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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 98-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi) is a serotype restricted to equines, which produces abortion outbreaks. Nowadays the disease is being reported in different countries including Argentina thus generating an important impact in the equine industry. Molecular characterization of the 95 kb virulence plasmid and the spvC gene of S. Abortusequi demonstrated their importance in the pathogenicity of the serotype. In the last decades, high clonality of S. Abortusequi was identified in Japan, Mongolia and Croatia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to characterize S. Abortusequi isolates obtained in Argentina between 2011 and 2016 by virulence-gene profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: S. Abortusequi isolates were studied by virulence-gene profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Four virulence profiles and nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes were identified among the 27 isolates included in the study. Different strains were found in the same outbreak and/or farm suggesting the presence of different sources of infection or mutation of isolates. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The number of related and nonrelated strains. More isolates may be necessary for a more intensive study. CONCLUSIONS: Most strains presented the same virulence profile, being positive for all the studied genes except gipA and sopE1, which are involved in intestinal virulence. Only few isolates showed different results in the same outbreak or farm. Unlike other studies, our results demonstrate a considerable diversity of S. Abortusequi pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, which suggests that different sources of infection may be involved within the same outbreak.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Transcriptoma , Virulência
2.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 112-119, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Horses are one of the potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants that could be transferred to human subjects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AMR patterns of major bacteria isolated from diseased horses in France. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by RESAPATH, the French national surveillance network for AMR, were analysed. Only antimicrobials relevant in veterinary and human medicine for the isolated bacteria were considered. Mono- and multidrug resistance were calculated. The resistance proportions of major equine diseases were assessed and compared. Where data permitted, resistance trends were investigated using nonlinear analysis (generalised additive models). RESULTS: A total of 12,695 antibiograms were analysed. The five most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. The highest proportions of resistance to gentamicin were found for S. aureus (22.1%) and Pseudomonas spp. (26.9%). Klebsiella spp. and E. coli had the highest proportions of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.5 and 26.2%, respectively). Proportions of resistance to tetracycline were among the highest for all the bacteria considered. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was below 10% for all Enterobacteriaceae. The highest proportions of multidrug resistance (22.5%) were found among S. aureus isolates, which is worrying given their zoonotic potential. From 2012 to 2016, resistance proportions decreased in Pseudomonas spp. isolates, but remained the same for S. aureus. For Streptococcus spp. and E. coli, resistance proportions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Since antibiograms are not systematic analyses, any selection bias could impact the results. CONCLUSIONS: Such studies are essential to estimate the magnitude of the potential threat of AMR to public health, to design efficient control strategies and to measure their effectiveness. These findings may also guide the initial empirical treatment of horse diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 28-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498914

RESUMO

Infection of equids by Leishmania (L.) parasites was previously described in both the Old and New World, particularly in Central and South America. Equine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by the Leishmania species, L. Viannia (V.) braziliensis and L. infantum, previously identified in humans and other parasite hosts living in the same geographic endemic areas. Sporadic autochthonous clinical cases, with no travel history, were documented in several countries including Germany, Portugal, Spain, Texas and Brazil; L. infantum and L. (Mundinia) martiniquensis were the infectious species. Prevalence of subclinical infections is extremely low and CL is observed in only a small proportion of infected animals with the appearance of single or multiple cutaneous lesions located on the head, external ear, scrotum, legs and the neck. To date, there has been no report of visceral abnormalities. However, the mild clinical profile of the disease and its spontaneous regression may indicate that skin lesions related to Leishmania infection is underdiagnosed. Importantly, although the prevalence of Leishmania infections in the equine population is low, a risk may rise from its potential involvement in the parasite transmission cycles as a source of infection for phlebotomine vectors and susceptible mammalian hosts. This review article summarises our current knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of Leishmania-infected equids.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 685-691, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691736

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis, an economically important disease in horses, has so far not been reported in Pernambuco state, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-Babesia caballi and anti-Theileria equi antibodies based on the detection of these agents in equine blood and in ticks on horses in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were drawn from 393 horses and sera were examined by ELISA. The presence of tick infestations was evaluated, and 101 ticks were subjected to DNA amplification for the detection of Babesia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No parasites were detected in the blood smears. Anti-B. caballi and anti-T. equi antibodies were found in 27.2% (107/393) and 34.8% (137/393) horses, respectively. Infestation by Dermacentor nitens was detected in 4.3% (17/393) of the horses. There was no DNA amplification of the agents in ticks. The risk factors for the presence of anti-T. equi antibodies (P < 0.05) were: purebred (P < 0.001), animals older than 156 months (P = 0.014), and the presence of ticks (P = 0.001). No risk factors for B. caballi were identified. This study confirmed the circulation of agents of equine piroplasmosis in the municipality of Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 509-514, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631331

RESUMO

This study analysed the race day veterinary reports from harness racing meetings controlled by the New South Wales Greyhound and Harness Racing Regulatory Authority between 1 September 2008 and 30 June 2009. The findings of all prerace and postrace examinations were analysed, and the frequency of observations was recorded. Chi-square testing was used to determine whether the incidence of abnormalities differed between age groups and tracks. A total of 542 meetings were conducted during the period of the study, with veterinary examinations conducted at 395 of these meetings. A total of 520 veterinary examinations (60 prerace and 460 postrace) were conducted. During the period of the study, 3685 horses started 31,393 times. Injuries occurring during the warm-up or start were the most common finding on prerace examination (11 reports) followed by lameness (6 reports). Lameness was the most common problem identified during postrace examinations, occurring at a rate of 2.10 cases per 1000 starts. Other problems identified at a rate of more than 1 per 1000 starts were poor postrace recovery/heat stress (2.04) and lacerations (1.75). Falls occurred at a rate of 1.72 cases per 1000 starts. Two-year-old horses were less likely to be lame than 3, 5 and 6-year-old horses. There was no difference in the rate of falls or lameness between tracks. This study provides a benchmark against which ongoing improvements in welfare can be assessed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos/lesões , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Esportes
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563583

RESUMO

Interval treatment control programmes used widely in equine helminth control have favoured the development of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. Best practice guidelines have been designed to address resistance and include the requirement for improved pasture hygiene to break helminth transmission cycles, along with anthelmintic application informed by the results of diagnostic tests to reduce selection pressure for resistance. Using an online questionnaire, this study examined uptake of measures recommended in these guidelines by UK horse owners. The survey comprised 58 questions spanning grazing management, anthelmintic use and use of faecal egg count (FEC) testing to inform treatment decisions. Analysis was carried out using a combination of Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. In total, 705 owners responded and, following specific exclusion criteria, the responses of 652 individuals were analysed. The majority of the respondents owned <20 horses on private premises or livery yards in England. The main outputs of the survey were as follows. Overall, 60.9% of respondents used FEC tests to inform the requirement to administer anthelmintics, with macrocyclic lactones the most frequently-used anthelmintics. Of the respondents, 38% obtained advice on anthelmintic choice from their veterinarians; however, many respondents (43.8%) purchased anthelmintics via the internet. Encouragingly, 74.4% of respondents stated that they practiced good pasture hygiene by removing dung from pasture. Generally, there were differences between the responses of participants who based anthelmintic treatments on FEC testing (targeted treatments; TT) and those who practiced calendar-based anthelmintic treatments (interval treatments; IT). Briefly, the "key" findings from the Chi-square analysis included higher levels of satisfaction with the level of knowledge about equine parasites/parasitic diseases and higher levels of concern about anthelmintic resistance from TT-respondents compared to IT-participants. Confusion on the interpretation of quarantine recommendations was identified in this study group and there was poor uptake of testing for anthelmintic effectiveness. Overall, compared to previous reports, this study indicated improved engagement of UK horse owners with some helminth control practices recommended to reduce the spread of anthelmintic resistance. However, a proportion of respondents did not utilise these practices and there were still important gaps in the use of appropriate quarantine and efficacy testing. These identified gaps must be taken into consideration in knowledge dissemination activities in the future.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 243-247, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383308

RESUMO

The combination of a macrolide and rifampicin has been the mainstay of therapy in foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia for decades. Recent studies suggest that mass antimicrobial treatment of subclinically affected foals over time has selected for antimicrobial resistance. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi strains resistant to macrolides and rifampicin at horse breeding farms in Kentucky. A hundred breeding farms in Kentucky were surveyed and R. equi were cultured from soil samples. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and generalized linear modeling (P < 0.05). Seventy-six percent (76%) of farms yielded resistant R. equi, and resistance to macrolides and rifampicin was associated with their use at farms. The present study is the first to report the prevalence and distribution of resistant isolates in the environment of farms in Kentucky, USA. Collectively, previous reports and the data presented herein provide irrefutable evidence of emerging antimicrobial resistance in R. equi with alarming prevalence. Widespread dissemination and maintenance of resistance genes in the environment where many other pathogenic bacteria exist is a concern for both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Rhodococcus equi/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Fazendas , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rhodococcus equi/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104737, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421491

RESUMO

There is limited information on risk factors for elimination from endurance rides and changes over the years. The objectives of this study were to describe elimination for irregular gait and metabolic reasons from Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance rides in Italy (2004-2015) and to assess risk factors and to investigate changes in elimination rates and speed over the long term. Data for FEI endurance rides were collected from three websites. Year, month, day, location, class (Concours de Raid d'Endurance International [CEI]*/**/***), restriction to young riders, distance (km), number of starters, horses' age and breed, and average finish speed for each horse were recorded. Horses were classified as completed, retired or eliminated for irregular gait, metabolic or other reasons. Environment data were obtained from the Il Meteo website. Descriptive data were summarized, and univariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors. The chi-squared test and one-way or Friedman analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess differences between years. Variables associated with elimination for irregular gait were the number of starters, age of the horse, classes, minimum temperature and presence of rain; those associated with elimination for metabolic reasons were the number of starters, classes, horse breed and minimum temperature. Average finish speed increased over the years but the elimination frequency changed only for metabolic reasons, with a higher percentage at the beginning of the study period. This study was conducted in Italy and the results may not be applicable globally; speed was available only for horses that completed the competition. Average finish speed increased over the years but the percentage of eliminations remained stable after 2007. Training, nutrition, previous injuries and treatments are likely to contribute to problems occurring during the ride, and investigation of these factors would be desirable.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Itália/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Resistência Física , Fatores de Risco , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2877-2883, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422463

RESUMO

Anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomin parasites is widespread. A surveillance-based parasite control program using fecal egg counts (FECs) and fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) to decrease anthelmintic use and monitor treatment efficacy is recommended. The purpose of this study was to examine shifts in equine parasite control program management practices via a short course presented by the Penn State Extension, and to highlight how data collected from these programs is useful for monitoring anthelmintic efficacy on a large scale. Horse owners were enrolled after participating in a short course and filled out questionnaire surveys about their parasite management programs pre and post study, horse information, and farm information. FECs were performed at three time points, and horses above a 300 strongyle eggs per gram cut-off were treated with pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole, or ivermectin. Two weeks post-treatment, FECRTs were performed to determine treatment efficacy, which included 29 farms with 513 individual treatments. Prior to the study, only 30.6% of farms used FECs, but after the study, 97.3% of farms said they would use FECs in the future. Horses were given an average of 4.1 anthelmintic treatments per year before the study, and post study 89.2% of farms were able to reduce the number of anthelmintic treatments used. Fenbendazole was effective on zero farms, pyrantel pamoate on 7.4% of farms, and ivermectin on 92.9% of farms. This outreach project helped generate information about anthelmintic efficacy levels, causing a shift in practices on participating farms, and collected useful anthelmintic resistance data.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 52-59, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442894

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites, Parascaris sp. and strongyles, are common in young horses worldwide and control of these parasites is challenged by increasing anthelmintic resistance. Our aim was to identify risk factors for these infections as well as to assess the efficacy of fenbendazole (dose 7.5 mg/kg) and pyrantel embonate (dose 19 mg/kg) against Parascaris sp. We also evaluated association between owner observed symptoms and patent infections with these parasites. Fecal samples were collected from 367 young horses in Finland and a questionnaire study was conducted. Fecal egg counts were performed by Mini-FLOTAC® method. Univariable logistic regression models using patent infection status (Yes/No), separately for Parascaris sp. and strongyle infections as an outcome were run initially to screen potential risk factors collected by the questionnaire. After the initial screening, multiple logistic regression models were constructed and run to account for correlated data structure, risk factors and potential confounders simultaneously. Two significant risk factors for a patent Parascaris sp. infection were found: breeding farm size (p = 0.028) and frequency of horse movements (p = 0.010). Horses originating from large breeding farms were more likely (OR = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.51) to shed Parascaris sp. eggs upon relocation to training stables compared to horses originating from small breeding farms. Horses living in farms with frequent horse movements to other premises had higher odds (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.35-9.39) of a patent Parascaris sp. infection compared to farms with less frequent horse movements. Risk factors for patent strongyle infection included age (p < 0.001) and season (p = 0.017). Horses were less likely (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.66) to shed strongylid eggs during the spring compared to the winter. Horses excreting over 200 ascarid eggs per gram were included in the anthelmintic efficacy trial. A mean FECR less than 90% was interpreted as presence of anthelmintic resistance. The mean FECR was 98.5% (95% CI: 95.8-100) and 68.0% (95% CI: 52.7-83.3) in the fenbendazole (n = 31) and pyrantel (n = 26) treatment groups, respectively. In conclusion, we identified two new risk factors for patent Parascaris sp. infection; breeding farm size and frequency of horse movements. Reduced efficacy of pyrantel against Parascaris sp. was observed for the second time in Europe. A relatively high Parascaris sp. prevalence in yearlings (34%) and two-year-olds (20%) was observed, which has not been reported earlier. An association between symptoms and a patent Parascaris sp. infection was observed in foals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pamoato de Pirantel/farmacologia , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 280, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is a major cause of pyrexias in winter among Japanese racehorses. In 2014-2015, the Japan Racing Association (JRA) changed the EHV-1 vaccine from an inactivated vaccine to a live vaccine (both produced by Nisseiken). To evaluate the effect of changing the vaccines, the capacities of these vaccines to induce virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies were compared, and an epizootiological investigation of EHV-1 was performed at the JRA Ritto Training Center during epizootic periods from 2010-2011 to 2016-2017. RESULTS: Three-year-old horses that received the first dose of live vaccine showed higher geometric mean (GM) VN titers (205 and 220) than those that received inactivated vaccine (83, P < 0.05). The response rates after vaccination with the live vaccine (76 and 90%) were higher than that after vaccination with inactivated vaccine (42%, P < 0.05). Four-year-old horses from 2015 to 2017 that had received the live vaccine in the previous epizootic periods had higher GM titers (205 to 246) than those from 2011 to 2014, which had received the inactivated vaccine (139 to 164, P < 0.05). The estimated numbers of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4, or both, in 2011-2012 (29 [95%CI: 21-37]) and 2013-2014 (37 [95%CI: 27-47]) were higher than those in the other periods (7 [95%CI: 2-12] to 16 [95%CI: 9-23]). Likewise, the seroconversion rates to EHV-1 in horses that stayed at the training center in 2011-2012 (66.0%) and 2013-2014 (52.0%) were higher than those in the other periods (12.0 to 28.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The live EHV-1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and provides greater VN antibody responses than the inactivated vaccine. Unlike the period when the policy was to use inactivated vaccine, there was no detectable epizootic EHV-1 infection at the training center during three consecutive periods after the introduction of the live vaccine. These results suggest that the replacement of inactivated vaccine with live vaccine, together with the achievement of high vaccination coverage, reinforced the herd effect, and contributed to better control of EHV-1 epizootics in the training center.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4 , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Testes Sorológicos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(2): 337-343, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269357

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess sand accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and fecal sand excretion in Silesian foals using three diagnostic methods and taking into account the sex and age of the animals. Another aim of the study was to compare the three diagnostic methods. The study was carried out on 21 clinically healthy Silesian foals (10 females and 11 males) from 9-28 weeks old grazed on permanent pasture. The sand intake was assessed using a sedimentation test, abdominal ultrasonography and a quantitative evaluation of sand per 100 g of stool. In the sedimentation test, the sand was palpable in the stool of 57.1% of the horses, and clearly visible in 42.9% of the animals. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of sand in the gastrointestinal tract in 66.7% of the horses. It was limited to a single location in 60% of the horses, while it was present in several regions in 40% of the horses. The mean amount of sand was 0.14 ± 0.33 g per 100 g of stool. It did not exceed 0.1g in 71.4% foals, while it ranged from 0.1-0.5 g in 23.8% foals. In 4.8% of the animals, it amounted to 1.6 g per 100 g of stool. There was no correlation between age and gender and the results. There was a positive correlation between the ultrasound examination and the sedimentation test. Sand may be accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract of foals without any clinical signs. The amount of sand excreted in the stool is not an indicator of the amount of sand accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract. An abdominal ultrasound examination should be combined with a sedimentation test for more specific results.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Dióxido de Silício , Animais , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Polônia
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(3): 431-442, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270640

RESUMO

Tick-borne spotted fever in Brazil is known to be caused by two agents, Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri. Nothing was known about these agents in one area of the Atlantic rainforest biome of Bahia state, where during March to June 2016, 356 rural dogs and 69 horses were sampled and their sera were processed through indirect immunofluorescence assay against antigens of R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommatis and Rickettsia bellii. Ticks collected from these dogs and horses were molecularly tested for the presence of rickettsial DNA. Overall, 16.4% (58/356) dogs and 24.6% (17/69) horses were seroreactive to Rickettsia spp. Five tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma ovale, A. sculptum, R. microplus, and A. naponense, were collected from dogs, whereas horses were infested by A. sculptum and Dermacentor nitens. A total of 242 ticks from dogs and 62 from horses were analyzed by PCR targeting rickettsiae, which were detected in only 4/27 (14.8%) A. ovale. Fragments of the rickettsial gltA and ompA genes from these four ticks were 100% identical to the Atlantic rainforest strain of R. parkeri. The presence of A. ovale on dogs was positively associated with local canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri. Our results provide evidence for the transmission of R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest from A. ovale to domestic dogs within the rural area of Ilhéus, similarly to other areas of the Atlantic rainforest biome of Brazil, where human cases of R. parkeri-caused spotted fever have been reported.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Prevalência , Rhipicephalus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
15.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 343-350, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology, particularly mast cells, and airway hyper-reactivity in athletic horses presented for poor performance that included a respiratory tract evaluation in two disparate locations in Australia. DESIGN: Multi-centre, retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Eighty four adult horses underwent both pulmonary function testing and histamine bronchoprovocation with a commercial flowmetric plethysmography system. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed four to twelve hours later. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology was categorised using two differing classification systems to define mild equine asthma. Statistical analysis was used to assess associations between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid relative inflammatory cell percentages, and airway hyper-reactivity and their associated categorisations. RESULTS: Sixty four percent (54/84) of horses displayed airway hyper-reactivity, as defined by PC35 < 6 mg/ml of histamine. A relative mastocytosis was the most common bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological abnormality. Horses with a sole mast cell response of ≥ 5% within their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid displayed airway hyper-reactivity at a lower dose of nebulized histamine than horses with normal bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology. Horses with mixed cell responses (relative mast cell percentage > 2% and/or relative neutrophil percentage > 5% and/or eosinophil relative cell percentage ≥ 1%) displayed airway hyper-reactivity at a lower dose of nebulized histamine than horses with normal bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology. CONCLUSION: In the Australian context, recently revised increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology relative cell percentage cut offs appear appropriate for sole mast cell responses. The historical lower cut offs appear to be appropriate for mixed inflammatory cell responses.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Testes de Função Respiratória/veterinária , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/veterinária
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 268, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes over time in the epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli within a single equine referral hospital in the UK. Faecal samples were collected from hospitalised horses in 2008 and 2017, processed using selective media and standard susceptibility laboratory methods. A novel real-time PCR with high resolution melt analysis was used to distinguish blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 within CTX-M-1 group. RESULTS: In 2008, 457 faecal samples from 103 horses were collected, with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 131 samples (28.7, 95% CI 24.6-33.1). In 2017, 314 faecal samples were collected from 74 horses with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 157 samples (50.0, 95% CI 44.5-55.5). There were 135 and 187 non-duplicate ESBL-producing isolates from 2008 and 2017, respectively. In 2008, 12.6% of isolates belonged to CTX-M-1 group, all carrying blaCTX-M-1, whilst in 2017, 94.1% of isolates were CTX-M-1 group positive and of these 39.2 and 60.8% of isolates carried blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of doxycycline, gentamicin and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 while a decreased prevalence of phenotypic resistance to potentiated sulphonamides was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time PCR proved a reliable and high throughput method to distinguish between blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, its use in this study demonstrated the emergence of faecal carriage of CTX-M-15 in hospitalised horses, with an increase in prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli as well as increased antimicrobial resistance to frequently used antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
17.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(2): 197-203, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238733

RESUMO

Lyme borreliosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis and monocytic ehrlichiosis are well studied in humans and dogs. In horses, these diseases are not widely investigated and limited information is available about their occurrence. The purpose of this study was to present the first ELISA-based report on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in horses from Northern Bulgaria. A total of 192 horses were investigated from three regions in Northern Bulgaria (Northwestern, North-Central and Northeastern Bulgaria). All equine sera were tested for A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and B. burgdorferi antibodies by a commercial rapid ELISA test. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were found in all the three regions at a mean frequency of 12% (23/192), ranging from 9.38 to 15.63% by region. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. were found in horses from one region (Northeastern) at a rate of 0.5% (1/192). Anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were detected in all the three regions with a mean frequency of 15.1% (29/192), ranging from 14.06 to 17.19% by region. A co-exposure to A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi was observed in 6.3% of the cases (12/192). This is the first report on the natural exposure of horses to these bacteria (A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and B. burgdorferi) in Northern Bulgaria.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(3): 361-371, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149784

RESUMO

Equid herpesviruses (EHVs) threaten equine health and can cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Different equid herpesviruses, EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4 and EHV5 are regularly detected among horse populations. In Egypt, monitoring is sporadic but EHV-1 or EHV-4 have been reported to circulate in the horse population. However, there is a lack of reports related to infection and health status of horses, likely due to the absence of regular diagnostic procedures. In the current study, the circulation of four infectious equid herpesviruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4 and EHV-5) among different Arabian horse populations and donkeys residing the same farm was monitored. Different samples were collected and DNA was extracted and subjected to quantitative (q)-PCR to detect the four equid herpesviruses using specific primers and probes. Antibody titres against EHV-1 and EHV-4 were tested using virus neutralization test and type-specific ELISA. The results showed that EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4 and EHV-5 are endemic and can be a continuous threat for horses in the absence of vaccination programs and frequent virus reactivation. There is an urgent need for introduction of active regular surveillance measures to investigate the presence of different equid herpesviruses, and other equine viral pathogens, in various horse populations around Egypt and to establish a standardized cataloguing of equine health status.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Equidae , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 298-302, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188947

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection by Sarcocystis neurona in horses and identify potential risk factors. Were analyzed 427 samples from 36 farms in 21 municipalities in the Alagoas State, Brazil. Presence of anti-S. neurona antibodies was diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and was confirmed using the immunoblot test. Risk factors were assessed through investigative questionnaires on animal management on the farms. The prevalence of anti-S.neurona antibodies was 2.8% (confidence interval, CI: 1.5-4.9%) from IFAT and 1.6% (CI:0.8-3.34%) from immunoblot, and there were positive horses on 16.6% of the studied farms. None of the variables studied presented associations with serological status for S. neurona. This is the first report on infection by S. neurona in horses reared in Alagoas, Brazil showing a low exposure to S. neurona in this region, but with significant numbers of foci.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 1884-1893, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059176

RESUMO

Equine influenza is a major cause of respiratory infections in horses and can spread rapidly despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we carried out molecular characterization of Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) isolated from the Malaysian outbreak in 2015 by sequencing of the HA and NA gene segments using Sanger sequencing. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of HA and NA were compared with representative Florida clade 1 and clade 2 strains using phylogenetic analysis. The Florida clade 1 viruses identified in this outbreak revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in the HA protein as compared to the current OIE vaccine strain recommendations and representative strains of circulating Florida sub-lineage clade 1 and clade 2. Differences in HA included amino acids located within antigenic sites which could lead to reduced immune recognition of the outbreak strain and alter the effectiveness of vaccination against the outbreak strain. Detailed surveillance and genetic information sharing could allow genetic drift of equine influenza viruses to be monitored more effectively on a global basis and aid in refinement of vaccine strain selection for EIV.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Malásia/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Proteínas Virais/genética
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