforo/análise , Saliva/enzimologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ureia/análise
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 24, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and degenerative activity inside the joint can be studied in vivo by analysis of synovial fluid biomarkers. In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, several anabolic and anti-inflammatory substances are produced during the disease process. They counteract the catabolic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus diminish the cartilage damage. The response of synovial fluid biomarkers after intra-articular hyaluronan injection, alone or in combination with other substances, has been examined only in a few equine studies. The effects of hyaluronan on some pro-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2, have been documented but especially the effects on synovial fluid anti-inflammatory mediators are less studied. In animal models hyaluronan has been demonstrated to reduce pain via protecting nociceptive nerve endings and by blocking pain receptor channels. However, the results obtained for pain-relief of human osteoarthritis are contradictory. The aim of the study was to measure the synovial fluid IL-1ra, PDGF-BB, TGF-ß1 and TNF-α concentrations before and after surgically induced cartilage defect, and following intra-articular hyaluronan injection in horses. Eight Standardbred horses underwent bilateral arthroscopic surgeries of their intercarpal joints under general anaesthesia, and cartilage defect was created on the dorsal edge of the third carpal bone of one randomly selected intercarpal joint of each horse. Five days post-surgery, one randomly selected intercarpal joint was injected intra-articular with 3 mL HA (20 mg/mL). RESULTS: Operation type had no significant effect on the synovial fluid IL-1ra, PDGF-BB, TGF-ß1 and TNF-α concentrations but compared with baseline, synovial fluid IL-1ra and TNF-α concentrations increased. Intra-articular hyaluronan had no significant effect on the biomarker concentrations but a trend of mild improvement in the clinical signs of intra-articular inflammation was seen. CONCLUSIONS: Creation of the cartilage defect and sham-operation lead to an increase of synovial fluid IL-1ra and TNF-α concentrations but changes in concentrations of anabolic growth factors TGF-ß1 and PDGF-BB could not be documented 5 days after the arthroscopy. Intra-articular hyaluronan was well tolerated. Further research is needed to document possible treatment effects of intra-articular hyaluronan on the synovial fluid biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Articulações do Carpo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cartilagens/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Líquido Sinovial/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Articulações do Carpo/patologia , Articulações do Carpo/cirurgia , Doenças das Cartilagens/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 25, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although artificial insemination (AI) was developed as a means of controlling disease transmission, pathogens can still be transmitted to females in semen used for AI. In addition, bacteria can cause deterioration in sperm quality during storage. Semen becomes contaminated by the male's normal bacterial flora as it passes out of the reproductive tract but potential pathogens may also contaminate the semen. Therefore, semen samples from stallions to be used for AI are tested before the breeding season to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares. In Sweden, semen samples are tested at the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (SVA). For the present study, a retrospective analysis was made of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from samples submitted to the SVA from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In our study, Taylorella equigenitalis was found infrequently (53 out of 25,512 samples), representing 11 out of 2308 stallions. If T. equigenitalis was detected, the stallions were treated with antibiotics and re-tested later in the same year. Klebsiella pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most commonly found potential pathogens, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated occasionally. There were considerable differences in the number of species isolated each year. CONCLUSIONS: Potential pathogens were identified in relatively few of the samples submitted to SVA during this period, with T. equigenitalis not being identified since 2015. Of the other potential pathogens, K. pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common. The information is relevant for determining guidelines on the testing and treatment of stallions before breeding.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Sêmen/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Suécia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 298-302, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188947

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection by Sarcocystis neurona in horses and identify potential risk factors. Were analyzed 427 samples from 36 farms in 21 municipalities in the Alagoas State, Brazil. Presence of anti-S. neurona antibodies was diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and was confirmed using the immunoblot test. Risk factors were assessed through investigative questionnaires on animal management on the farms. The prevalence of anti-S.neurona antibodies was 2.8% (confidence interval, CI: 1.5-4.9%) from IFAT and 1.6% (CI:0.8-3.34%) from immunoblot, and there were positive horses on 16.6% of the studied farms. None of the variables studied presented associations with serological status for S. neurona. This is the first report on infection by S. neurona in horses reared in Alagoas, Brazil showing a low exposure to S. neurona in this region, but with significant numbers of foci.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 585-587, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246158

RESUMO

Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration is used in the diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses. We enrolled 10 horses, 5 PPID-positive and 5 PPID-negative, in our study, September 20-22, 2016. On day 0, 5 mL of whole blood was collected into each of 6 EDTA tubes and immediately placed in a refrigerator at 7°C. One tube was centrifuged within 15 min of collection, followed by centrifugation of one tube from each horse at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 h following collection. At each time, centrifuged plasma was pipetted into 1.5-mL polypropylene tubes and stored at -80°C. None of the plasma samples were turbid, hemolyzed, or icteric. Plasma was shipped frozen with cold packs overnight to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center of Cornell University (Ithaca, NY) for analysis. The percent change from baseline (PCFB) was reported to standardize the data given that baseline values differed. The mean PCFB was 2.8 (95% confidence interval: -2.9%, 7.0%). Neither refrigeration of whole blood for up to 36 h prior to centrifugation nor freezing affected plasma ACTH concentrations significantly.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Centrifugação/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/patologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 234, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092285

RESUMO

Equine trypanosomosis is a complex of infectious diseases called dourine, nagana and surra. It is caused by several species of the genus Trypanosoma that are transmitted cyclically by tsetse flies, mechanically by other haematophagous flies, or sexually. Trypanosoma congolense (subgenus Nannomonas) and T. vivax (subgenus Dutonella) are genetically and morphologically distinct from T. brucei, T. equiperdum and T. evansi (subgenus Trypanozoon). It remains controversial whether the three latter taxa should be considered distinct species. Recent outbreaks of surra and dourine in Europe illustrate the risk and consequences of importation of equine trypanosomosis with infected animals into non-endemic countries. Knowledge on the epidemiological situation is fragmentary since many endemic countries do not report the diseases to the World Organisation for Animal Health, OIE. Other major obstacles to the control of equine trypanosomosis are the lack of vaccines, the inability of drugs to cure the neurological stage of the disease, the inconsistent case definition and the limitations of current diagnostics. Especially in view of the ever-increasing movement of horses around the globe, there is not only the obvious need for reliable curative and prophylactic drugs but also for accurate diagnostic tests and algorithms. Unfortunately, clinical signs are not pathognomonic, parasitological tests are not sufficiently sensitive, serological tests miss sensitivity or specificity, and molecular tests cannot distinguish the taxa within the Trypanozoon subgenus. To address the limitations of the current diagnostics for equine trypanosomosis, we recommend studies into improved molecular and serological tests with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity. We realise that this is an ambitious goal, but it is dictated by needs at the point of care. However, depending on available treatment options, it may not always be necessary to identify which trypanosome taxon is responsible for a given infection.


Assuntos
Mal do Coito (Veterinária)/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma congolense/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma vivax/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico
17.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(2): 263-274, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047766

RESUMO

Horses with trigeminal mediated headshaking (TMHS) have a decreased activation threshold of the trigeminal nerve and clinical signs are suspected to be a manifestation of trigeminal neuralgia. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) is used for management of neuralgia in humans and appears to work via gate control theory. Use of an equine specific percutaneous ENS program in over 130 TMHS horses has resulted in approximately 50% success return to previous work. Electroacupuncture may also be useful in the management TMHS. Optimization of ENS procedures for TMHS is likely to require a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of the aberrant neurophysiology.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/veterinária , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Movimentos da Cabeça , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia
18.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(2): 327-338, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076223

RESUMO

Despite there being only 2 common endocrine diseases in horses, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), diagnosis is still confusing. Failing to consider horse factors and treating based on laboratory results only have caused many animals to receive lifelong drug treatment unnecessarily. Increased plasma ACTH, baseline or TRH stimulated, supports a diagnosis of PPID; however, breed, age, thriftiness, illness, coat color, geography, diet, and season also affect ACTH concentration. Insulin dysregulation, the hallmark of EMS, can result from insulin resistance or excessive postprandial insulin release. Each requires a different diagnostic test to reach a diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Cavalos
19.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(2): 363-378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088699

RESUMO

Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS) are terms used for newborn foals that develop noninfectious neurologic signs in the immediate postpartum period. Cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and inflammation leading to neuronal and glial dysfunction and excitotoxicity are considered key mechanisms behind NE/NMS. Attention has been placed on endocrine and paracrine factors that alter brain cell function. Abnormal steroid concentrations (progestogens, neurosteroids) have been measured in critically ill and NE foals. In addition to supportive treatment, antimicrobials should be considered. Controversies regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NE and NMS will remain until controlled mechanistic and therapeutic studies are conducted.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos
20.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(4): 416-422, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113012

RESUMO

Intermediate patellar ligament (IPL) desmopathy is a relatively uncommon injury previously reported to have a poor prognosis for return to athletic activity. There is little documentation of the clinical and ultrasonographic features, clinical significance, and outcome for return to work following IPL injury in horses. The aim of this retrospective descriptive study was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic features of IPL desmopathy, its association with other injuries of the stifle, and outcome for return to work following injury. Forty-two stifles with an ultrasound diagnosis of IPL desmopathy over a 5-year time period were included. Data regarding signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment, and outcome are described. Intermediate patellar ligament desmopathy occurred most commonly in the midbody (35/42; 83%) of the ligament and lesions were predominantly hypoechoic discrete tears (31/42; 74%) that were obliquely oriented in a craniolateral to caudomedial direction (28/42; 67%). Rarely (1/42; 2%) was IPL desmopathy the only ultrasonographic abnormality detected. Of 13 horses that underwent recheck ultrasound examination, the majority (11/42; 85%) either did not improve or worsened ultrasonographically. Despite this, of 25 horses with long-term follow-up, 23 (92%) returned to work, 16 at the same level or higher. A variety of treatments were utilized. The clinical significance of IPL desmopathy is difficult to determine because it is usually found in conjunction with other stifle abnormalities. Although IPL desmopathy rarely shows ultrasonographic improvement over time, prognosis can be good for return to work.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Artropatias/veterinária , Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Artropatias/diagnóstico , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Patelar/anormalidades , Ligamento Patelar/lesões , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/anormalidades , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/lesões
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