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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 71-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446256

RESUMO

Tick-borne diseases (TBD) constitute an important group of illness affecting animals and humans worldwide. In Brazil, carthorses are frequently exposed to ticks and tick-borne pathogens, leading to impairment of horse performance and imposing restrictions by the international veterinary authorities for the importation of horses. Accordingly, this study has aimed to i) determine the prevalence of the TBD agents Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Ehrlichia spp., and hemotropic mycoplasmas in carthorses, ii) identify the tick species parasitizing the animals, and iii) determine factors associated with exposure/infection in Foz do Iguaçu City, Parana state, southern Brazil. A total of 103 carthorses were screened for anti-T. equi and anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody assays (IFA). Samples were also tested by PCR assays targeting the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi and B. caballi, and 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas. Additionally, PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, disulfide bond formation protein (dsb) and tandem repeat proteins 36 (trp36) genes of Ehrlichia spp. were also performed. Antibodies to T. equi and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in 43/103 (41.75%; 95% CI: 32.10-51.88%) and 5/103 (4.85%; 95% CI: 1.59-10.97%) horses by IFA, respectively. DNA of T. equi and B. caballi were found in 25/103 (24.27%; 95% CI: 16.36-33.71%) and 10/103 (9.71%; 95% CI: 4.75-17.13%) carthorses, respectively, and all tested negative for Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasmas. All sequences showed ≥99% identity with multiple T. equi and B. caballi 18S rRNA gene sequences deposited in GenBank. Overall, 191 Dermacentor nitens ticks were collected from 25/103 (24.27%) animals. Carthorses older than 5 years were more likely to be positive for T. equi (p < 0.05). In conclusion, equine piroplasmosis agents are highly prevalent in carthorses from Foz do Iguaçu City. The low prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. found may be due to the absence of Amblyomma ticks infesting animals, which should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Cavalos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 268, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes over time in the epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli within a single equine referral hospital in the UK. Faecal samples were collected from hospitalised horses in 2008 and 2017, processed using selective media and standard susceptibility laboratory methods. A novel real-time PCR with high resolution melt analysis was used to distinguish blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 within CTX-M-1 group. RESULTS: In 2008, 457 faecal samples from 103 horses were collected, with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 131 samples (28.7, 95% CI 24.6-33.1). In 2017, 314 faecal samples were collected from 74 horses with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 157 samples (50.0, 95% CI 44.5-55.5). There were 135 and 187 non-duplicate ESBL-producing isolates from 2008 and 2017, respectively. In 2008, 12.6% of isolates belonged to CTX-M-1 group, all carrying blaCTX-M-1, whilst in 2017, 94.1% of isolates were CTX-M-1 group positive and of these 39.2 and 60.8% of isolates carried blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of doxycycline, gentamicin and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 while a decreased prevalence of phenotypic resistance to potentiated sulphonamides was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time PCR proved a reliable and high throughput method to distinguish between blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, its use in this study demonstrated the emergence of faecal carriage of CTX-M-15 in hospitalised horses, with an increase in prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli as well as increased antimicrobial resistance to frequently used antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 25, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although artificial insemination (AI) was developed as a means of controlling disease transmission, pathogens can still be transmitted to females in semen used for AI. In addition, bacteria can cause deterioration in sperm quality during storage. Semen becomes contaminated by the male's normal bacterial flora as it passes out of the reproductive tract but potential pathogens may also contaminate the semen. Therefore, semen samples from stallions to be used for AI are tested before the breeding season to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares. In Sweden, semen samples are tested at the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (SVA). For the present study, a retrospective analysis was made of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from samples submitted to the SVA from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In our study, Taylorella equigenitalis was found infrequently (53 out of 25,512 samples), representing 11 out of 2308 stallions. If T. equigenitalis was detected, the stallions were treated with antibiotics and re-tested later in the same year. Klebsiella pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most commonly found potential pathogens, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated occasionally. There were considerable differences in the number of species isolated each year. CONCLUSIONS: Potential pathogens were identified in relatively few of the samples submitted to SVA during this period, with T. equigenitalis not being identified since 2015. Of the other potential pathogens, K. pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common. The information is relevant for determining guidelines on the testing and treatment of stallions before breeding.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Sêmen/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Suécia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 47-51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176411

RESUMO

A 23-year-old male Thoroughbred horse at the Korean Military Academy appeared thin with visible rib bones and presented clinical signs of fever, anorexia, lethargy, and severe dehydration. To determine the presence of various febrile disease-causing agents, the 23 cohabiting horses at the academy, including this horse, were subjected to hematology, blood chemistry, and molecular analysis using whole blood samples collected during regular medical check-ups. On the basis of clinical history, physical examination, hematology, blood chemistry, and fecal examination, differential diagnosis using molecular analyses was performed for various febrile disease-causing agents, including Lyme borreliae, Coxiella, piroplasms (Babesia and Theileria), Rickettsiales (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia), equine herpesvirus, equine infectious anemia virus, and equine arteritis virus. While other pathogens were not detected, PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA gene revealed that the horse was infected with Anaplasma bovis. Although PCR targeting the groEL and gltA genes of A. bovis was not successful, the restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism assay for differential diagnosis and determination of coinfectivity between Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A. bovis confirmed the pathogen as A. bovis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of A. bovis infection in a horse, suggesting a new reservoir host.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Chaperonina 60/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Vet J ; 248: 42-47, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113561

RESUMO

Enterococci have been increasing in prevalence in foal sepsis over the past three decades. There are no published studies in the peer-reviewed literature documenting common sites of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility, or outcome specifically associated with enterococcal infections in foals. Our objectives were to evaluate the sites of origin, antimicrobial susceptibility, and survival outcome to discharge in foals with enterococcal infections compared with foals with sepsis of another bacterial etiology. Seventy-five foals 0-30 days of age with cultures positive for Enterococcus and 170 control foals 0-30 days of age with cultures positive for other bacteria were included. Enterococcus was 2.67 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-4.80; P = 0.0012) more likely to be isolated from the lower urogenital tract of foals than were other bacteria. Enterococci were less likely to be isolated from blood cultures than other bacteria, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.35; P < 0.0001). For Enterococcus isolates, 48% (n = 29/61) had a multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index of ≥30% and 46% (n = 28/61) had a multiple drug resistance (MDR) index of ≥30%. Foals with enterococcal infections were less likely to survive to discharge (49.9% vs. 63.5%; P = 0.03). Enterococcus is commonly isolated from the lower urogenital tract of foals, is often multidrug resistant, and foals with enterococcal infections were less likely to survive. Multidrug resistance is common among enterococcal isolates, and therefore antimicrobial susceptibility testing of cultured isolates is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 74-78, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030848

RESUMO

Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia in foals and is most often recognized in people as an opportunistic pathogen. Longitudinal studies examining antimicrobial-resistant R. equi from environmental samples are lacking. We hypothesized that antimicrobial-resistant R. equi would be detectable in the ground (pasture soil or stall bedding) and air at breeding farms with previous documentation of foals infected with resistant isolates, and that concentrations of resistant isolates would increase over time during the foaling season. In this prospective cohort study, ground and air samples were collected from stalls and paddocks in January, March, May and July of 2018 at 10 horse-breeding farms with history of foal pneumonia attributed to macrolide- or Rifampicin-resistant R. equi. Environmental samples were cultured in the presence and absence of macrolides and Rifampicin to select for resistant organisms. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects and Hurdle models. Concentrations of total R. equi in bedding or air of stalls were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in January than other months. The proportion of resistant R. equi in soil samples from paddocks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than stall bedding during all months. For each month, air samples from paddocks had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of resistant isolates than those from stalls. Fifty-five percent of resistant soil isolates and 34% of resistant air isolates were considered virulent by identification of the vapA gene. Concentrations of resistant R. equi isolates did not increase over time during the foaling season. Antimicrobial-resistant R. equi can persist in the environment at farms with a history of pneumonia caused by resistant R. equi infections, and exposure to resistant isolates in paddocks and stalls appears stable during the foaling season. Resistant isolates in the environment not only pose a risk for disease but also can serve as a repository for dissemination of resistance genes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Rhodococcus equi/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Ar , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Fazendas , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Abrigo para Animais , Kentucky , Pneumonia Bacteriana/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Rhodococcus equi/genética , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Virulência
8.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(3): 1493-1499, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bacterium Rhodococcus equi can cause severe pneumonia in foals. The absence of a licensed vaccine and limited effectiveness of commercial R. equi hyperimmune plasma (RE-HIP) create a great need for improved prevention of this disease. HYPOTHESIS: Plasma hyperimmune to the capsular polysaccharide poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) would be significantly more effective than RE-HIP at mediating complement deposition and opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) of R. equi. ANIMALS: Venipuncture was performed on 9 Quarter Horses. METHODS: The ability of the following plasma sources to mediate complement component 1 (C1) deposition onto either PNAG or R. equi was determined by ELISA: (1) PNAG hyperimmune plasma (PNAG-HIP), (2) RE-HIP, and (3) standard non-hyperimmune commercial plasma (SP). For OPK, each plasma type was combined with R. equi, equine complement, and neutrophils isolated from horses (n = 9); after 4 hours, the number of R. equi in each well was determined by quantitative culture. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression with significance set at P < .05. RESULTS: The PNAG-HIP and RE-HIP were able to deposit significantly (P < .05) more complement onto their respective targets than the other plasmas. The mean proportional survival of R. equi opsonized with PNAG-HIP was significantly (P < .05) less (14.7%) than that for SP (51.1%) or RE-HIP (42.2%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Plasma hyperimmune to PNAG is superior to RE-HIP for opsonizing and killing R. equi in vitro. Comparison of these 2 plasmas in field trials is warranted because of the reported incomplete effectiveness of RE-HIP.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/imunologia , Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Rhodococcus equi/imunologia , Infecções por Actinomycetales/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Complemento C1/imunologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos/imunologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Plasma/imunologia
9.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 12, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, causes equine proliferative enteropathy, mainly in horses around weaning. This disease is rarely reported in the Scandinavian countries. RESULTS: Five cases of equine proliferative enteropathy were diagnosed between 2008-2016 at the University of Copenhagen Large Animal Teaching Hospital. Cases were Danish Warmbloods and a Friesian horse, aged 6-7 months, presenting with typical clinical signs of lethargy, poor body condition, pyrexia and diarrhea. Clinical pathology was consistent with previous reports of severe hypoalbuminemia and leukocytosis. Diagnosis was confirmed by fecal polymerase chain reaction, serum immunomonolayer peroxidase assay and/or immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on formalin-fixed ileum samples. Concurrent intestinal parasitism was present in all five cases. Treatment consisted of antimicrobial therapy, anti-inflammatories, intravenous crystalloids and plasma. Three foals were euthanised due to deterioration and poor response to treatment, one with complications of septic arthritis and Strongylus vulgaris associated intestinal infarct. The other two foals survived and were reported by the owners to be healthy on long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Equine proliferative enteropathy is a disease to consider in young horses presenting with diarrhea and hypoproteinemia in Denmark.


Assuntos
Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/patologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Masculino
10.
Vet J ; 246: 66-70, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902191

RESUMO

After strangles outbreaks, Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi) can persist in clinically normal silent carriers for months to years. Two naturally occurring outbreaks of strangles with 53 and 100% morbidity, respectively, were followed longitudinally to assess occurrence of carrier state and optimal detection methods Outbreak A involved 98 yearling warmbloods, and outbreak B 38 mature Icelandic horses. Fully recovered horses were sampled at least 6 months after index cases using nasal swabs (one sampling occasion only) nasopharyngeal lavage and guttural pouch visualisation and lavages for culture and qPCR to S. equi. Any horse with at least a single sample positive was deemed a carrier. Descriptive statistics and sensitivity and negative predictive values were calculated. Comparisons were made with McNemars and Fishers exact tests. Carrier rates in outbreak A were 3% based on culture and 15% based on qPCR and for outbreak B 13% based on culture and 37% based on qPCR. All culture positives were also qPCR positive. One carrier culture negative sampled after an additional 8 months was culture positive to S. equi, indicating that qPCR positives should be suspected to carry live bacteria. Findings indicate that reliance on guttural pouch sampling and appearance does not capture all silent carriers. All culture positives were identified by qPCR and even horses positive by qPCR but culture negative should be suspected carriers of live bacteria.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Orelha Média/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus equi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Lavagem Nasal/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus equi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Aust Vet J ; 97(4): 103-107, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate dosing with antimicrobial agents is critical for effective treatment and to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A review was undertaken of equine journal articles (Equine Veterinary Journal, Equine Veterinary Education, Australian Veterinary Journal, Australian Equine Veterinarian, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine and Journal of Equine Veterinary Science) between January 2015 and August 2018. Those with dosing regimens for procaine penicillin G, gentamicin or trimethoprim-sulfonamide in adult horses were examined and evaluated. Pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of these drugs were also reviewed. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The most frequently reported doses for penicillin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfonamide were 20-25,000 IU/kg, 6.6 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Veterinarians treating equine patients in Australia should be aware of the current recommended doses and inter-dosing intervals to ensure efficacy in therapy and to preserve the usefulness of these antimicrobials for the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Austrália , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Veterinária/normas
12.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 918-922, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, diagnosis of equine coronavirus (ECoV) relies on the exclusion of other infectious causes of enteric disease along with molecular detection of ECoV in feces or tissue. Although this approach is complete, it is costly and may not always be achievable. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the overall fecal shedding of ECoV in hospitalized horses is low. Our objective was to determine whether systemically healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disorders shed ECoV in their feces at the time of admission to a referral hospital and after 48 hours of stress associated with hospitalization. ANIMALS: One-hundred thirty adult horses admitted to the Washington State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for gastrointestinal disease (n = 65) or for imaging under anesthesia (n = 65) that were hospitalized for 48 hours. Owner consent was obtained before sampling. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at admission and 48 hours later. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ECoV and electron microscopy (EM) were performed on all samples. RESULTS: Only 1 of 258 fecal samples was PCR-positive for ECoV. Electron microscopy identified ECoV-like particles in 9 of 258 samples, parvovirus-like particles in 4 of 258 samples, and rotavirus-like particles in 1 of 258 samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The presence of ECoV in feces of hospitalized adult horses was low. Thus, fecal samples that are PCR-positive for ECoV in adult horses that have clinical signs consistent with this viral infection are likely to be of diagnostic relevance. The clinical relevance of the viruses observed using EM remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus 1/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Hospitalização , Microscopia Eletrônica , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Washington
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(4): 574-584, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pythiosis is an infection of humans and other animals caused by the fungal-like pathogen Pythium insidiosum. This pathogen causes life-threatening infection in the infected hosts. Culture, histopathology, serology and molecular tools are used to diagnose its infections. Successful management of pythiosis is directly linked to an early diagnosis. Thus, a rapid identification of putative cultures developing submerged sparsely septate hyphae is of extreme importance. However, few laboratories are familiar with the culture identification of this unique pathogen and its differential diagnosis with similar filamentous fungi. METHODOLOGY: We have evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) on 53 isolates of P. insidiosum collected from cases of human and animal pythiosis in the USA and around the world. To assess the specificity of the approach, 18 pathogenic and saprotrophic filamentous fungal and fungal-like microbes were also tested. RESULTS: MALDI-TOF in-house spectra correctly identified the 53 P. insidiosum isolates (score range 1.93-2.51). MALDI-TOF based identification within P. insidiosum isolates showed protein spectra variation between geographical diverse isolates. A mass spectrometry approach was able to discriminate P. insidiosum from the 18 filamentous fungal and fungal-like microbes in this study, including four Pythium spp. and Phytopythium litorale plant pathogenic species. CONCLUSION: The data showed MALDI-TOF could be used for the accurate and rapid culture identification of P. insidiosum in the clinical laboratory.


Assuntos
Pitiose/diagnóstico , Pythium/química , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Filogenia , Pitiose/epidemiologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(1): 45-50, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization on the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate (M-PMMA) beads. SAMPLE 6-mm-diameter polymethyl methacrylate beads that were or were not impregnated with meropenem. PROCEDURES Meropenem-free polymethyl methacrylate and M-PMMA beads were sterilized by use of an autoclave or VHP or remained unsterilized. To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of each bead-sterilization combination (treatment), Mueller-Hinton agar plates were inoculated with 1 of 6 common equine pathogens, and 1 bead from each treatment was applied to a sixth of each plate. The zone of bacterial inhibition for each treatment was measured after 24 hours. To estimate the duration of antimicrobial elution into a solid or liquid medium, 1 bead from each treatment was transferred every 24 hours to a new Staphylococcus aureus-inoculated agar plate or a tube with PBS solution, and an aliquot of the eluent from each tube was then applied to a paper disc on an S aureus-inoculated agar plate. All agar plates were incubated for 24 hours, and the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured for each treatment. RESULTS In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of M-PMMA beads was retained following VHP sterilization. The duration of antimicrobial elution in solid and liquid media did not differ significantly between unsterilized and VHP-sterilized M-PMMA beads. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that M-PMMA beads retained in vitro antimicrobial activity and eluted the drug for up to 2 weeks after VHP sterilization.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Esterilização/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Técnicas In Vitro , Meropeném/farmacologia , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Microesferas , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/veterinária , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(2): 241-245, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661472

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare condition in adult horses characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to parasitic and bacterial infections, including recurrent respiratory diseases, septicemia, and meningitis. Lyme disease is often included as a differential diagnosis in CVID horses with signs of meningitis; however, the Borrelia burgdorferi organism has not been demonstrated previously within central nervous system tissues of CVID horses with neurologic disease, to our knowledge. We report herein a case of neuroborreliosis in a CVID horse, confirmed by combined immunologic testing, histopathology, real-time PCR assay, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical staining. Implications of these findings include heightened monitoring of CVID horses for Lyme disease in endemic areas and appropriate therapy in the case of neurologic disease.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 912-917, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is an emerging pathogen associated with fever and enteric disease in adult horses. Clinical features of ECoV infection have been described, but no study has compared these features to those of Salmonella infections. OBJECTIVES: Compare the clinical features of ECoV infection with enteric salmonellosis and establish a disease signature to increase clinical suspicion of ECoV infection in adult horses. ANIMALS: Forty-three horses >1 year of age with results of CBC, serum biochemistry, and fecal diagnostic testing for ECoV and Salmonella spp. METHODS: Medical records of horses presented to the North Carolina State University Equine and Farm Animal Veterinary Center (2003-016) were retrospectively reviewed. Horses were divided into 3 groups based on fecal diagnostic test results: ECoV-positive, Salmonella-positive, or unknown diagnosis (UNK). Time of year presented, clinical signs, CBC, and serum biochemistry test results were recorded. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, or Fisher's exact test with significance set at P < .05. RESULTS: Most common presenting complaints were fever and colic and were similar across groups. Horses with ECoV had significantly decreased neutrophil counts when compared to those with no diagnosis but were not different from horses with Salmonella. Horses with Salmonella had significantly lower mean leukocyte counts compared to those with UNK. No significant differences were found among groups for any other examined variable. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Equine coronavirus and Salmonella infections share clinical features, suggesting both diseases should be differential diagnoses for horses with fever and enteric clinical signs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Salmonelose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Betacoronavirus 1/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 902-911, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antimicrobial resistance is increasingly common in equine medicine, molecular and epidemiological data remains scarce. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, shedding of multidrug resistant (MDR), extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, and AmpC ß-lactamase-producing, or some combination of these in Escherichia coli in horses in France. We characterized ESBL/AmpC isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence and ESBL/AmpC-associated resistance genes. ANIMALS: Fecal samples from healthy adult horses at 41 premises were collected. A questionnaire was completed by each premises manager. A subset of these samples was tested to build 2 bacterial collections. METHODS: Indicator (without enrichment) and specific (enrichment with ceftriaxone) E. coli tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Prevalence of isolates nonsusceptible to antimicrobials was estimated at the horse and the premises level. The ESBL/AmpC and virulence genes were identified by PCR. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for MDR and ESBL/AmpC isolates at premises. RESULTS: Approximately 44% of horses shed MDR E. coli. Resistance most commonly was observed to ampicillin, streptomycin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Twenty-nine percent of premises housed horses shedding ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. The ESBL/AmpC gene most commonly identified was blaCTX-M-1 . Virulence gene iutA was identified in 1 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolate. Medical treatment, staff numbers, and activity were identified as risk factors for housing horses shedding ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Prevalence of healthy horses harboring ESBL/AmpC genes and MDR isolates in their intestinal microbiota is substantial. Risk factors could be used to elaborate guidelines to prevent their dissemination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
18.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(1): 24-33, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670899

RESUMO

Septic arthritis is an important disease in horses, necessitating aggressive and prolonged therapy. In order to guide therapy, reliable methods of detecting the eradication of infection are needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate detection of eradication of infection in an experimental model of equine septic arthritis using standard diagnostic techniques. For this purpose, 17 adult horses were assigned to 3 experimental groups. The middle carpal joint of each horse was injected with Escherichia coli (Septic group, n = 8), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (LPS group, n = 6), or sterile saline (Control group, n = 3) at day 0. Contralateral joints were not injected. Standard therapy was applied to all joints except non-injected joints in the Control group at day 1. Sequential samples of synovial fluid (SF) were collected for bacterial culture using 3 culture media [Columbia blood agar (CBA), brain heart infusion broth (BHI), and Signal blood culture medium] and for cytological evaluation [percentage neutrophils (PN), total nucleated cell count (TNCC), and total protein (TP)]. Escherichia coli-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect E. coli DNA in synovial fluid. Culture and PCR were positive for E. coli in all joints injected with E. coli at day 1 and 1 joint was positive on BHI at day 4. Based on the results of bacterial culture, PCR, and TNCC, the elimination of infection in our experimental model occurred by day 4 post-infection in 6 out of 7 cases. Total protein (TP) and PN remained elevated at clinical threshold used for diagnosis of septic arthritis until day 14. In our experimental model of E. coli-induced arthritis, we conclude that TP and PN may not be good indicators for detecting the eradication of bacterial infection caused by E. coli from infected and subsequently treated joints.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia
19.
Equine Vet J ; 51(3): 287-292, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629756

RESUMO

North American horses are commonly exposed to Leptospira organisms. Leptospira Bratislava is the most common infecting serovar but this serovar has not been confirmed to cause clinical disease in North American horses. Leptospira Pomona type kennewicki is responsible for most of the clinical diseases (leptospirosis) in North American horses. Leptospirosis is most commonly associated with diseases of the placenta and fetus, the kidneys and the eyes in horses. In-utero infections in pregnant mares may result in abortion, neonatal illness or birth of an antibody positive healthy foal. Acute renal failure in younger horses and recurrent uveitis in adult horses are other well documented clinical syndromes of leptospirosis. Abortions, neonatal disease and acute renal failure are caused by a subacute infection, while horses with Leptospira associated recurrent uveitis develop ocular disease months or years after the initial Leptospira infection. Diagnosis of Leptospirosis is made by a combination of antigen or antibody testing methods. Mares that abort following Leptospira infection have no additional clinical signs at the time of abortion but may shed the offending Leptospira spp. in the urine for several weeks. Antibiotic treatments are sometimes used in hopes of decreasing Leptospira shedding in infected horses or prophylactically in exposed pregnant mares but documentation of efficacy is lacking. Horses with Leptospira - associated acute renal failure can be successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care. Recurrent uveitis is commonly associated with leptospirosis in North American horses and although horses may have chronic intraocular infection triggering an immune disease, systemic antimicrobial therapy has not been effective in eliminating the organism from the eye. An equine approved Leptospira Pomona type kennewicki vaccine is now available in North America.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia
20.
Vet J ; 243: 74-76, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606442

RESUMO

The study objectives were to provide cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data at the patient level and to evaluate the effect of initial antimicrobial treatment on survival in foals with sepsis. Foals below 30days of age with a diagnosis of sepsis, confirmed by isolation of bacteria from normally sterile sites on the day of hospital admission, were included. Susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution procedure. In total, 213 foals and 306 bacterial isolates were included. The likelihood of survival for foals from which all bacteria were susceptible to the initial antimicrobial treatment was 65.4% (n=106/162; 95% confidence interval (CI) 57.6% to 72.7%) versus 41.7% (n=10/24; 95% CI 22.1% to 63.4%) if one or more isolates were resistant (relative risk 1.57, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.06). Based on this study, amikacin combined with ampicillin remains an appropriate antimicrobial drug combination for initial treatment of foals with sepsis.


Assuntos
Amicacina/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/veterinária , Animais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia
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