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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute-phase proteins may help assess the nature and severity of lesions and outcome in horses undergoing colic surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations ([SAA] and [fibrinogen]) in the immediate post-operative period after exploratory celiotomy and determine their value in assessment of post-operative complications and survival to discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: This study included horses over 1 year of age undergoing exploratory celiotomy. Surgical procedures, lesions, post-operative care, complications and survival to discharge were recorded. [SAA] and [fibrinogen] were measured prior to surgery and 5 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses included Yate's Chi-square test, linear mixed effects model, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 300 horses, 52.0% developed post-operative complications and 83.7% survived to discharge, with significantly reduced chance of survival in horses that developed post-operative complications (P<0.01). Median [SAA] at days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and median [fibrinogen] at days 3, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not develop post-operative complications (P<0.05). Median [SAA] at days 1, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not survive to discharge (P<0.05). Logistic regression revealed post-operative complications to be associated with strangulating lesions (OR 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.91, P≤0.001) and higher [fibrinogen] at admission (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, P<0.05), and survival to discharge to be associated with lower [SAA] at 5 days post-operatively (OR 0.965, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.002). MAIN LIMITATIONS: A large variety of lesions and complications prevented detailed analysis of associations between inflammatory markers, lesions and complications. CONCLUSIONS: Horses that develop post-operative complications have acute-phase responses of greater magnitudes and durations compared with those that do not develop complications. This is also seen in horses that do not survive to discharge. Measuring [SAA] daily and [fibrinogen] at admission, may help predict the development of post-operative complications.


Assuntos
Cólica/veterinária , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Cólica/cirurgia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Período Pós-Operatório
2.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 469-479, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587972

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements. This article examines the importance of feeding strategies that mimic the donkey's natural environment using poor nutritional quality fibers and access to browsing materials. The relationship between nutrition and health is examined and practical approaches to the healthy and sick donkey are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Desnutrição/veterinária , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais
3.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 399-417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587976

RESUMO

The donkey evolved under harsh and arid environmental conditions, developing unique energy-efficiency traits, with an efficiency to rapidly mobilize fat in situations of increased energy demands or when food is scarce. This evolution has led to an inherent predisposition of donkeys to obesity, dyslipidemias, insulin dysregulation/metabolic syndrome, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and endocrinopathic laminitis. Marked differences have been described in hormone dynamics and testing protocols for the diagnosis of these endocrine and metabolic diseases in donkeys compared with horses, underlining the necessity of a species-specific approach in order to avoid misdiagnosis, unnecessary or inadequate treatments, and additional costs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia
4.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 419-432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587977

RESUMO

A review of common gastrointestinal disorders of donkeys and mules is presented. Clinically relevant aspects of donkey behavior, anatomy, and physiology are highlighted. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract from stomach to rectum, including liver and pancreas, are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 345, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral glucose test (OGT) is a useful tool for diagnosing insulin dysregulation (ID) and is somewhat repeatable in ponies under consistent management. This study aimed to determine whether the insulin and incretin responses to an OGT in ponies differed after short-term access to fertilised pasture, compared to unfertilised pasture, by using a randomised, repeated measures study design. Sixteen mixed-breed ponies were classified as severely insulin-dysregulated (SD; post-prandial insulin ≥80 µIU/mL) or not severely insulin-dysregulated (NSD; post-prandial insulin < 80 µIU/mL) using an OGT prior to the study. The ponies accessed pasture that was fertilised, or unfertilised, for 5 days (4 h/day, with supplemental hay provided at 0.7% bodyweight), with a 10 day period between phases. An OGT was performed after each phase. Glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (aGLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were measured in post-prandial blood samples. RESULTS: The volume of fertilised pasture was five-fold greater than unfertilised pasture, with % non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) similar between all forages. Consuming fertilised pasture increased (P = 0.018) the serum insulin response to an OGT, compared to grazing unfertilised pasture. A limitation of the study was that pasture intake was unable to be quantified. Insulin responses were greater in SD, compared to NSD, ponies (P < 0.001) and remained well above the test cut-off at all times. A subset of ponies, initially screened as NSD, became (more) insulin-dysregulated after pasture access. Further, aGLP-1 was a significant predictor of insulin concentration in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas some insulin-dysregulated ponies were comparatively resistant to dietary intervention, others showed markedly different OGT responses following subtle changes in their forage-based diet. This implies that mild/early ID might be unmasked by dietary change, and that dietary management is important in these ponies. However, dietary management alone may not be adequate for all cases of ID.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Cavalos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Incretinas/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Queensland , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2249-2256, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test are commonly used methods to diagnose, respectively, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic value of combining the TRH stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test to diagnose PPID and ID simultaneously. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven adult horses, 10 control horses without PPID or ID, 5 horses with PPID only, 5 horses with ID only, and 7 horses with PPID and ID. METHODS: Randomized prospective study. Horses underwent a TRH stimulation test alone, a 2-step insulin sensitivity test alone, and combined testing with simultaneous TRH and insulin injection in the same syringe. Data were compared by 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and 2 1-sided tests to demonstrate equivalence. Bland-Altman plots were generated to visualize agreement between combined and independent testing. RESULTS: The effect of combined testing on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, blood glucose concentration, or percentage decrease in blood glucose concentration was not significantly different from the effect obtained with independent testing. One control horse appeared falsely positive for PPID, 2 PPID-only horses appeared falsely positive for ID, and 1 PPID and ID horse appeared falsely negative for ID when tests were performed simultaneously. Bland-Altman plots supported the agreement between combined and independent testing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Combining the TRH stimulation test and the 2-step insulin sensitivity test appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for equine practitioners in the field, allowing testing of a horse for both PPID and ID simultaneously.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Animais , Glicemia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Doenças da Hipófise/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/farmacologia
7.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 46-52, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512314

RESUMO

Inflammation and fibroproliferative diseases may be modulated by epigenetic changes. Therefore, we suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in equine endometrosis pathogenesis. DNA methylation is one of the methods to evaluate epigenetics, through the transcription of methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B). The correlation between DNMTs and collagen (COL) transcripts was assessed for the different Kenney and Doig's (Current Therapy in Theriogenology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1986) endometrium categories. Endometrial biopsies were randomly collected from cyclic mares. Histological classification (category I, n = 13; II A, n = 17; II B, n = 12; and III, n = 7) and evaluation of COL1A2, COL3A1 and DNMTs transcripts by qPCR, were performed. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson correlation. As mares aged, there was an increase in endometrium fibrosis (p < .01), and in DNMT1 mRNA (p < .001). Considering DNMT3B transcripts for each category, there was an increase with fibrosis (p < .05). No changes were observed for DNMT1 and DNMT3A transcripts. However, DNMT3A mRNA levels were the highest in all categories (p < .01). In category I endometrium, a positive correlation was observed for transcripts of all DNMTs in both COLs (p < .01). In category IIA, this correlation was also maintained for all DNMTs transcripts in COL1A2 (p < .05), but only for DNMT3B in COL3A1 (p < .05). In category IIB, there was a positive correlation between DNMT3B and COL3A1 (p < .05). In category III, a positive correlation was only observed between DNMT3B and COL3A1 (p < .05). Our results suggest that there is a disturbance in COLs and DNMTs correlation during fibrosis.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Endometrite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno/genética , Metilação de DNA , Endometrite/genética , Endometrite/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos , RNA Mensageiro
8.
Vet J ; 251: 105341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492392

RESUMO

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by an abnormal insulin response to a glycemic challenge but despite the known insulinotropic effects of certain amino acids, there is a paucity of data evaluating the impact of dietary protein on insulin dynamics in these horses. The objective was therefore to assess insulin and amino acid responses following intake of a high protein meal in healthy horses and those with EMS. Six mature horses diagnosed with EMS and six age-matched control horses without EMS were used. Horses were fed 2g/kg body mass (BM) of a high protein pellet (31% crude protein) at time 0 and 30min, for a total of 4g/kg BM, following an overnight fast. Blood samples collected during a 4h period were analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, amino acids and urea concentrations. Glucose concentrations were not different between groups (P=0.2). Horses with EMS had a 9-fold greater insulinemic response to the consumption of a high protein meal compared with controls (P=0.046). Post-prandial levels of histidine, citrulline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and ornithine were higher in horses with EMS (P<0.05). Baseline urea nitrogen concentrations were not significantly different between groups (P=0.1). Knowing that certain amino acids are insulin secretagogues, these results illustrate that consumption of a high protein meal caused a hyperinsulinemic response and affected amino acid dynamics in horses with EMS. These findings suggest that dietary protein content should be taken into consideration in the management of horses with insulin dysregulation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 792-798, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of body condition on permeability of intestinal mucosa in horses. ANIMALS: 13 horses (7 obese and 6 lean) from 8 to 15 years of age. PROCEDURES: Body condition score was assessed, and an oral sugar test (OST) was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin dynamics. Horses were allowed a 2-week diet acclimation period and were then euthanized. Tissue samples were collected from the jejunum, ileum, cecum, pelvic flexure, right dorsal colon, and rectum. Mucosal permeability was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) flux across tissue samples mounted in Ussing chambers. RESULTS: 5 obese horses and 1 lean horse had evidence of insulin dysregulation, whereas 1 obese and 5 lean horses had no abnormalities in results of the OST. Results for the OST were not available for 1 obese horse. Mucosal transepithelial resistance did not differ in any intestinal segment between obese and lean horses. Obese horses had a significantly higher LPS flux across jejunal mucosa, compared with results for lean horses, but there were no significant differences between obese and lean horses for other intestinal segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Obese horses may have had greater paracellular mucosal permeability of jejunal mucosa to LPS, compared with that for lean horses. This finding was consistent with data for the gastrointestinal mucosa of humans and mice and supported the hypothesis that obese horses may be at higher risk from chronic exposure to increased amounts of LPS, compared with the risk for lean horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/veterinária , Animais , Constituição Corporal , Ceco/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Glucose/metabolismo , Cavalos , Insulina/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
10.
Vet J ; 249: 58-59, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239166

RESUMO

Equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) is common in horses and many factors, including stress, may play a role in lesion development. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) provides a measure of medium to long-term stress and therefore, the relationship between HCC and ESGD was examined in this study. Hair samples were collected from 25 horses and gastroscopy was performed to determine the presence and severity of ESGD. Hair cortisol concentrations were lower in horses with ESGD (P = 0.014), and negatively correlated with lesion severity. Mares had lower HCC than geldings (P = 0.031), and a higher prevalence of ESGD, while age had no significant effect. Further studies are required to determine the relevance of the association between HCC and ESGD.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Gastropatias/metabolismo
11.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 68: 111-118, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035090

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to illuminate the changes in serum NEFA concentrations during a combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) and basal serum triacylglycerides (TGs) with increasing BW in Shetland ponies and warmblood horses. Therefore, basal blood samples were taken during fasting and a CGIT was performed in 19 healthy equines (10 Shetland ponies, 9 warmblood horses) (t0). After one (t1) and two (t2) year(s) of receiving 200% of their maintenance metabolizable energy requirement, procedures were repeated in the same equines. Sixteen of 19 equines had no signs of insulin dysregulation confirmed by CGIT. Basal plasma glucose concentrations increased in ponies (P = 0.001) when comparing t0 and t2, and basal serum insulin concentrations increased in ponies (P = 0.009) and horses (P = 0.024) from t0 to t2. Basal serum NEFA concentrations increased in ponies comparing t0 and t2 (P = 0.01). During CGIT, NEFA levels dropped until reaching a nadir and subsequently recovered until reaching basal concentrations. The minimum serum NEFA value did not change over time in ponies or horses. However, a strong correlation between basal serum NEFA concentrations and the percentage drop to minimum NEFA levels was found in ponies. Two of three equines (one horse and one pony) graded as insulin-dysregulated suffered from laminitis at t2. The serum NEFA concentrations of these animals had a delay in recovery of the minimum NEFA levels. Basal serum TG levels did not change with BW gain, and no breed differences were observed. In conclusion, serum NEFA concentrations are useful parameters during CGIT to detect insulin dysregulation in equines. Thus, further investigation should be focused on lipid metabolism during insulin dysregulation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Obesidade/veterinária , Animais , Glicemia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo
12.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 68: 92-99, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927630

RESUMO

Lipoproteins are water-miscible macromolecules enabling the transport of lipids in blood. In humans, altered proportions of lipoproteins are used to detect and classify metabolic diseases. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are common in horses. The pathophysiology of obesity is poorly understood and likely multifactorial. Development of new diagnostic tests to identify horses at risk of developing obesity to implement preventative measures is critical; however, a necessary first step to accomplish this goal is to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and compare lipoprotein profiles of horses with normal and excess body conditions, with and without laminitis using a novel method of continuous lipoprotein density profiling (CLPDP). Comparisons were made between 4 groups of horses: (1) laminitic, obese horses (n = 66); (2) laminitic, nonobese horses (n = 35); (3) nonlaminitic, obese horses (n = 41); and (4) nonlaminitic, nonobese horses (n = 95). Lipoprotein profiling, including evaluation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) was performed using CLPDP, and all 4 groups were compared. A significant difference was observed among groups for the subfractions TRL, LDL1, LDL2, HDL2b, HDL2a, HDL3a, HDL3b, HDL3c, and total HDL. This is the first known description of CLPDP to characterize equine lipid profiles and holds promise as a useful method for lipid characterization of horses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Obesidade/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Casco e Garras , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo
13.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(6): 835-845, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907027

RESUMO

Equine endometrosis, a frequent cause of subfertility, is characterized by periglandular fibrosis, and no treatment exists. Endometrial biopsies not only contain diseased glands, but also contain healthy glands and stroma. Myoepithelial (ME) and myofibroblastic (MF) markers are calponin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Epithelial vimentin expression indicates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this immunohistochemical study was to investigate whether biopsies with endometrosis express MF and ME markers and vimentin. Compared to healthy areas, significantly higher percentages of endometrotic glands were lined by calponin- and vimentin-positive epithelial cells, whereas periglandular fibrosis contained significantly higher percentages of stromal cells positive for vimentin, desmin and SMA and significantly less calponin-positive stromal cells. The rare GFAP expression was restricted to endometrotic glands. Of these, the most frequent features of endometrotic glands were higher percentages of SMA- and vimentin-positive stromal cells and the prominent epithelial calponin staining that occurred in 100%, 93% and 95% of examined biopsies. Results indicate plasticity of equine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Particularly, endometrotic glands show evidence for ME differentiation and EMT. The different expression of MF markers between stromal cells from healthy and endometrotic areas suggests functional differences. The characteristic changes in the expression of SMA, vimentin and calponin between endometrotic glands and healthy areas can be helpful to confirm early stages of endometrosis. The characterization of cellular differentiation may help to decipher the pathogenesis of endometrosis and could lead to therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Endometriose/veterinária , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia/veterinária , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Desmina/metabolismo , Endometriose/metabolismo , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Células Estromais , Vimentina/metabolismo
14.
Equine Vet J ; 51(5): 674-680, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular serum markers that can identify early reversible osteoarthritis (OA) in horses are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We studied serum concentrations of a novel cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) neo-epitope in horses subjected to short-term exercise and with acute lameness. The effects of circadian rhythm and age were also evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal studies in healthy horses and cross-sectional comparison of lame and non-lame horses. METHODS: Sera were collected from five horses before and after short-term interval exercise and during full-day box rest. Sera from 32 acutely lame horses were used to evaluate age-related effects. Independent samples from control horses (n = 41) and horses with acute lameness (n = 71) were included. COMP neo-epitope concentrations were analysed using custom-developed inhibition ELISAs validated for equine serum. The presence of COMP neo-epitope was delineated in healthy and osteoarthritic articular cartilage with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: COMP neo-epitope concentrations decreased after speed training but returned to baseline levels post-exercise. No correlations between age and serum COMP neo-epitope concentrations were found (r = 0.0013). The mean (±s.d.) serum concentration of COMP neo-epitope in independent samples from non-lame horses was 0.84 ± 0.38 µg/mL, and for lame horses was 5.24 ± 1.83 µg/mL (P<0.001). Antibodies against COMP neo-epitope did not stain normal articular cartilage, but intracytoplasmic staining was found in superficial chondrocytes of mild OA cartilage and in the extracellular matrix of moderately osteoarthritic cartilage. MAIN LIMITATIONS: ELISA was based on polyclonal antisera rather than a monoclonal antibody. There is a sex and breed bias within the groups of horses, also it could have been of value to include horses with septic arthritis and tendonitis and investigated joint differences. CONCLUSIONS: This COMP neo-epitope can be measured in sera, and results indicate that it could be a biomarker for pathologic fragmentation of cartilage in connection with acute joint lameness.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Coxeadura Animal , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/sangue , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/metabolismo , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 335-349, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724412

RESUMO

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a widely recognized collection of risk factors for endocrinopathic laminitis. The most important of these risk factors is insulin dysregulation (ID). Clinicians and horse owners must recognize the presence of these risk factors so that they can be targeted and controlled to reduce the risk of laminitis attacks. Diagnosis of EMS is based partly on the horse's history and clinical examination findings, and partly on laboratory testing. Several choices of test exist which examine different facets of ID and other related metabolic disturbances. EMS is controlled mainly by dietary strategies and exercise programs that aim to improve insulin regulation and decrease obesity where present. In some cases, pharmacologic aids might be useful. Management of an EMS case is a long-term strategy requiring diligence and discipline by the horse's carer and support and guidance from their veterinarians.


Assuntos
Consenso , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras/patologia , Cavalos , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/veterinária , Sociedades Veterinárias
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211698, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721263

RESUMO

Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by ingestion of seeds of the Acer species (Sapindaceae family). Methylenecyclopropylacetyl-CoA (MCPA-CoA), derived from hypoglycin A (HGA), is currently the only active toxin in Acer pseudoplatanus or Acer negundo seeds related to AM outbreaks. However, seeds or arils of various Sapindaceae (e.g., ackee, lychee, mamoncillo, longan fruit) also contain methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), which is a structural analogue of HGA that can cause hypoglycaemic encephalopathy in humans. The active poison formed from MCPG is methylenecyclopropylformyl-CoA (MCPF-CoA). MCPF-CoA and MCPA-CoA strongly inhibit enzymes that participate in ß-oxidation and energy production from fat. The aim of our study was to investigate if MCPG is involved in Acer seed poisoning in horses. MCPG, as well as glycine and carnitine conjugates (MCPF-glycine, MCPF-carnitine), were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of serum and urine from horses that had ingested Acer pseudoplatanus seeds and developed typical AM symptoms. The results were compared to those of healthy control horses. For comparison, HGA and its glycine and carnitine derivatives were also measured. Additionally, to assess the degree of enzyme inhibition of ß-oxidation, several acyl glycines and acyl carnitines were included in the analysis. In addition to HGA and the specific toxic metabolites (MCPA-carnitine and MCPA-glycine), MCPG, MCPF-glycine and MCPF-carnitine were detected in the serum and urine of affected horses. Strong inhibition of ß-oxidation was demonstrated by elevated concentrations of all acyl glycines and carnitines, but the highest correlations were observed between MCPF-carnitine and isobutyryl-carnitine (r = 0.93) as well as between MCPA- (and MCPF-) glycine and valeryl-glycine with r = 0.96 (and r = 0.87). As shown here, for biochemical analysis of atypical myopathy of horses, it is necessary to take MCPG and the corresponding metabolites into consideration.


Assuntos
Acer/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclopropanos/sangue , Ciclopropanos/urina , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/urina , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/urina , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/urina , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(3): 300-305, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidomic profile of surfactant obtained from horses with asthma at various clinical stages and to compare results with findings for healthy horses exposed to the same conditions. SAMPLE Surfactant samples obtained from 6 horses with severe asthma and 7 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Clinical evaluation of horses and surfactant analysis were performed. Samples obtained from horses with severe asthma and healthy horses before (baseline), during, and after exposure to hay were analyzed. Crude surfactant pellets were dried prior to dissolution in a solution of isopropanol:methanol:chloroform (4:2:1) containing 7.5mM ammonium acetate. Shotgun lipidomics were performed by use of high-resolution data acquisition on an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Findings were analyzed by use of an ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. RESULTS Results of lipidomic analysis were evaluated to detect significant differences between groups of horses and among exposure statuses within groups of horses. Significantly increased amounts of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were detected in surfactant from severely asthmatic horses during exposure to hay, compared with baseline and postexposure concentrations. Concentrations of cPA and DAG did not change significantly in healthy horses regardless of exposure status. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE cPA 16:0 and DAG 36:2 were 2 novel lipid mediators identified in surfactant obtained from asthmatic horses with clinical disease. These molecules were likely biomarkers of sustained inflammation. Further studies are needed to evaluate a possible correlation with disease severity and potential alterations in the plasma lipidomic profile of horses with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cavalos , Poaceae
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 24, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laminitis is often associated with endocrinopathies that cause hyperinsulinemia and is also induced experimentally by hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that insulin initiates laminitis pathogenesis. Hyperinsulinemia is expected to activate pro-growth and anabolic signaling pathways. We hypothesize that chronic over-stimulation of these pathways in lamellar tissue results in endoplasmic reticulum stress, contributing to tissue pathology, as it does in human metabolic diseases. We tested this hypothesis by asking whether lamellar tissue from horses with naturally-occurring endocrinopathic laminitis showed expression of protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. RESULTS: Three markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, spliced XBP1, Grp78/BiP and Grp94, were upregulated 2.5-9.5 fold in lamellar tissues of moderately to severely laminitic front limbs (n = 12) compared to levels in controls (n = 6-7) measured by immunoblotting and densitometry. Comparing expression levels between laminitic front limbs and less affected hind limbs from the same horses (paired samples from 7 to 8 individual horses) demonstrated significantly higher expression for both spliced XBP1 and Grp78/BiP in the laminitic front limbs, and a similar trend for Grp94. Expression levels of the 3 markers were minimal in all samples of the control (n = 6-7) or hind limb groups (n = 7-8). Immunofluorescent localizations were used to identify cell types expressing high levels of Grp78/BiP, as an indicator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Grp78/BiP expression was highly elevated in suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes and only observed in laminitic front limbs (10/12 laminitic samples, compared to 0/7 in sections from the hind limbs and 0/5 of controls). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway is active in naturally occurring cases of laminitis and is most active within a subset of epidermal keratinocytes. These data provide the rationale for further study of endoplasmic reticulum stress in experimental models of laminitis and the links between laminitis and human diseases sharing activation of this stress pathway. Pharmacological options to manipulate the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway under investigation for human disease could be applicable to laminitis treatment and prevention should this pathway prove to be a driver of disease progression.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Cavalos , Masculino
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 942-952, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ponies are highly susceptible to metabolic derangements including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and adiposity. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Genetic loci affecting height in ponies have pleiotropic effects on metabolic pathways and increase the susceptibility to equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). ANIMALS: Two hundred ninety-four Welsh ponies and 529 horses. METHODS: Retrospective study of horses phenotyped for metabolic traits. Correlations between height and metabolic traits were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Complementary genome-wide analysis methods were used to identify a region of interest (ROI) for height and metabolic traits, determine the fraction of heritability contributed by the ROI, and identify candidate genes. RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between height and baseline insulin (-0.26) in ponies. Genomic signature of selection and association analyses for both height and insulin identified the same ~1.3 megabase region on chromosome 6 that contained a shared ancestral haplotype between these traits. The ROI contributed ~40% of the heritability for height and ~20% of the heritability for insulin. High-mobility group AT-hook 2 was identified as a candidate gene, and Sanger sequencing detected a c.83G>A (p.G28E) variant associated with height in Shetland ponies. In our cohort of ponies, the A allele had a frequency of 0.76, was strongly correlated with height (-0.75), and was low to moderately correlated with metabolic traits including: insulin (0.32), insulin after an oral sugar test (0.25), non-esterified fatty acids (0.19), and triglyceride (0.22) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These data have important implications for identifying individuals at risk for EMS.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Animais , Biometria , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Especificidade da Espécie , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(3): 1456-1463, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine endocrinopathic laminitis is common and can be associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), pasture consumption, or any combination of these factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to improve the risk assessment capabilities of clinicians, and to inform management strategies, for acute endocrinopathic laminitis by prospectively examining the phenotypic, hormonal, and clinical characteristics of the disease in a large cohort. ANIMALS: Privately owned horses and ponies (n = 301) of any age, sex, or breed diagnosed with laminitis by a veterinarian. A history of laminitis was acceptable. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Veterinarians provided information on each case via an online questionnaire after informed consent from the animal's owner, and all data were de-identified before analysis. Serum insulin and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone concentrations were measured in each case. RESULTS: Most cases were recruited in spring (109/301; 36.2%). Concurrent EMS and PPID resulted in higher basal insulin concentrations (49 [21.5-141]; P < .02) than if an animal had a single underlying cause for their laminitis. The insulin concentration was negatively correlated (r2 = -0.38; P < .001) with the animal's height, being higher in ponies (33[10-14]; P < .001) than horses (9.5 [3-25.7]) and was positively correlated (r2 = 0.12; P = .05) with their grade (severity) of laminitis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Horses and ponies with concurrent endocrinopathies have more marked hyperinsulinemia. Higher basal insulin concentrations were associated with more severe lameness.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
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