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1.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 621-625, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687009

RESUMO

A 22-y-old American Quarter Horse gelding was presented with a history of chronic progressive respiratory problems and a diffuse pulmonary nodular pattern in thoracic radiographs. The horse was euthanized, and 4 formalin-fixed samples of lung were submitted for histopathology. There were multifocal areas of marked thickening of alveolar septa as a result of proliferation of myofibroblasts embedded in fibromyxoid matrix (interpreted as "Masson bodies"), focal areas of fibrosis, and numerous papillary projections of connective tissue into bronchioles. A diagnosis of organizing pneumonia was reached. No etiology was found for this lesion. It is important to consider causes of chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis in horses other than equid herpesvirus 5, such as complicated viral or bacterial pneumonia or chronic toxicoses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/veterinária , Pneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/patologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343720

RESUMO

Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a Th-2, IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides that has common features with human atopic dermatitis. Together with Th-2 cells, the epithelial barrier plays an important role in development of type I hypersensitivities. In order to elucidate the role of the epithelial barrier and of the skin immune response in IBH we studied the transcriptome of lesional whole skin of IBH-horses (IBH-LE; n = 9) in comparison to non-lesional skin (IBH-NL; n = 8) as well as to skin of healthy control horses (H; n = 9). To study the "baseline state" of the epithelial barrier, we investigated the transcriptome of non-lesional epidermis in IBH-horses (EPI-IBH-NL; n = 10) in comparison with healthy epidermis from controls (EPI-H; n = 9). IBH-LE skin displayed substantial transcriptomic difference compared to H. IBH-LE was characterized by a downregulation of genes involved in tight junction formation, alterations in keratins and substantial immune signature of both Th-1 and Th-2 types with particular upregulation of IL13, as well as involvement of the hypoxic pathway. IBH-NL shared a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with IBH-LE, but was overall more similar to H skin. In the epidermis, genes involved in metabolism of epidermal lipids, pruritus development, as well as IL25, were significantly differentially expressed between EPI-IBH-NL and EPI-H. Taken together, our data suggests an impairment of the epithelial barrier in IBH-affected horses that may act as a predisposing factor for IBH development. Moreover, these new mechanisms could potentially be used as future therapeutic targets. Importantly, many transcriptional features of equine IBH skin are shared with human atopic dermatitis, confirming equine IBH as a natural model of skin allergy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/veterinária , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/veterinária , Animais , Ceratopogonidae/patogenicidade , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Epitélio/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/genética , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Prurido/genética , Prurido/imunologia , Prurido/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Células Th2/imunologia
3.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 811-822, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications, especially delayed alveolar healing, are common following equine cheek teeth extraction, however, limited objective information is available on the prevalence and nature of these problems. OBJECTIVES: To document the type and prevalence of complications that occur following equine cheek tooth extraction and to identify possible risk factors for these complications that could be used to predict their occurrence and hopefully reduce their prevalence. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Clinical records of all cheek teeth extractions performed between February 2004 and September 2018 were examined and written questionnaires sent to owners. Details of post-extraction complications were analysed and logistic regression was used to evaluate potential associations between the likelihood of post-extraction nonhealing alveolus managed by the authors and the variables: age, breed, reason for extraction, Triadan position and extraction technique. RESULTS: Post-extraction complications were recorded following 58/428 extractions giving an overall complication rate of 13.6%, that caused a longer term clinical problem in 34/428 (7.9%) cases, with complications being asymptomatic or quickly self-resolving in the other 24 cases (5.6%). The most frequent complication was alveolar bone sequestration, including alveolar infection. Risk of developing a post-extraction alveolar disorder managed by the authors (n = 53) increased following extraction of the mandibular 06s, 07s or 08s compared with all other cheek teeth combined (P = .001); for cheek teeth with apical infections (P = .002) compared with those without; and following repulsion or minimally invasive transbuccal extraction (MTE) than following oral extraction (P = .01 and P = .02 respectively). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Length of time between exodontia and survey data collection for some cases, use of clinical records and survey data and biases associated with decision to treat. CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with previous studies, oral extraction had the lowest risk of complications. This study provides new information regarding the prevalence, types and risk of development of post extraction complications. Knowledge of these risk factors may help reduce these complications.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Dente , Animais , Bochecha , Equidae , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 841-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been proposed as the aetiological cause of Theiler's disease, also known as serum hepatitis. EqPV-H-associated Theiler's disease has not been previously reported in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether EqPV-H infection was associated with a 2018-2019 outbreak of Theiler's disease in four horses on a studfarm. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case series. METHODS: The medical records of four horses from the same farm diagnosed with fatal Theiler's disease were examined retrospectively. Information collected included a clinical history, physical examination findings, tetanus antitoxin exposure, serum biochemistry and necropsy reports. Liver tissue from all four horses was tested for EqPV-H using PCR and in situ hybridisation (ISH) assays. RESULTS: Three of the horses had a history of recent (7-11 weeks) tetanus antitoxin administration. Liver tissue from all four horses tested positive for EqPV-H with PCR. In situ hybridisation revealed a widespread distribution of viral nucleic acid in hepatocytes in one case, and a more sporadic distribution in the remaining three cases. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Case controls were not available from the farm in question given the retrospective nature of analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This case series documents the first reported EqPV-H-associated Theiler's disease in Europe and the first use of ISH to visualise the viral nucleic acid in liver tissues of horses with Theiler's disease.


Assuntos
Hepatite , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Vet Surg ; 49(3): 529-539, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of various treatments for dysphagia after laryngeal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. ANIMALS: Horses treated for dysphagia after laryngeal surgery. METHODS: Medical records of horses treated for dysphagia after prosthetic laryngoplasty (PLP) or partial arytenoidectomy (PA) were reviewed. Signalment, prior surgery, preoperative videoendoscopic diagnosis, and surgical treatments were recorded. Short- and long-term follow-up were obtained. Chi-square and logistical regression were performed to correlate independent variables and outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of horses with prior PLP and 88% of horses with prior PA had persistent resting dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). Vocal fold augmentation (VFA) as a single treatment was most commonly performed (n = 22), followed by laryngoplasty removal (LPR; n = 1). Fifteen horses received a combination of treatments: VFA (n = 15), LPR (n = 4), laryngeal tie-forward (LTF; n = 2), and esophageal release (n = 1). Short-term clinical outcomes were reported; 80% of horses treated with VFA (n = 35) had resolution of dysphagia, and 20% were improved. Among the 33 horses available to long-term follow-up, 31 (94%) returned to some level of work, and DDSP during work was reportedly resolved in 23 of 25 horses. CONCLUSION: Vocal fold augmentation resulted in resolution of symptoms relating to dysphagia in 81% of horses. Twenty percent of horses treated with LPR had sustained resolution of dysphagia. A combination of LPR, VFA, LTF was performed in 18% of horses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment options directed at altering laryngeal geometry and/or position of the larynx were successful in resolving 86% of dysphagia in horses previously regarded as very difficult to treat.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Aritenoide/cirurgia , Transtornos de Deglutição/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Laringectomia/veterinária , Laringoplastia/veterinária , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/veterinária , Animais , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Humanos , Laringectomia/efeitos adversos , Laringoplastia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Período Pós-Operatório , Próteses e Implantes/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia
6.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 799-804, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is common in the equine population and it has been associated with increased surgical morbidity and mortality in humans. The effect of increased body mass index (BMI) on the incidence of surgical site infections has not been investigated in horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether horses with increased body fat, as estimated by BMI, are more likely to develop post-operative complications, particularly incisional complications, following emergency ventral midline celiotomy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, multi-institutional clinical study. METHODS: Medical records of horses >2 years old presenting with colic that underwent ventral midline celiotomy between January 2010 and September 2018 with follow-up of a minimum of 30 post-operative days were reviewed. Extracted data included signalment, operative details and outcome. BMI was calculated by dividing the patient's weight (kg) by the withers height squared (m2 ). RESULTS: In all, 287 horses fit inclusion criteria. Incisional complication prevalence was 23.7%. Horses with incisional complications had a higher BMI (median 203.6 kg/m2 , IQR = 191.5-217.4) compared with those without (median 199.1 kg/m2 , IQR = 184.7-210.2) (P = .03). Multi-variable analysis of the effects of age, sex, breed and presence of metabolic disease on the association between BMI and risk of incisional complications, identified a tendency towards increased risk with a higher BMI, but statistical significance decreased to P = .07. Breed had an association with BMI (P < .01), but not with incisional complication risk. MAIN LIMITATIONS: BMI as an estimate of body fat has limitations. Retrospective studies with reliance on owners reporting data and complete medical records is imperfect. When the data were subjected to multi-variable analysis, the trend towards an increased incidence of incisional complications in horses with higher BMI persisted but it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI may increase the risk for the development of incisional complications in horses following emergency ventral midline celiotomy.


Assuntos
Cólica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cólica/cirurgia , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Humanos , Laparotomia/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940682

RESUMO

A 12-year-old Warmblood mare was presented with an acute onset left hindlimb lameness associated with generalised soft tissue swelling of the entire limb and medial saphenous vein (MSV) thrombophlebitis. A presumptive diagnosis of extremity compartment syndrome (ECS) was made. Due to the clinical deterioration, emergency fasciotomy of the crural fascia and biopsy was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the samples confirmed a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma likely originating from the tunica media of the MSV. This report is the first to describe an unique combination of ECS and thrombophlebitis associated with a leiomyosarcoma in a horse.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Leiomiossarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Musculares/veterinária , Tromboflebite/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Síndromes Compartimentais/diagnóstico , Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Leiomiossarcoma/etiologia , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Musculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Musculares/etiologia , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Coxa da Perna/patologia , Tromboflebite/diagnóstico , Tromboflebite/etiologia , Tromboflebite/patologia
8.
Vet Surg ; 49(2): 274-280, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of radiocarpal joint (RCJ) perforation during two proximolateral carpal sheath (CS) approaches and to investigate whether the presence or absence of a natural communication between the RCJ and CS. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, randomized, controlled study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Twelve adult horses and 12 cadaver front limbs. METHODS: Proximolateral CS tenoscopy was performed on both carpi of 12 horses under general anaesthesia. Limbs were randomly assigned into two groups. In group 1, the instrument portal was centered at the level of the distal radial physeal remnant (PR). In group 2, the instrument portal was centered 2 cm proximal to the PR. Immediately after tenoscopy, dye-coloured fluid was instilled arthroscopically into the dorsolateral RCJ, and the open tenoscopic portals were evaluated for leakage. Twelve cadaver front limbs were examined for naturally occuring RCJ and CS communication by using positive-contrast computed tomography (CT). Frequency of perforations were compared with McNemar's test for two matched proportions. RESULTS: In group 1, 10 of 12 RCJ were perforated during tenoscopy, and, in group 2, four of 12 RCJ were perforated (P = 0.03). No diffusion of contrast from the RCJ to the CS was detected by CT. CONCLUSION: Perforation of the RCJ was common when CS instrument portals were placed at the level of the PR. No natural communication was detected between the RCJ and CS. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Carpal sheath tenoscopic instrument portals may need to be placed >2 cm proximal to the PR to prevent inadvertent RCJ perforation, especially in horses undergoing tenoscopic treatment of a septic CS.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/veterinária , Carpo Animal/patologia , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Tendões/cirurgia , Animais , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Cadáver , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos
9.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 136-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent study demonstrated that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin cross the equine placenta without causing gross cartilage or tendon lesions in the 9-month fetus; however, long-term effects of in utero fluoroquinolone exposure remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of fetal exposure to enrofloxacin on the resulting foal's cartilage and tendon strength. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Healthy mares at 280 days' gestation were allocated into four groups: untreated (n = 5), therapeutic treatment (7.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin, PO × 14 days, n = 6), supratherapeutic treatment (15 mg/kg, PO × 14 days, n = 6) and no mare treatment with treatment of the foals post-partum (n = 2). Mares were allowed to carry pregnancy to term, and foals were maintained on pasture for 5 weeks. After that foals were euthanized, and their articular cartilage and extensor and flexor tendons were examined macroscopically and histologically for lesions. Tendon strength was tested by loading until failure. RESULTS: Administration of enrofloxacin at recommended doses in late gestation did not result in cartilaginous lesions or clinical lameness in any foal by 5 weeks old. Tensile strength was greater in hind tendons than front tendons, but no difference was found between foals born from treated and control mares. Expectedly, osteochondral changes were present both in foals born from enrofloxacin-treated mares and in negative control foals with no apparent association with fluoroquinolone treatment during pregnancy. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Only one time point in gestation was evaluated, and mares treated in the study were healthy at time of treatment. Additionally, it is possible that the assessments performed herein were not sensitive enough to detect subtle or functional changes in the articular cartilage. Further studies are needed to determine if enrofloxacin administration during late pregnancy potentiates osteochondral alterations in the first year of life. CONCLUSIONS: While this study did not assess other stages of gestation or long-term foal outcomes, short-term administration of enrofloxacin to late gestation mares did not result in macroscopic or microscopic lesions in the resulting foals by 5 weeks of age.


Assuntos
Enrofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ciprofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enrofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Cavalos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Tendões/efeitos dos fármacos , Tendões/patologia
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104833, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751854

RESUMO

Euthanasia is a complex topic, with animal owners using multiple factors to shape their decision-making process. Previous epidemiological studies have described causes of equine mortality in specific populations, but there is limited evidence regarding factors contributing specifically to equine euthanasia in Great Britain (GB). This observational study used a prospective cohort design: the objectives were to describe owner-reported reasons for euthanasia, estimate the rate of euthanasia and identify associated factors in horses/ponies enrolled in a web-based epidemiological study of laminitis in GB. Self-selected horse/pony owners submitted regular management and health data over 29 months and reported dates and reasons for euthanasia during this period. The overall incidence of euthanasia was estimated and associated factors were identified using multivariable Cox regression modelling, adjusted for age, with variables retained in the final model if P ≤ 0.05. Data were available for 1070 horses/ponies contributing 1093 horse-years at risk (HYAR), with 80 owner-reported euthanasias. The incidence of euthanasia was 7.3 euthanasias per 100 HYAR (95 % confidence interval [CI] 5.9, 9.1). The most frequently reported health reasons contributing to euthanasia were laminitis-related consequences (25.0 % ; CI 16.8, 35.5 %), colic (21.3 % ; CI 13.7, 31.4 %), non-laminitic lameness (20.0 % ; CI 12.7, 30.1 %) and age-related deterioration, including owner-perceived compromised quality of life (20.0 % ; CI 12.7, 30.1 %). Health-related factors associated with significantly higher rates of euthanasia were colic (hazard ratio [HR] 26.4; CI 12.5, 55.8), pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (HR 3.0; CI 1.7, 5.4) and lameness due to navicular syndrome (HR 5.9; CI 1.8, 20.0), soft tissue injury (HR 6.5; CI 2.7, 15.6) or laminitis (HR 2.7; CI 1.3, 5.7). Further factors included being pure bred (HR 1.7; CI 1.0, 2.8), female (HR 1.7; CI 1.0, 2.9), having poor owner-perceived hoof quality (HR 2.4; CI 1.1, 5.2), being entirely stabled (HR 5.0; HR 2.1, 12.0), being on loan or under temporary care of the study participant (HR 2.3; CI 1.2, 4.4) and participating in affiliated or professional competitions (HR 5.9; CI 2.4, 14.8). Euthanasia rates were significantly higher in the first two study years compared to the third (P < 0.001). Animals whose owners used the study's custom-designed weight tracker tool had significantly lower rates of euthanasia (HR 0.6; CI 0.3, 0.95). This study has identified a number of, arguably preventable, health-related factors associated with higher rates of euthanasia. Data on owners' decision-making process regarding euthanasia, including emotive and financial impacts, were not recorded but are important contributors to euthanasia that require better understanding.


Assuntos
Eutanásia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Animais , Inglaterra , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Cavalos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Escócia , País de Gales
11.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(1): 322-329, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is diagnosed and its severity assessed by post-exercise tracheobronchoscopy, and enumeration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid red blood cells (BALFRBC). Minimal information is available regarding the relationship of tracheobronchoscopy score to BALFRBC number. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between BALFRBC number and tracheobronchoscopy scores and determine their diagnostic sensitivities. ANIMALS: Nine sedentary horses, 21 fit Thoroughbreds, 129 Barrel Racers. METHODS: Normal BALFRBC number and the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on it were evaluated by performing 2 BALs 24 hours apart in sedentary horses. Tracheobronchoscopy followed by BAL was performed 247 times on 150 horses after treadmill, racetrack, or barrel racing exercise. Lastly, a BALFRBC diagnostic threshold number that optimized the geometric mean of the sensitivity and precision (F1-score) was determined using Bayesian analysis. RESULTS: No increase in BALFRBC occurred after the second BAL (mean ± SD, 304 ± 173/µL). Tracheobronchoscopy scores ranged from 0 (n = 112) to 4 (n = 4) and BALFRBC ranged from 102 to 4605268/µL. Spearman correlation between tracheobronchoscopy score and BALFRBC was weak (P < .001; rs = 0.42) with large ranges of BALFRBC associated with each tracheobronchoscopy score. The highest F1-score occurred for a BALFRBC threshold number = 992/µL. Seventy-five tracheobronchoscopy scores equaled 0 although BALFRBC number was ≥992/µL. Sensitivity of tracheobronchoscopy for diagnosing EIPH was poor (0.59; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.49-0.68), compared to BALFRBC number ≥992/µL (0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: False negatives are common with tracheobronchoscopy. Follow-up determination of BALFRBC may be indicated for tracheobronchoscopy scores = 0 before EIPH can be ruled out.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Broncoscopia/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/etiologia
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze data concerning history, clinical course, and prognosis of retained fetal membranes in mares. MATERIAL UND METHODS: Patient records of 121 hospitalized mares with retained placenta were evaluated. In 82 cases, additional blood examinations were performed and analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between age, parity or course of parturition and retained placenta. Eighty-one mares (66.9 %) were presented solely with retained fetal membranes, 40 mares (33.1 %) had additional diseases at presentation, most commonly injuries of the labia, followed by perineal tears and lochiometra. During hospitalization 50 mares (41.3 %) developed one or more diseases, most frequently lochiometra (23 mares, 19 %), laminitis (17 mares, 14 %) and thrombophlebitis (11 mares, 9.1 %). Eight mares (6.6 %) were euthanized due to the course of their diesease. Blood examinations revealed a mean leucocyte concentration of 9.8 ± 3.9 G/l at presentation. Mean concentration of serum ionized calcium amounted to 1.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l. There was no statistically significant influence of blood parameters on clinical course or development of additional diseases. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Retained placenta is a common disorder in the puerperium of the mare. In the presented study, most cases developed additional diseases and in 10 % of the mares, the clinical course led to euthanasia. No risk factors for the occurrence of retained fetal membranes or its clinical course could be identified.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Eutanásia Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Paridade , Placenta Retida/sangue , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Placenta Retida/etiologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683933

RESUMO

Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs in horses performing high-intensity athletic activity. The application of physics principles to derive a 'physical model', which is coherent with existing physiology and cell biology data, shows that critical parameters for capillary rupture are cell-cell adhesion and cell stiffness (cytoskeleton organisation). Specifically, length of fracture in the capillary is a ratio between the energy involved in cell-cell adhesion and the stiffness of cells suggesting that if the adhesion diminishes and/or that the stiffness of cells increases EIPH is more likely to occur. To identify genes associated with relevant cellular or physiological phenotypes, the physical model was used in a post-genome-wide association study (GWAS) to define gene sets associated with the model parameters. The primary study was a GWAS of EIPH where the phenotype was based on weekly tracheal wash samples collected over a two-year period from 72 horses in a flat race training yard. The EIPH phenotype was determined from cytological analysis of the tracheal wash samples, by scoring for the presence of red blood cells and haemosiderophages. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and analysed using linear regression in PLINK. Genes within significant genome regions were selected for sets based on their GeneOntology biological process, and analysed using fastBAT. The gene set analysis showed that genes associated with cell stiffness (cytoskeleton organisation) and blood flow have the most significant impact on EIPH risk.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Hemorragia/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Esforço Físico , Animais , Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Masculino , Microvasos/patologia , Fenótipo
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(6): 2770-2779, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of horses deficient in alpha-tocopherol (α-TP) develop muscle atrophy and vitamin E-responsive myopathy (VEM) characterized by mitochondrial alterations in the sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle (SC). OBJECTIVES: To quantify muscle histopathologic abnormalities in subclinical α-TP deficient horses before and after α-TP supplementation and compare with retrospective (r)VEM cases. ANIMALS: Prospective study; 16 healthy α-TP-deficient Quarter Horses. Retrospective study; 10 retrospective vitamin E-responsive myopathy (rVEM) cases . METHODS: Blood, SC, and gluteus medius (GM) biopsy specimens were obtained before (day 0) and 56 days after 5000 IU/450 kg horse/day PO water dispersible liquid α-TP (n = 8) or control (n = 8). Muscle fiber morphology and mitochondrial alterations were compared in samples from days 0 and 56 and in rVEM cases. RESULTS: Mitochondrial alterations more common than our reference range (<2.5% affected fibers) were present in 3/8 control and 4/8 treatment horses on day 0 in SC but not in GM (mean, 2.2; range, 0%-10% of fibers). Supplementation with α-TP for 56 days did not change the percentage of fibers with mitochondrial alterations or anguloid atrophy, or fiber size in GM or SC. Clinical rVEM horses had significantly more mitochondrial alterations (rVEM SC, 13% ± 7%; GM, 3% ± 2%) and anguloid atrophy compared to subclinical day 0 horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Clinically normal α-TP-deficient horses can have mitochondrial alterations in the SC that are less severe than in atrophied VEM cases and do not resolve after 56 days of α-TP supplementation. Preventing α-TP deficiency may be of long-term importance for mitochondrial viability.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina E/veterinária , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deficiência de Vitamina E/patologia
15.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(6): 820-828, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical course of abdominal wall sensitivity after ventral midline coeliotomy in horses by determining mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) during hospitalization, and to determine the inter-observer reliability of pressure algometry on the abdominal wall. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cohort study. SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 13 horses presenting with signs of abdominal pain/colic undergoing ventral midline coeliotomy and 10 healthy horses without an abdominal incision. METHODS: Measurements were performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 postoperatively using a pressure algometer. Measurement sites were marked left and right, abaxial to the abdominal incision. Cranial to the incision, two control points were marked. Measurements were made by one observer, blinded to the recorded MNT values. To determine inter-observer reliability, five horses (surgical group n = 2; nonsurgical group n = 3) were measured by two observers in a randomized order. RESULTS: Mean MNT values on days 5 and 7 were 9.61 Ncm-2 and 10.14 Ncm-2 in the operated group (p = 0.009 ; p = 0.005) respectively versus 13.00 Ncm-2 on day 1. Wound-associated points showed lower values than control points (p = 0.002). The nonsurgical group did not show a difference between control points and wound-associated points (p = 0.06). No significant differences were found between the surgical and the nonsurgical groups at the wound-associated points on any days measured. The inter-observer reliability was low (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.26; Cronbach's alpha of 0.27). CONCLUSION: Operated animals showed a reduction in MNT values on days 5 and 7 when compared with day 1 and lower values for the wound-associated points when compared with the control points. Inter-observer reliability was low. Pressure algometry could be a useful tool for assessing wound sensitivity after ventral midline coeliotomy in horses, which may improve pain management postoperatively.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Laparotomia/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Cólica/cirurgia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Limiar da Dor , Pressão
16.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e7, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588759

RESUMO

A definitive diagnosis of extensive suture line exostoses affecting the nasofrontal, nasolacrimal, nasomaxillary, frontolacrimal, lacrimozygomatic and lacrimomaxillary suture lines in a 7-year-old Thoroughbred mare with chronic bilateral epiphora and facial deformation was achieved using standing computed tomography (CT) examinations. Positive contrast dacryocystorhinography using CT revealed partial bilateral obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts. Minimally displaced depression fractures of the right nasal bone, the right maxillary bone and right frontal bone were also demonstrated. The cosmetic appearance of the periosteal reaction associated with the suture line exostosis and epiphora significantly improved within 3 months of diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Exostose/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos/lesões , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/veterinária , Animais , Exostose/etiologia , Exostose/terapia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/complicações , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/complicações , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Nasolacrimal/lesões , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 561-573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587971

RESUMO

Donkeys suffer from the same respiratory diseases as horses; however, owing to their nonathletic nature many conditions can present in a more advanced state before becoming clinically apparent. Anatomically, their respiratory tract is similar to the horse, with certain species-specific differences that are important to be aware of. Often donkeys do not receive the same level of routine care as horses, so many are not vaccinated against respiratory pathogens such as influenza or herpesviruses. Donkeys can act as a reservoir for certain infectious and parasitic respiratory diseases and the interpretation of diagnostic tests needs to be carried out with caution.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/parasitologia
18.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 469-479, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587972

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements. This article examines the importance of feeding strategies that mimic the donkey's natural environment using poor nutritional quality fibers and access to browsing materials. The relationship between nutrition and health is examined and practical approaches to the healthy and sick donkey are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Desnutrição/veterinária , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(6): 2780-2785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556150

RESUMO

Occipital condylar fractures (OCFs) causing delayed onset lower cranial nerve paralysis (LCNPs) are rare. We present a 7-year-old Friesian horse with delayed onset dysphagia caused by vagus nerve (CNX) paralysis and suspicion of glossopharyngeal nerve (CNIX) paralysis developed several days after a minor head injury. Endoscopic examination revealed right laryngeal hemiplegia and intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate. An area of submucosal hemorrhage and bulging was appreciated over the dorsal aspect of the medial compartment of the right guttural pouch. Radiological examination of the proximal cervical region showed rotation of the atlas and the presence of a large bone fragment dorsal to the guttural pouches. Occipital condyle fracture with delayed onset cranial nerve paralysis was diagnosed. Delayed onset cranial nerve paralysis causing dysphagia might be a distinguishable sign of OCF in horses. Delayed onset dysphagia after head injury should prompt equine clinicians to evaluate the condition of the atlanto-occipital articulation and skull base.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos/lesões , Osso Occipital/lesões , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/veterinária , Animais , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Masculino , Nervo Vago/patologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/patologia
20.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 43, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal pain, unexplained hind limb lameness, back pain or behavioural problems in geldings could be attributable to painful neuromas that develop as a consequence of crushing and severing the testicular nerves during castration. The presence of neuroma in this anatomical location has never been reported, hence the knowledge of possible clinical relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to histologically investigate the testicular nerves at the castration site in geldings for the presence of neuromas. Proximal spermatic cord remnants were collected from 20 geldings admitted to routine post mortem examination for various reasons. The time of castration was unknown, but it had not been performed during the last year. Spermatic cord specimens were immersed in 10% formalin, trimmed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) for light microscopy. Identification of nerve tissue was done by immuno-localization of nerve specific enolase (NSE). RESULTS: Neuromas were found in 21 spermatic cords from 13 geldings and were bilateral in eight of the horses. The neuromas consisted of areas with small groups of non-neoplastic proliferations of peripheral neural tissue. The tissue included neurofilaments and Schwann cells, intermingled or surrounded with, epineural, perineural and endoneural fibrous tissue. The neural tissue immunostained positive with NSE. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed neuromas of the remnant testicular nerves at the site of castration. Further studies are required to establish if these neuromas in the castration site are painful and if certain castration methods promote their formation. Future studies should also investigate the clinical consequence of these neuromas for the individual horse.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Neuroma/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Neuroma/diagnóstico , Neuroma/etiologia , Neuroma/patologia , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia
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