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1.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 172-180, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945400

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved kinase cascade in mammals with the proteins YAP and TAZ as its most important downstream effectors that shuttle between cytoplasma and nucleus. It has a crucial role in processes such as embryogenesis, organ size control, homeostasis and tissue regeneration, where mechanosensing and/or cell-cell interactions are involved. As the pathway is associated with many essential functions in the body, its dysregulation is related to many diseases. In contrast to human pathology, a PubMed-search on Hippo, YAP/TAZ and companion animals (horse, equine, dog, canine, cat, feline) retrieved few publications. Because of its high level of functional conservation, it is anticipated that also in veterinary sciences aberrant Hippo YAP/TAZ signaling would be implicated in animal pathologies. Publications on Hippo YAP/TAZ in companion animals are mainly in cats and dogs and related to oncology. Here, we emphasize the important role of YAP/TAZ in liver diseases. First the liver has a remarkable regeneration capacity and a strict size control and the liver has a moderate liver cell renewal (homeostasis). The last years numerous papers show the importance of YAP/TAZ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatocyte differentiation and bile duct epithelial (BEC) cell survival. YAP/TAZ signaling is involved in activation of hepatic stellate cells crucial in fibrogenesis. The availability of drugs (e.g. verteporfin) targeting the YAP/TAZ pathway are described as is their potential usage in veterinary medicine. The aim of this overview is to stimulate researchers' and clinicians' interest in the potential role of Hippo YAP/TAZ signaling in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Doenças do Gato/metabolismo , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Hepatopatias , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
2.
Vet Surg ; 50(3): 641-649, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations in serum and synovial fluid (SF) from horses with joint inflammation. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental studies and retrospective clinical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Serum and SF samples were available from healthy horses (n = 19), clinical cases, and horses with experimental joint inflammation. Clinical cases included horses with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) septic arthritis. Experimental intra-articular inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7, severe inflammation), lidocaine (n = 6, moderate inflammation), or mepivacaine (n = 6, mild inflammation). METHODS: Availability of samples was based on approval from the local ethical committee and from the Danish Animal Experiments Inspectorate. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was measured with a previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Repeated-measurements one- and two-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used to analyze NGAL concentrations and white blood cell counts (WBC). RESULTS: After injection of LPS or lidocaine, SF NGAL concentrations increased 343- (P = .0035) and 60-fold (P = .0038) relative to baseline, respectively. Serum NGAL also increased in both groups (P < .05) but to lower concentrations than in SF. Concentrations were higher after injection of lidocaine SF NGAL than after injection of mepivacaine (P < .05) at 6 and 12 hours. Synovial fluid concentrations of NGAL were higher in horses with septic arthritis than in the nonseptic group (P = .0070) and in healthy controls (P = .0071). Concentrations of NGAL correlated with WBC in SF (P < .0001, R2 = 0.49) and in blood (P = .0051, R2 = 0.27). CONCLUSION: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations increased in SF in response to experimentally induced and naturally occurring joint inflammation. Synovial fluid NGAL concentration correlated with WBC and, thus, seems to reflect intensity of joint inflammation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may prove to be a useful biomarker of joint inflammation and infection in horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Artropatias/veterinária , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Cavalos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Artropatias/induzido quimicamente , Artropatias/metabolismo , Lidocaína/efeitos adversos , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Lipocalina-2/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mepivacaína/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Vet J ; 267: 105579, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375964

RESUMO

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin with many functions. In humans, it is involved in inflammation, nerve growth, apoptosis and pain signalling. Increased concentrations of NGF in synovial fluid has been shown in humans and dogs with osteoarthritis. Despite osteoarthritis being a common problem in horses, no studies have previously been published on NGF in the equine joint. The aim of this study was to quantify NGF in equine synovial fluid from healthy joints, acutely inflamed septic joints and joints with structural changes associated with osteoarthritis. A secondary aim was to identify the localisation of NGF and its two receptors, TrkA and p75NTR, in healthy and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. NGF concentrations in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints (n = 27), septic joints (n = 9) and healthy joints (n = 16) were determined by ELISA. In addition, articular cartilage from osteoarthritic and healthy joints was examined for NGF, TrkA and p75NTR using immunohistochemistry staining. NGF was present in equine synovial fluid and articular cartilage. Compared to synovial fluid from healthy joints, NGF concentration was higher in synovial fluid from joints with structural osteoarthritic changes (P = 0.032) or acute septic inflammation (P = 0.006). In articular cartilage with severe osteoarthritic changes, there was more abundant positive immunohistochemistry staining for NGF and its receptors than in normal articular cartilage. Further studies should focus on identifying precursor forms of NGF, and on receptor expression and downstream signalling of TrkA and P75NTR in health and disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Articulações/química , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/metabolismo , Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Cartilagem Articular/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cavalos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/análise , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Líquido Sinovial/química
4.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 353-378, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654785

RESUMO

There are 5 single-gene mutations that are known to cause muscle disease in horses. These mutations alter the amino acid sequence of proteins involved in cell membrane electrical conduction, muscle energy metabolism, muscle contraction, and immunogenicity. The clinical signs depend on the pathway affected. The likelihood that an animal with a mutation will exhibit clinical signs depends on the mode of inheritance, environmental influences, and interactions with other genes. Selection of a genetic test for use in diagnostic or breeding decisions requires a knowledge of clinical signs, mode of inheritance, breeds affected, and proper scientific test validation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo
5.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 379-394, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654786

RESUMO

Laminitis is a devastating disease with diverse etiologies and few, if any, effective treatments. Gene expression and hypothesis-generating genomic studies have provided a fresh look at the key molecular players at crucial timepoints in diverse experimental and naturally affected tissues. We summarize findings to date, and propose a unifying model of the laminitis disease process that includes several pathogenesis concepts shared with other diseases of epidermal and epithelial tissues. The value of these new pathways as potential therapeutic targets is exciting but will require careful future work to validate new methods and launch systematic clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Pé/genética , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Casco e Garras/metabolismo , Casco e Garras/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559258

RESUMO

Distal limb wounds are common injuries sustained by horses and their healing is fraught with complications due to equine anatomy, prevalence of infection, and challenges associated with wound management. Gallium is a semi-metallic element that has been shown to possess antimicrobial properties and aid in wound healing in various preclinical models. The effects of Gallium have not been studied in equine wound healing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare healing rates between gallium-treated and untreated wounds of equine distal limbs and to demonstrate the antimicrobial effects of gallium on wounds inoculated with S. aureus. Using an established model of equine wound healing we demonstrated beneficial effects of 0.5% topical gallium maltolate on equine wound healing. Specifically we documented reduced healing times, reduced bioburden, and reduced formation of exuberant granulation tissue in wounds treated with gallium maltolate as compared with untreated wounds. Gallium appeared to exert its beneficial effects via its well-described antimicrobial actions as well as by altering the expression of specific genes known to be involved in wound healing of horses and other animals. Specifically, gallium maltolate appeared to increase expression of transforming growth factor-ß in both infected and un-infected wounds. Further work is needed to document the effects of gallium on naturally occurring equine wounds and to compare the effects of gallium with other wound treatment options. These data, however, suggest that gallium may be an attractive and novel means of improving equine distal limb wound healing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Perna/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Pironas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Carga Bacteriana , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Traumatismos da Perna/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Perna/veterinária , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Pironas/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Cicatrização
7.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute-phase proteins may help assess the nature and severity of lesions and outcome in horses undergoing colic surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations ([SAA] and [fibrinogen]) in the immediate post-operative period after exploratory celiotomy and determine their value in assessment of post-operative complications and survival to discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: This study included horses over 1 year of age undergoing exploratory celiotomy. Surgical procedures, lesions, post-operative care, complications and survival to discharge were recorded. [SAA] and [fibrinogen] were measured prior to surgery and 5 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses included Yate's Chi-square test, linear mixed effects model, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 300 horses, 52.0% developed post-operative complications and 83.7% survived to discharge, with significantly reduced chance of survival in horses that developed post-operative complications (P<0.01). Median [SAA] at days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and median [fibrinogen] at days 3, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not develop post-operative complications (P<0.05). Median [SAA] at days 1, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not survive to discharge (P<0.05). Logistic regression revealed post-operative complications to be associated with strangulating lesions (OR 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.91, P≤0.001) and higher [fibrinogen] at admission (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, P<0.05), and survival to discharge to be associated with lower [SAA] at 5 days post-operatively (OR 0.965, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.002). MAIN LIMITATIONS: A large variety of lesions and complications prevented detailed analysis of associations between inflammatory markers, lesions and complications. CONCLUSIONS: Horses that develop post-operative complications have acute-phase responses of greater magnitudes and durations compared with those that do not develop complications. This is also seen in horses that do not survive to discharge. Measuring [SAA] daily and [fibrinogen] at admission, may help predict the development of post-operative complications.


Assuntos
Cólica/veterinária , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Cólica/cirurgia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Período Pós-Operatório
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817880

RESUMO

Osteochondrosis is a failure of the endochondral ossification that affects developing joints in humans and several animal species. It is a localized idiopathic joint disorder characterized by focal chondronecrosis and growing cartilage retention, which can lead to the formation of fissures, subchondral bone cysts, or intra-articular fragments. Osteochondrosis is a complex multifactorial disease associated with extracellular matrix alterations and failure in chondrocyte differentiation, mainly due to genetic, biochemical, and nutritional factors, as well as traumas. This study describes the main proteomic alterations occurring in chondrocytes isolated from osteochondrotic cartilage fragments. A comparative analysis performed on equine osteochondrotic and healthy chondrocytes showed 26 protein species as differentially represented. In particular, quantitative changes in the extracellular matrix, cytoskeletal and chaperone proteins, and in cell adhesion and signaling molecules were observed in osteochondrotic cells, compared to healthy controls. Functional group analysis annotated most of these proteins in "growth plate and cartilage development", while others were included in "glycolysis and gluconeogenesis", "positive regulation of protein import", "cell-cell adhesion mediator activity", and "mitochondrion nucleoid". These results may help to clarify some chondrocyte functional alterations that may play a significant role in determining the onset and progression of equine osteochondrosis and, being related, of human juvenile osteochondrosis.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Osteocondrose/patologia , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Osteocondrose/metabolismo , Proteômica
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of correlation between ultrasonographic findings of the stomach and the obtained reflux volume in horses with secondary gastric distension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective, controlled clinical study, warmblood horses presented with secondary gastric distension at the Clinic for Horses between 2017 and 2018 were included. Gastric fluid content was assessed sonographically by evaluating the number of intercostal spaces with detectable fluid level as well as the maximum height of gastric fluid. These findings were compared to the amount of reflux obtained. RESULTS: Eleven horses with a total of 52 examinations were included into the study. Gastric fluid levels were detectable over a median of 6 intercostal spaces (interquartil range [IQR] 3). The maximum extension recorded was over 9 intercostal spaces. Median obtained reflux amounted to 7 liters (IQR 6.5), with a maximum of 14 liters. The number of intercostal spaces with detectable fluid levels and obtained reflux volume exhibited a strong correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.77 (p ≤ 0.001). Moderate correlation (correlation coefficient 0.59 with p ≤ 0.001) was observed between the maximum height of fluid levels and the obtained volume of reflux. Based on number of intercostal spaces with measurable gastric fluid levels estimation values for the obtainable reflux volume were established. When fluid levels are detectable over 5 or 6 intercostal spaces approximately 5.7-7.4 liters of reflux are to be expected. The maximum height of gastric fluid levels may be considered insufficient for an accurate prediction of reflux volume due to the moderate correlation of these 2 parameters. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Due to the high correlation between number of intercostal spaces with sonographically detectable fluid levels and the obtained reflux volume, this parameter seems to be adequate to predict reflux amount. Based on this estimation, management of horses with paralytic ileus may be optimized.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Enteropatias/veterinária , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Cavalos , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Estômago/química , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
10.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810278

RESUMO

Interferon-mediated host factors myxovirus (Mx) proteins are key features in regulating influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Viral polymerases are essential for viral replication. The Mx1 protein has been known to interact with viral nucleoprotein (NP) and PB2, resulting in the influence of polymerase activity and providing interspecies restriction. The equine influenza virus has evolved as an independent lineage to influenza viruses from other species. We estimated the differences in antiviral activities between human MxA (huMxA) and equine Mx1 (eqMx1) against a broad range of IAV strains. We found that huMxA has antiviral potential against IAV strains from non-human species, whereas eqMx1 could only inhibit the polymerase activity of non-equine species. Here, we demonstrated that NP is the main target of eqMx1. Subsequently, we found adaptive mutations in the NP of strains A/equine/Jilin/1/1989 (H3N8JL89) and A/chicken/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013 (H7N9ZJ13) that confer eqMx1 resistance and sensitivity respectively. A substantial reduction in Mx1 resistance was observed for the two mutations G34S and H52N in H3N8JL89 NP. Thus, eqMx1 is an important dynamic force in IAV nucleoprotein evolution. We, therefore, suggest that the amino acids responsible for Mx1 resistance should be regarded as a robust indicator for the pandemic potential of lately evolving IAVs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Replicação Viral , Animais , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Mutação , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225843, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805097

RESUMO

Equine laminitis is a disease of the digital epidermal lamellae typified by epidermal cell proliferation and structural collapse. Most commonly the disease is caused by hyperinsulinemia, although the pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Insulin can activate the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system in other species and the present study tested the hypothesis that upregulation of EGF receptor (EGFR) signalling is a key factor in laminitis pathophysiology. First, we examined lamellar tissue from healthy Standardbred horses and those with induced hyperinsulinemia and laminitis for EGFR distribution and quantity using immunostaining and gene expression, respectively. Phosphorylation of EGFR was also quantified. Next, plasma EGF concentrations were compared in healthy and insulin-infused horses, and in healthy and insulin-dysregulated ponies before and after feeding. The EGFR were localised to the secondary epidermal lamellae, with stronger staining in parabasal, rather than basal, cells. No change in EGFR gene expression occurred with laminitis, although the receptor showed some phosphorylation. No difference was seen in EGF concentrations in horses, but in insulin-dysregulated ponies mean, post-prandial EGF concentrations were almost three times higher than in healthy ponies (274 ± 90 vs. 97.4 ± 20.9 pg/mL, P = 0.05). Although the EGFR does not appear to play a major pathogenic role in hyperinsulinemic laminitis, the significance of increased EGF in insulin-dysregulated ponies deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/sangue , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Doenças do Pé/sangue , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Fosforilação
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 345, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral glucose test (OGT) is a useful tool for diagnosing insulin dysregulation (ID) and is somewhat repeatable in ponies under consistent management. This study aimed to determine whether the insulin and incretin responses to an OGT in ponies differed after short-term access to fertilised pasture, compared to unfertilised pasture, by using a randomised, repeated measures study design. Sixteen mixed-breed ponies were classified as severely insulin-dysregulated (SD; post-prandial insulin ≥80 µIU/mL) or not severely insulin-dysregulated (NSD; post-prandial insulin < 80 µIU/mL) using an OGT prior to the study. The ponies accessed pasture that was fertilised, or unfertilised, for 5 days (4 h/day, with supplemental hay provided at 0.7% bodyweight), with a 10 day period between phases. An OGT was performed after each phase. Glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (aGLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were measured in post-prandial blood samples. RESULTS: The volume of fertilised pasture was five-fold greater than unfertilised pasture, with % non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) similar between all forages. Consuming fertilised pasture increased (P = 0.018) the serum insulin response to an OGT, compared to grazing unfertilised pasture. A limitation of the study was that pasture intake was unable to be quantified. Insulin responses were greater in SD, compared to NSD, ponies (P < 0.001) and remained well above the test cut-off at all times. A subset of ponies, initially screened as NSD, became (more) insulin-dysregulated after pasture access. Further, aGLP-1 was a significant predictor of insulin concentration in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas some insulin-dysregulated ponies were comparatively resistant to dietary intervention, others showed markedly different OGT responses following subtle changes in their forage-based diet. This implies that mild/early ID might be unmasked by dietary change, and that dietary management is important in these ponies. However, dietary management alone may not be adequate for all cases of ID.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Cavalos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Incretinas/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Queensland , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 469-479, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587972

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements. This article examines the importance of feeding strategies that mimic the donkey's natural environment using poor nutritional quality fibers and access to browsing materials. The relationship between nutrition and health is examined and practical approaches to the healthy and sick donkey are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Desnutrição/veterinária , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais
14.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 399-417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587976

RESUMO

The donkey evolved under harsh and arid environmental conditions, developing unique energy-efficiency traits, with an efficiency to rapidly mobilize fat in situations of increased energy demands or when food is scarce. This evolution has led to an inherent predisposition of donkeys to obesity, dyslipidemias, insulin dysregulation/metabolic syndrome, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and endocrinopathic laminitis. Marked differences have been described in hormone dynamics and testing protocols for the diagnosis of these endocrine and metabolic diseases in donkeys compared with horses, underlining the necessity of a species-specific approach in order to avoid misdiagnosis, unnecessary or inadequate treatments, and additional costs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia
15.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 419-432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587977

RESUMO

A review of common gastrointestinal disorders of donkeys and mules is presented. Clinically relevant aspects of donkey behavior, anatomy, and physiology are highlighted. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract from stomach to rectum, including liver and pancreas, are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos
16.
Vet J ; 251: 105341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492392

RESUMO

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by an abnormal insulin response to a glycemic challenge but despite the known insulinotropic effects of certain amino acids, there is a paucity of data evaluating the impact of dietary protein on insulin dynamics in these horses. The objective was therefore to assess insulin and amino acid responses following intake of a high protein meal in healthy horses and those with EMS. Six mature horses diagnosed with EMS and six age-matched control horses without EMS were used. Horses were fed 2g/kg body mass (BM) of a high protein pellet (31% crude protein) at time 0 and 30min, for a total of 4g/kg BM, following an overnight fast. Blood samples collected during a 4h period were analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, amino acids and urea concentrations. Glucose concentrations were not different between groups (P=0.2). Horses with EMS had a 9-fold greater insulinemic response to the consumption of a high protein meal compared with controls (P=0.046). Post-prandial levels of histidine, citrulline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and ornithine were higher in horses with EMS (P<0.05). Baseline urea nitrogen concentrations were not significantly different between groups (P=0.1). Knowing that certain amino acids are insulin secretagogues, these results illustrate that consumption of a high protein meal caused a hyperinsulinemic response and affected amino acid dynamics in horses with EMS. These findings suggest that dietary protein content should be taken into consideration in the management of horses with insulin dysregulation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
17.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 46-52, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512314

RESUMO

Inflammation and fibroproliferative diseases may be modulated by epigenetic changes. Therefore, we suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in equine endometrosis pathogenesis. DNA methylation is one of the methods to evaluate epigenetics, through the transcription of methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B). The correlation between DNMTs and collagen (COL) transcripts was assessed for the different Kenney and Doig's (Current Therapy in Theriogenology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1986) endometrium categories. Endometrial biopsies were randomly collected from cyclic mares. Histological classification (category I, n = 13; II A, n = 17; II B, n = 12; and III, n = 7) and evaluation of COL1A2, COL3A1 and DNMTs transcripts by qPCR, were performed. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson correlation. As mares aged, there was an increase in endometrium fibrosis (p < .01), and in DNMT1 mRNA (p < .001). Considering DNMT3B transcripts for each category, there was an increase with fibrosis (p < .05). No changes were observed for DNMT1 and DNMT3A transcripts. However, DNMT3A mRNA levels were the highest in all categories (p < .01). In category I endometrium, a positive correlation was observed for transcripts of all DNMTs in both COLs (p < .01). In category IIA, this correlation was also maintained for all DNMTs transcripts in COL1A2 (p < .05), but only for DNMT3B in COL3A1 (p < .05). In category IIB, there was a positive correlation between DNMT3B and COL3A1 (p < .05). In category III, a positive correlation was only observed between DNMT3B and COL3A1 (p < .05). Our results suggest that there is a disturbance in COLs and DNMTs correlation during fibrosis.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Endometrite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno/genética , Metilação de DNA , Endometrite/genética , Endometrite/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos , RNA Mensageiro
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2249-2256, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test are commonly used methods to diagnose, respectively, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic value of combining the TRH stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test to diagnose PPID and ID simultaneously. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven adult horses, 10 control horses without PPID or ID, 5 horses with PPID only, 5 horses with ID only, and 7 horses with PPID and ID. METHODS: Randomized prospective study. Horses underwent a TRH stimulation test alone, a 2-step insulin sensitivity test alone, and combined testing with simultaneous TRH and insulin injection in the same syringe. Data were compared by 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and 2 1-sided tests to demonstrate equivalence. Bland-Altman plots were generated to visualize agreement between combined and independent testing. RESULTS: The effect of combined testing on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, blood glucose concentration, or percentage decrease in blood glucose concentration was not significantly different from the effect obtained with independent testing. One control horse appeared falsely positive for PPID, 2 PPID-only horses appeared falsely positive for ID, and 1 PPID and ID horse appeared falsely negative for ID when tests were performed simultaneously. Bland-Altman plots supported the agreement between combined and independent testing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Combining the TRH stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for equine practitioners in the field, allowing testing of a horse for both PPID and ID simultaneously.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Animais , Glicemia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Doenças da Hipófise/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/farmacologia
19.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514932

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) are the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare. To enhance understanding of the physiopathology of HAFs, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of an induced-follicular wave on LH concentrations and follicular fluid factors relevant to the ovulatory process. Mares were allocated to treatment or control groups (n = 7/group) in a crossed over design during 14 oestrous cycles with a period of one cycle occurring when there were no treatments between the times when treatments were administered. In the treatment group, all antral follicles ≥8 mm were ablated on Day 10 after ovulation followed by administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF2α. All mares of both groups were treated with 1500 IU of hCG when a follicle ≥32 mm was detected (Hour 0), and follicular fluid was aspirated 35 h later. Blood samples were collected every 48 h from Day 10 until Hour 0 from all mares. Follicular fluid was assayed for PGE2, estradiol and progesterone. Plasma was assayed for LH concentrations. A follicular wave followed follicle ablation in the treated mares. Concentrations of LH were greater (P = 0.05) in mares ot the treatment compared with control group. Concentrations of PGE2, estradiol and progesterone in follicular fluid did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Treatment resulted in an earlier increase in circulating LH, however, there was no effect on concentrations of intra-follicular PGE2, estradiol or progesterone in hCG-stimulated preovulatory follicles.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Anovulação/cirurgia , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Cavalos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/veterinária , Animais , Anovulação/complicações , Anovulação/metabolismo , Anovulação/veterinária , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/química , Líquido Folicular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Punções/métodos , Punções/veterinária , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
20.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 79: 131-138, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405493

RESUMO

Obesity data in people and companion animals are depicting a future of increasing morbidity, cost for society, and significant health and welfare concerns. Between 25 and 50% of cats, dogs, and horses in developed countries are overweight or obese, which mirrors the situation in humans. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) was named after human metabolic syndrome (MetS), which has about 30 years of lead in research efforts. Even though the complications of the two syndromes seem to grossly differ (cardiac vs. laminitis risk), a number of similar disease mechanisms are worthy of investigation. Since the first EMS consensus statement by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine in 2010, numerous studies have confirmed the link between insulin dysregulation and laminitis, even though the mechanisms are not fully understood. After the discovery of the role of adipokines in MetS, evidence about inflammatory mechanisms related to adiposity in rodent models, companion animals, horses, and humans is constantly increasing. Oxidative and dicarbonyl stress have been correlated with insulin dysregulation, obesity, and recently with laminitis. Vascular actions of insulin through nitric oxide, endothelin-1, and other mechanisms are being studied in horses and can provide a better understanding of laminitis pathophysiology. More research is needed on neuropathic mechanisms in insulin-dysregulated horses, which could be important in the pathogenesis of laminitis and laminitic pain. Human literature can provide viable material for novel studies in areas that have received limited attention, in addition to being valuable information for clients about the consequences of unhealthy management of their horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Humanos , Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/veterinária
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