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1.
Equine Vet J ; 53(2): 331-338, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, has undergone a range expansion from the northeastern and mid-west United States to areas of southeastern Canada, including parts of Ontario. Understanding the seroprevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in horses and risk factors for exposure is important for monitoring and preventing this emerging disease. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 551 horses in southern, central, and eastern Ontario, Canada. OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in horses in Ontario, Canada; to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity; and, to compare the performance of two diagnostic tests. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from clinically healthy horses in Ontario, Canada, along with completed questionnaires that were used for the risk factor analysis. Sera were tested with a Multiplex ELISA (Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Cornell University) and C6 ELISA (IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® Plus test, IDEXX Laboratories). RESULTS: The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi on at least one test was 17% (91/551), though only 15 (16%) horses tested positive with both tests. A spatial cluster of cases was detected in Eastern Ontario. The odds of being seropositive for B. burgdorferi on the C6 ELISA were significantly increased when oak trees were present by pastures (OR = 7.3 (1.8-29.2), P = .005), while the odds were significantly decreased when regular tick checks were performed (OR = 0.1 (0.01-0.7), P = 0.02). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Recruitment focused on known areas with blacklegged ticks as well as areas of higher horse density, which may have led to selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: The expansion of blacklegged tick populations poses an ongoing risk for horses. Assessment of diagnostic testing options and risk factors is important for diagnosis and prevention, and with further investigation this information may be used to propose changes in management.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Borrelia burgdorferi , Doenças dos Cavalos , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 881-884, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433694

RESUMO

In the present study, we serosurveyed the exposure of 222 draft horses to different arboviruses in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plaque reduction neutralization tests confirmed exposure to Fort Sherman virus (FSV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Río Negro virus (RNV). Apparently, Western and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses did not circulate in the population tested. The confirmation of five seroconversions for WNV, FSV, and SLEV and the association between prevalence and age are indicative of recent circulation. These results highlight the importance of considering draft horses in arboviral surveillance in urban and rural areas of developing countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Alphavirus/imunologia , Alphavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite de St. Louis/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Orthobunyavirus/imunologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Soroconversão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
3.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237765, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804960

RESUMO

The failure of the maternal immune system to recognize fetal antigens and vice versa due to MHC similarity between the foal and its dam might result in the lack of placental separation during parturition in mares. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of MHC similarity between a mare and a foal on the incidence of retained fetal membranes (RFM) in post-partum mares. DNA was sampled from 43 draft mares and their foals. Mares which failed to expel fetal membranes within three hours after foal expulsion were considered the RFM group (n = 14) and mares that expelled fetal membranes during the above period were the control group (n = 29). Nine MHC microsatellites of MHC I and MHC II were amplified for all mares and foals. MHC compatibility and MHC genetic similarity between mares and their foals was determined based on MHC microsatellites. The inbreeding coefficient was also calculated for all horses. The incidence of RFM in the studied population was 33%. Compatibility in MHC I and MHC II did not increase the risk of RFM in the studied population of draft mares (P>0.05). Differences in MHC similarity at the genetic level were not observed between mare-foal pairs in RFM and control group (P>0.05). We suspect that RFM in draft mares may not be associated with MHC similarity between a foal and its dam. Despite the above, draft horses could be genetically predisposed to the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos/imunologia , Endogamia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/genética , Incidência , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/imunologia , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Placenta Retida/imunologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
5.
Aust Vet J ; 98(11): 570-573, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830314

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci was detected by PCR in the lung and equine foetal membranes of two aborted equine foetuses and one weak foal from two different studs in Victoria, Australia. The abortions occurred in September 2019 in two mares sharing a paddock northeast of Melbourne. The weak foal was born in October 2019 in a similar geographical region and died soon after birth despite receiving veterinary care. The detection of C. psittaci DNA in the lung and equine foetal membranes of the aborted or weak foals and the absence of any other factors that are commonly associated with abortion or neonatal death suggest that this pathogen may be the cause of the reproductive loss. The detection of C. psittaci in these cases is consistent with the recent detection of C. psittaci in association with equine abortion in New South Wales. These cases in Victoria show that C. psittaci, and the zoonotic risk it poses, should be considered in association with equine reproductive loss in other areas of Australia.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci , Doenças dos Cavalos , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , New South Wales , Gravidez , Vitória/epidemiologia
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1127-1136, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131464

RESUMO

The urgency of the studied problem is due to the need for epizootic monitoring of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai and the lack of basic information on the relative and absolute parameters of changes in the epizootic process, scientific, methodological and practical aspects of the assessment of potential risks. The purpose of the article is to study the epizootic process for each nosological form of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai based on statistical information over the period from 1964 to 2017. Epizootic method is a leading method of the study of this problem, which allows the identification and discussion of the association of equine infectious diseases with natural and geographical conditions in the Altai Krai. The article presents data on intensive parameters of the epizootic process of equine infectious diseases and their changes with a description of periodic changes in the Altai Krai. The materials of the article provide veterinary and biology specialists with information on the epizootics of various nosological forms of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai.(AU)


A urgência do problema estudado é devida à necessidade de monitoramento epizoótico de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, e a falta de informação básica sobre os parâmetros relativos e absolutos de mudanças no processo epizoótico, e aspectos científicos, metodológicos e práticos da avaliação de potenciais riscos. O propósito do artigo é estudar o processo epizoótico para cada forma nosológica de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, baseado em informação estatística no período de 1964 a 2017. O método epizoótico é o principal método de estudo deste problema, que permite a identificação e discussão da associação entre doenças infecciosas equinas e condições naturais e geográficas do Krai de Altai. Este artigo apresenta dados dos parâmetros intensivos do processo epizoótico de doenças infecciosas bovinas e suas mudanças com uma descrição de mudanças periódicas no Krai de Altai. Os materiais do artigo fornecem informações para especialistas na veterinária e biologia com relação aos epizoóticos de diversas formas nosológicas de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e019019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609241

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to assess the copro-prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in owned Chilean breed horses (Equus caballus) residing in the province of Concepción, Chile. The study was carried out throughout October 2017. Samples were taken from all (100%) Chilean breed horse (124 specimens; 45 females and 79 males, aged between 7 months and 24 years old) from the Concepción province. A rectal stool sample was obtained from each animal. This was analyzed using the Army Medical School method (AMS III) technique to detect F. hepatica eggs. Information about the horse's age, sex, previous fasciolicide application, and an assessment of body condition was also obtained. Fisher tests were carried out to analyze the results. Ten horses (8.06%) were positive for the presence of F. hepatica eggs. No significant difference of copro-prevalence was found between age (young 8.47%, old 7.69%), sex (female 11.1%, male 6.33%), the previous application of fasciolicide (dewormed 10%, not dewormed 7.89%), or body condition (low condition 11.1%, high condition 0.7%) categories (Fisher tests: P>0.05 in all cases). The results of this study suggest that Chilean breed horses constitute part of the reservoir of F. hepatica for both ruminant populations and humans in the Concepción province.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Fezes , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 542-548, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522107

RESUMO

Species of genus Chlamydia are important pathogens of animals, with a worldwide distribution and broad host range. Some species, such as Chlamydia psittaci, also pose a zoonotic disease risk. Abortion is one of the many diseases that has been associated with chlamydial infections in animals, with most attention focused on the economic impacts to sheep production. The role of chlamydia in equine abortions is unknown. Using the family-specific 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR, we tested 169 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal membrane samples from 162 equine abortion cases collected between 2000 and 2018 in Switzerland. Two equine abortion cases (1.2%) tested positive for Chlamydiaceae. Further analyses by the species-specific 23S rRNA ArrayMate microarray and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene revealed C. abortus and C. psittaci. In both cases, equine herpesvirus 1 was also present, which might have been the abortion cause, alone or in synergy with Chlamydia. The prevalence of abortigenic chlamydial species in equine abortion cases in our study was significantly lower than rates described elsewhere. Zoonotic chlamydial agents present in equine fetal membranes nevertheless should be considered a potential risk to humans during foaling, abortion, or stillbirth.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e5, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370531

RESUMO

Endoscopy of thoroughbred (TB) yearlings at public auctions is common in South Africa. Laryngeal function (LF) is a common concern of buyers of young TBs. Cancellation of sale because of LF abnormalities is a concern for both the vendor and the buyer, with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) being a common cause of sale cancellation. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of RLN at South African premier TB yearling sales. This study was designed as a retrospective descriptive analysis of upper respiratory tract (URT) endoscopic examinations to determine RLN grade, performed at two premier TB yearling sales in South Africa. Results of buyer-requested endoscopic examination from 2013 to 2019 were included. Results from the yearling sales were analysed for prevalence of RLN grade (using Rakestraw's 4-point system) and compared to similar previously published studies. For analysis of effects of gender on RLN grading, horses were grouped and Fisher's exact test was used to determine if there was a relationship between gender and grade. For comparison of the effects of age on grade, and sales year on grade, a Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted. A value of p 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 858 horses were examined out of 4149 offered for sale; there were 57.58% colts and 42.42% fillies (mean age of 18.1 months). The annual percentage for grade 1 was 84.04% ± 9.98%, for grade 2: 14.49% ± 10.69%, for grade 3: 0.71% ± 0.57% and for grade 4: 0.76% ± 0.94%. There were no other significant findings. The exclusive nature of the sale and the increasing proclivity for pre-sale scoping may have skewed the results. This study shows that RLN grade incidences in TB yearlings at public auctions in South Africa are as follows: grade 1: 84.04%, grade 2: 14.49%, grade 3: 0.71% and grade 4: 0.76%. The results were similar to that of an adult population of horses examined in South Africa in a previous study.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/veterinária , Animais , Endoscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Prevalência , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(2): 255-264, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472468

RESUMO

Ticks and fleas are arthropods widely distributed around the world involved in the transmission of various vector-borne diseases (VBDs), including Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF), Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome and the plague, with outstanding consequences for the public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Yersinia pestis in arthropods collected from dogs, cats and horses living in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites were collected, morphologically identified and molecularly analysed through PCR and sequencing. In total 401 specimens were collected from 86 animals, being 68% (n = 273) and 32% (n = 128) from rural and urban areas, respectively. The most commonly detected species were the ticks Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma sculptum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus microplus, and Amblyomma ovale, and the fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis. DNA of Rickettsia felis was detected in D. nitens collected from horses, and C. felis, and R. sanguineus s.l. collected from dogs. All samples scored negative for Borrelia spp. and Y. pestis DNA. This study provides valuable data on ectoparasite fauna from domestic animals and identifies the circulation of a zoonotic pathogen (i.e., R. felis) in the population of the arthropods assessed. Therefore, preventive measures should be adopted in order to reduce the risk of occurrence of neglected VBD caused by this pathogen in animal and human hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia felis , Rickettsia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 242-253, Apr. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135616

RESUMO

Equine colic is one of the most common cause of death in horses, but few studies have investigated specifically the conditions at the necropsy. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological features of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in horses. A retrospective study was conducted in search of cases of these diseases affecting horses from 2005 to 2017. During this period, 114 horses died of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and the main causes were: primary gastric dilation (27/114), volvulus (27/114), enterolithiasis (20/114), rectal (colonic) perforation (15/114), gastric or cecocolonic impaction (10/114), incarcerations (6/114), intussusception (4/114), and others (5/114). Mixed breeds horses (56/114) and males (69/114) were mostly affected. The horses had a median and mean age of 10 and 10.9-years old, respectively. Primary gastric dilation was characterized by distension of the stomach by moderate to large amounts of content, which in 21 cases caused tearing of the stomach wall at the greater curvature (peritonitis), and the main predisposing factor was alimentary overload (17/27). Intestinal volvulus occurred within the small intestine (14 cases) and within the large intestines (13 cases). Grossly, there was intestinal ischemia with reddened to deep-black serosa and diffusely red mucosae. Enterolithiasis caused partial or complete obstruction of the right dorsal colon (9/20), transverse colon (4/20), small colon and right dorsal colon (3/20), rectum and right dorsal colon (2/20), and small colon (2/20). Viscera perforation and peritonitis occurred in 11 cases. Rectal (colonic) perforation involved the rectum (10/15), rectum/small colon (4/15), and the small colon (1/15). It was characterized by a focally extensive transmural tearing, associated with reddened borders, and retroperitoneal to diffuse peritonitis. Palpation related iatrogenic injuries (11/15) were the main cause. Impactions affected the large colon (7/10), the cecum (2/10), and the stomach (1/10). Incarcerations consisted of inguinoscrotal hernias (2/6), small intestine entrapment by a mesenteric failure (2/6), diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical eventration. Grossly, the organs were constricted by a hernial ring, with intestinal ischemia and reddened to dark-red serosa. Predisposing factors included previous surgeries (2/6) and patent inguinal ring (1/6). Intussusception involved the small intestine (3/4) and ileocecum (1/4). Foals with lack of colostrum intake and concomitant pneumonia was a characteristic presentation (3/4). Grossly, the intussusceptum slipped into intussuscipiens, with diffuse deep black-red discoloration. Other causes included large colon displacement (2/5), extrinsic and intrinsic obstruction of the small intestine (2/5), and an intestinal adenocarcinoma. Noninfectious gastrointestinal diseases are major causes of death in horses. Epidemiological and gross features of the conditions should be accounted to obtain a final diagnosis of the cause of the colic.(AU)


A cólica em equinos é considerada como a principal causa de morte de cavalos, porém poucos estudos têm investigado especificamente as condições envolvidas através da necropsia. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal de equinos. Foi conduzido um estudo retrospectivo em busca de casos dessas doenças envolvendo cavalos de 2005 a 2017. Durante esse período, 114 equinos morreram devido a doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal, e as principais causas foram: dilatação gástrica (27/114), vólvulos (27/114), enterolitíase (20/114), ruptura retal (colônica) (15/114), compactação gástrica ou cecocolônica (10/114), encarceramentos (6/114), intussuscepções (4/114), e outros (5/114). Animais sem raça definida (56/114) e machos (69/114) foram mais afetados. Os equinos apresentavam uma média e mediana de idade de 10 e 10,9 anos, respectivamente. A dilatação gástrica primária era caracterizada por distensão do estômago por moderada a grande quantidade de conteúdo, que em 21 casos provocava ruptura da parede gástrica na curvatura maior (peritonite), e o principal fator predisponente foi sobrecarga alimentar (17/27). Vólvulo intestinal ocorreu no intestino delgado e no intestino grosso (14 e 13 casos, respectivamente). Macroscopicamente, havia isquemia intestinal com serosa avermelhada a enegrecida e mucosa difusamente avermelhada. A enterolitíase causou obstrução parcial ou completa do cólon dorsal direito (9/20), cólon transverso (4/20), cólon menor e cólon dorsal direito (3/20), cólon menor (2/20), e reto e cólon maior direito (2/20). Perfuração de vísceras e peritonite foram observadas em 11 casos. A ruptura retal (colônica) envolveu o reto (10/15), reto/cólon menor (4/15) e cólon menor (1/15). Essa era caracterizada por ruptura transmural focalmente extensa, com bordos avermelhados e peritonite retroperitoneal a difusa. Traumas relacionados à palpação (11/15) foram a principal causa. Compactações afetaram o cólon maior (7/10), ceco (2/10) e estômago (1/10). Encarceramentos consistiram em hérnias inguinoescrotais (2/6), encarceramento de alças intestinais por falha no mesentério (2/6), hérnia diafragmática e eventração umbilical. Macroscopicamente, os órgãos estavam constritos por um anel hernial, com isquemia intestinal e serosa avermelhada a vermelho-escura. Fatores predisponentes incluíram cirurgias prévias (2/6) e anel inguinal patente (1/6). Intussuscepções envolveram o intestino delgado (3/4) e íleoceco (1/4). A apresentação característica foi em potros com falta de colostro e concomitante pneumonia. Macroscopicamente, o intussuscepto deslizava em direção ao intussuscepiente, exibindo coloração vermelho-enegrecida difusa. Outras causas incluíram deslocamento de cólon maior (2/5), obstrução extrínseca e intrínseca do intestino delgado (2/5), e um caso de adenocarcinoma intestinal. Doenças não infecciosas são importantes causas de morte em equinos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos e macroscópicos das condições devem ser considerados para o que o diagnóstico final da causa da cólica seja obtido.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dilatação Gástrica , Cólica , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Volvo Intestinal , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Intussuscepção , Cavalos
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108597, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122601

RESUMO

The accurate identification of Taylorella equigenitalis strains is essential to improve worldwide prevention and control strategies for contagious equine metritis (CEM). This study compared 367 worldwide equine strains using multilocus sequence typing according to the geographical origin, isolation year and equine breed. The strains were divided into 49 sequence types (STs), including 10 described for the first time. Three major and three minor clonal complexes (CCs), and 11 singletons, were identified. The genetic heterogeneity was low (0.13 STs/strain) despite the wide diversity of geographical origins (n = 16), isolation years (1977-2018) and equine breeds (n = 18). It was highest outside Europe and in the 1977-1997 period; current major STs and CCs already existed before 1998. Previous data associated the major CC1 with the first CEM outbreaks in 1977-1978 in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States, and revealed its circulation in France. Our study confirms its circulation in France over a longer period of time (1992-2018) and its distribution in Spain and Germany but not throughout Europe. In addition to CC1, relationships between non-European and European countries were observed only through ST4, ST17 and ST30. Within Europe, several STs emerged with cross-border circulation, in particular ST16 and ST46 from the major complexes CC2 and CC8. These results constitute a baseline for monitoring the spread of CEM outbreaks. A retrospective analysis of a higher number of strains isolated worldwide between 1977 and the early 2000s would be helpful to obtain an exhaustive picture of the original CEM situation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Taylorella equigenitalis/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Europa (Continente) , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 863-867, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveitis is reported to be a leading cause of blindness in horses. Little work has been undertaken to date to investigate whether donkeys are affected by a similar disease prevalence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the disease prevalence of uveitis in a population of donkeys in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive observational study. METHODS: An ophthalmic examination was performed on each donkey, in a darkened stable. Each donkey underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy, and direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Fluorescein staining, STT1 and IOPs were measured when deemed clinically necessary. Pharmacological pupillary dilation was achieved using 1% tropicamide. RESULTS: A total of 207 donkeys were examined: 139 males (67.1%) and 68 females (32.9%). Age range was 2-37 years (median: 17 years, interquartile range: 9-25 years). Three donkeys (1.5%) were blind in one eye, and one was monocular at the time of examination. Signs consistent with either previous or current uveitis were identified in eight eyes of six animals (2.9%). Clinical signs included are as follows: miosis (n = 1), corpora nigra atrophy (n = 6), anterior lens capsule pigment (n = 2), cataract (n = 8), posterior synechiae (n = 3), lens subluxation (n = 1), vitreal changes (n = 2), peripapillary scarring (n = 3) and phthisis bulbi (n = 1). Significant ocular pathology precluded fundic examination in three eyes. Three out of eight eyes (37.5%) were blinded by the pathology. The risk of uveitis was found to increase with age (OR 1.1, CI: 1.01-1.25) on univariable analysis (P = .046.). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Fluorescein staining, tonometry and Schirmer tear test measurements were not performed on all donkeys. CONCLUSIONS: The disease prevalence reported here is comparable to that reported for horses in the UK. Larger prospective studies are necessary to determine whether there is a similar trend in disease prevalence in the donkey population worldwide. In addition, further investigations should aim to establish whether uveitis in donkeys is similar to the ERU syndrome seen in horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Uveíte/veterinária , Animais , Equidae , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 841-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been proposed as the aetiological cause of Theiler's disease, also known as serum hepatitis. EqPV-H-associated Theiler's disease has not been previously reported in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether EqPV-H infection was associated with a 2018-2019 outbreak of Theiler's disease in four horses on a studfarm. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case series. METHODS: The medical records of four horses from the same farm diagnosed with fatal Theiler's disease were examined retrospectively. Information collected included a clinical history, physical examination findings, tetanus antitoxin exposure, serum biochemistry and necropsy reports. Liver tissue from all four horses was tested for EqPV-H using PCR and in situ hybridisation (ISH) assays. RESULTS: Three of the horses had a history of recent (7-11 weeks) tetanus antitoxin administration. Liver tissue from all four horses tested positive for EqPV-H with PCR. In situ hybridisation revealed a widespread distribution of viral nucleic acid in hepatocytes in one case, and a more sporadic distribution in the remaining three cases. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Case controls were not available from the farm in question given the retrospective nature of analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This case series documents the first reported EqPV-H-associated Theiler's disease in Europe and the first use of ISH to visualise the viral nucleic acid in liver tissues of horses with Theiler's disease.


Assuntos
Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 382-388, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207378

RESUMO

Ocular diseases are an important category in equine medicine; however, most articles regarding histologic ocular lesions in horses are exclusive to a specific condition and do not provide a complete review of clinically significant ocular disease frequency in a diagnostic laboratory. We reviewed sections of equine eyes from 140 cases (98 enucleations [biopsies] and 42 autopsies) with clinically relevant ocular alterations at 2 diagnostic centers in the United States. The most common primary conditions were non-traumatic keratitis (36), equine recurrent uveitis (ERU; 31), traumatic injuries (22), ocular and periocular neoplasms (19), and uveitis and/or endophthalmitis resulting from sepsis (18). Congenital anomalies (3) and retinal atrophy and detachment alone (3) were infrequent. Non-traumatic keratitis was frequently accompanied by anterior uveitis (22), corneal rupture (16), pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane formation (13), and secondary mycotic infection (11). ERU was the second and third most prevalent disease in autopsies and enucleations, respectively. This condition was commonly associated with glaucoma (15). Glaucoma (25) and cataract (20) were the most prevalent secondary alterations in the evaluated cases. Keratitis (20) and corneal rupture (16) were among the most prevalent consequences of trauma. Information presented herein may guide clinicians and pathologists, contributing to the early diagnosis of potentially vision-impairing conditions and raising the chances of successful treatment and cure.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Animais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 832-840, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endurance competitions over distances of 80-160 km are required by Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules to be divided into a number of stages between three and six. These stages are also known as "loops". Veterinary inspections, designed to ensure horse welfare, are conducted at the end of each loop, with details recorded on a separate "vet card" for each horse. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors recorded on vet cards that were associated with elimination at subsequent loops. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data relating to 3213 horse starts worldwide in international (CEI) events during 2014 were analysed. Univariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for potential inclusion in a final multivariable logistic regression model. Models were constructed stepwise using backwards-removal and assessed using the Bayesian information criterion. RESULTS: Risk factors were identified, which would allow an "in-ride" risk profile to be constructed for each horse which evolves as the horse progresses through the ride. Some risk factors such as abnormal gait and high heart rate were found to be repeatedly associated with imminent failure to qualify. MAIN LIMITATIONS: This is a relatively small study in terms of cohort size, based on the data that were available at the time of the study. Although comprehensive ride history data were also available for each horse via the main FEI database, training data were not. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying risk factors observed during the veterinary inspections at the end of a loop that are strongly associated with elimination at the end of the next or subsequent loops, these results provide an evidence-base for educational initiatives and regulatory changes that will inform the way veterinary delegates use veterinary inspections to help identify horses at risk of imminent FTQ.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cavalos , Resistência Física , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 148, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine trypanosomiasis is a severe and prevalent disease that has the greatest impact globally upon working equids due to its distribution across lower income countries. Morbidity and mortality rates are high; disease management strategies in endemic regions are ineffective and cost prohibitive. Individual variation in disease phenotype in other species suggests host factors could reveal novel treatment and control targets but has not been investigated in equids. METHODS: A prospective clinical evaluation of equines presenting for a free veterinary examination was performed in hyperendemic villages in The Gambia. Age, body condition score and body weight were estimated by validated methods, and haematocrit and total protein concentration measured. Animals fulfilling 2 out of 5 clinical inclusion criteria (anaemia, poor body condition, pyrexia, history of abortion, oedema) for a diagnosis of trypanosomiasis received trypanocidal treatment with follow-up at 1 and 2 weeks. Blood samples underwent PCR analysis with specific Trypanosoma spp. primers and results were compared to the subject's clinical and clinicopathological features. A mixed effects generalised linear model was generated to evaluate the association of infection status with degree of pyrexia and anaemia. RESULTS: Morbidity was high within examined (n = 641) and selected (n = 247) study populations. PCR status was not associated with a defined disease phenotype; there was intra- and inter-species variability. Donkeys were more frequently Trypanosoma spp.-positive (P < 0.001) and febrile (P < 0.001) than horses, but infected horses were more anaemic (P < 0.001), and in poorer body condition (P < 0.001) than donkeys. Sex was correlated to disease phenotype: males were more anaemic (P = 0.03) and febrile (P < 0.001). Haemoparasite co-infections were more common than a single infection. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of diversity in trypanosomiasis clinical signs plus variable disease phenotypes within equid subpopulations that warrant further investigation. The complex co-infection profile of field cases requires greater consideration to optimise disease management.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Fenótipo , Tripanossomíase/fisiopatologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Febre , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Hematócrito , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
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