Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.855
Filtrar
1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 651-663, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192415

RESUMO

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has recently been associated with cases of Theiler's disease, a form of fulminant hepatic necrosis in horses. To assess whether EqPV-H is the cause of Theiler's disease, we first demonstrated hepatotropism by PCR on tissues from acutely infected horses. We then experimentally inoculated horses with EqPV-H and 8 of 10 horses developed hepatitis. One horse showed clinical signs of liver failure. The onset of hepatitis was temporally associated with seroconversion and a decline in viremia. Liver histology and in situ hybridization showed lymphocytic infiltrates and necrotic EqPV-H-infected hepatocytes. We next investigated potential modes of transmission. Iatrogenic transmission via allogeneic stem cell therapy for orthopedic injuries was previously suggested in a case series of Theiler's disease, and was demonstrated here for the first time. Vertical transmission and mechanical vectoring by horse fly bites could not be demonstrated in this study, potentially due to limited sample size. We found EqPV-H shedding in oral and nasal secretions, and in feces. Importantly, we could demonstrate EqPV-H transmission via oral inoculation with viremic serum. Together, our findings provide additional information that EqPV-H is the likely cause of Theiler's disease and that transmission of EqPV-H occurs via both iatrogenic and natural routes.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Dípteros/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/transmissão , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/virologia , Boca/virologia , Necrose , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus/patogenicidade , Tropismo Viral , Viremia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
2.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 73-85, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145835

RESUMO

The dynamic physiologic changes and unique diet during the neonatal period contribute to key differences in clinicopathologic test results of healthy foals relative to healthy adult horses. When reporting results, most diagnostic laboratories only provide reference intervals for mature horses. Thus, failure to recognize the unique differences that occur in foals relative to adult horses can lead to erroneous interpretation of neonatal clinical pathologic values. Thus, the main objective of this article was to review distinct features of common clinicopathologic tests in foals, relative to mature horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica
3.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 87-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145836

RESUMO

Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Asma/veterinária , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
4.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 121-134, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037140

RESUMO

Clinicopathologic evaluation of renal function and renal disease in sick adult horses remains grounded in detection of azotemia, assessment of serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and evaluation of urinalysis findings, including specific gravity, reagent strip analysis, and sediment examination. Because increases in serum or plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations are insensitive indicators of a decreased glomerular filtration rate, there is considerable interest in identifying novel biomarkers of renal function or injury in blood and urine, with serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration being the most recent addition to the commercial market.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/urina , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/urina , Masculino , Urinálise/veterinária
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069321

RESUMO

This study has investigated the immediate effect of induced hindlimb length difference on hindlimb lameness measured as differences in minimum (Pmin) and maximum (Pmax) pelvic heights in 16 horses trotting in a straight line and lungeing on both hard and soft surfaces with body-mounted inertial sensors. Hindlimb length differences were induced by applying an Easyboot Glue-on shoe to one hindlimb. Changes in Pmin and Pmax with induced hindlimb length difference were assessed with a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with trial (straight, lunge with inside limb elevation, lunge with outside limb elevation) and surface (hard, soft) as within-subject factors. Change in Pmin, indicating an impact-type lameness, in the hind limb with the elevation, was significant in both the straight line and while lunging on both hard and soft surfaces. Change in Pmax, indicating pushoff-type lameness, in the opposite, non-elevated hind limb, was significant when trotting in a straight line but not while lunging.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiopatologia
6.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 35-52, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954548

RESUMO

This article describes the indications for sampling of bone marrow, the technical aspects of obtaining marrow core biopsies and aspirates, and the preparation of marrow smears. All aspects are illustrated with clinical cases. The information that can be expected from the pathologist's report of marrow samples is outlined, and the clinical features and prognosis of different types of leukemia are detailed.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/veterinária , Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos/sangue , Animais , Doenças da Medula Óssea/sangue , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Leucemia/sangue , Leucemia/patologia , Leucemia/veterinária , Patologia Clínica , Prognóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
7.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 105-120, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982231

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract and liver comprise key components of the equine digestive system and together have important functions in metabolism, digestion, absorption, detoxification, and synthesis. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and liver are common in clinical practice and can cause a variety of clinical signs. Hematologic and biochemical analysis can be helpful for identifying organ dysfunction, narrowing down the differential diagnostic list, and monitoring progress and response to treatment. This article details hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of intestinal and hepatic diseases and reviews bloodwork trends frequently observed in adult horses affected by enteropathy or hepatopathy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/patologia , Patologia Clínica
8.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 1-14, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987706

RESUMO

Clinical pathology results are only as good as the quality of samples and accompanying information submitted to the diagnostic laboratory. The frustration of nondiagnostic or equivocal test results can often be avoided by taking the time to follow sample handling and submission guidelines. This article discusses preanalytical errors that commonly affect the accuracy of hematology, chemistry, and cytology testing, and offers practical tips for preventing these errors and maximizing diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/sangue , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/economia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Análise Química do Sangue/economia , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Técnicas Citológicas/economia , Técnicas Citológicas/veterinária , Hematologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Estados Unidos
9.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 135-145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992502

RESUMO

The assessment of blood analytes in racehorses can provide useful data on performance and health. The horses' adaptive responses to training that occur to optimize performance should be considered when interpreting alterations seen on laboratory results. Similarly, the alterations observed in laboratory test results can identify subclinical and clinical disease and be helpful for identifying organ dysfunction and, in many cases, monitoring progress and response to treatment. This article discusses hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of performance and health in racehorses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 403-406, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In May 2018, a 8 year old thoroughbred mare died at an equestrian club in Changji, Xinjiang, China. The horse had been imported from the United States in 2013. She became pregnant in December 2016 but, after foaling, gradually lost weight and died in May 2018. This study aim to identify the pathogen, who cause of horse death, using virome. RESULTS: We have identified an Equ1-like virus from the fecal virome of a dead thoroughbred mare in China. Full genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the virus, tentatively named "kirkovirus Cj-7-7", showed that it was closely related to kirkovirus Equ1 and clustered together with po-circo-like viruses 21, 22, 41, and 51, suggesting that it should be assigned to the proposed family "Kirkoviridae". An epidemiological investigation showed that kirkovirus Cj-7-7 circulates in horses of northern Xinjiang and may specifically infect intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Kirkoviruses, and the prevalence of Kirkovirus Cj-7-7 in Xinjiang, China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Animais , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/patologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/genética , Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 91-97, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovial sepsis of unknown origin is a rare cause of lameness in the adult horse, and a haematogenous pathogenesis has been proposed in previous cases. OBJECTIVES: To describe the features and outcome of synovial sepsis of unknown origin in adult Thoroughbred racehorses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Hospital records for admissions between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed to identify adult horses diagnosed with synovial sepsis of unknown origin. Presentation, clinicopathological, microbiological and diagnostic imaging findings were recorded. Treatment methods, surgical findings, complications and long-term outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: Eleven cases were identified over the study period. Diagnosis was established from clinical examination and clinicopathologic findings, which were comparable to other aetiologies of synovial sepsis. Affected structures included synovial joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. Concurrent osteochondritis dissecans or articular cartilage lesions were evident during arthroscopic surgery in three cases. Significant intrasynovial haemorrhage was not identified. Microbial culture of synovial fluid or synovial biopsy was positive in 6/11 of cases, with all isolates being Gram-positive cocci. Of the 6 positive microbial cultures, all isolates demonstrated in vitro sensitivity to a cephalosporin antimicrobial agent. A concurrent remote wound was present in a single case. No other potential origins of bacteraemia were identified. Treatment methods included endoscopic surgery, standing multineedle lavage, intravenous regional limb perfusion, intrasynovial medication and/or systemic antimicrobial administration. All horses survived to hospital discharge. For the 6/11 cases that raced following synovial sepsis, the median period for return to racing was 221 days. MAIN LIMITATIONS: A small study population, which was retrospectively reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial sepsis of unknown origin is rare in the adult Thoroughbred racehorse and can affect a range of synovial structures. A concurrent potential source of bacteraemia is rarely identified. With appropriate management, the prognosis to return to racing is fair.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Sinovectomia/veterinária , Sinovite/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Membrana Sinovial , Sinovite/patologia , Sinovite/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 104-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral caries (PC) has recently been shown to affect over half of UK and Australian horses. OBJECTIVES: To examine affected cheek teeth histologically and ultrastructurally, to assess the possible route(s) of carious infection into the dental tissues and to further describe the pathological changes in affected teeth. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive pathological study. METHODS: Four control and 16 cheek teeth with different grades of PC were examined grossly, histologically and by electron microscopy. RESULTS: Cariogenic bacteria from plaque entered peripheral cementum perpendicular to the sides of teeth alongside Sharpey's fibres or vascular channels or more horizontally alongside exposed intrinsic fibres and cemental growth lines. Subsequent intra-cemental bacterial spread created different patterns of caries including vertical and horizontal flake-like patterns; deep, large flask-shaped or smaller superficial ellipsoid-shaped lytic lesions. Cemental caries progressed to affect enamel, dentine and even pulp. Gross examination underestimated the degree of caries observed on histological evaluation. MAIN LIMITATIONS: No dental histories were available; all teeth were examined on a single occasion. CONCLUSION: Equine PC causes different patterns of cemental lesions that appear dependent on the route of cariogenic bacterial invasion. Progression of caries can lead to pulpitis and tooth loss. Gross examination can underestimate the true extent of caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Dente/patologia , Animais , Cavalos , Dente/ultraestrutura
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 653-659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867937

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common non-infectious respiratory diseases in horses. Ultrasound examination is a widely available non-invasive additional diagnostic tool. To date, there are no studies focusing on ultrasonographic findings in horses with asthma. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and severity of ultrasound lesions in lung tissue in horses with asthma. Lung ultrasonography was carried out on six healthy horses (controls) and 12 horses with asthma (six with mild and six with severe asthma). The sonographic changes in three lung sections were assessed using a scoring system. The most common changes present in all the animals were comet- tail artefacts. More advanced lesions were present in horses with severe asthma. Statistically significant differences in the overall average intensity of the ultrasound changes were seen between the controls and the study group and between the horses with mild and severe asthma. The lesions were usually located in the caudal lung regions, but they were also present in other areas as the disease progressed. Ultrasonography is a useful additional diagnostic tool enabling an assessment of the stage of the asthma progression. It is a very sensitive technique that visualizes minor lesions in the lung tissue even in clinically healthy animals. Due to its low specificity, it cannot replace endoscopy and the bronchoalveolar lavage in horses with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Asma/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino
14.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 433-455, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672198

RESUMO

Given the stoic nature of donkeys and their hybrids, it is important to consider the significance of diagnostic testing modalities that can provide objective health status information beyond the basic physical examination findings. However, clinical pathology assays are also fraught with significant limitations because the results for donkeys, mules, and hinnies can be difficult to interpret, and transference of data from the horse is not always applicable. This article presents considerations for sample collection, storage, analysis, and interpretation strategies for clinical pathology testing of donkeys and their hybrids based on the limited information available in the literature.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica
16.
Vet J ; 253: 105376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685134

RESUMO

While recent work demonstrated that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin reach the fetoplacental unit without causing obvious lesions in the 9-month-old equine fetus or resulting foal, many practitioners still hesitate to prescribe a fluoroquinolone during pregnancy. Since early gestation is a critical time for fetal skeletal development, if fluoroquinolones are chondrotoxic to the fetus at any point during gestation, this period would be important. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 weeks' exposure to enrofloxacin on the equine fetus between 46 and 60 days gestation. Twelve pregnancies from nine healthy mares were allocated into two groups: untreated (n=7), or treatment (7.5mg/kg enrofloxacin, PO×14days, n=6). Abortion was induced with prostaglandin 24h after the last enrofloxacin dose, or on the equivalent day of gestation for untreated mares. Four of nine mares were rebred for a second cycle and were assigned to the opposite treatment to serve as their own controls. Fetal fluids from treated mares were analysed for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations. Fetal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney, and liver) and limbs were examined histopathologically. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin diffused to the fetal fluids during early gestation and did not result in detectable abnormalities in the fetus after 14 days of treatment. While current research does not determine long-term foal outcomes, enrofloxacin may be useful for select bacterial infections in pregnant mares.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Animal , Alantoide/metabolismo , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Enrofloxacina/farmacocinética , Enrofloxacina/toxicidade , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Gravidez
17.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 561-573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587971

RESUMO

Donkeys suffer from the same respiratory diseases as horses; however, owing to their nonathletic nature many conditions can present in a more advanced state before becoming clinically apparent. Anatomically, their respiratory tract is similar to the horse, with certain species-specific differences that are important to be aware of. Often donkeys do not receive the same level of routine care as horses, so many are not vaccinated against respiratory pathogens such as influenza or herpesviruses. Donkeys can act as a reservoir for certain infectious and parasitic respiratory diseases and the interpretation of diagnostic tests needs to be carried out with caution.


Assuntos
Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/parasitologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 356, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection is causally associated with the development of equine genital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Early stages of disease present clinically as plaques or wart-like lesions which can gradually progress to tumoural lesions. Histologically these lesions are inconsistently described as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), carcinoma in situ (CIS) or SCC. Guidelines for histological classification of early SCC precursor lesions are not precisely defined, leading to potential misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify histologic criteria and diagnostic markers allowing for a more accurate diagnosis of EcPV2-associated equine penile lesions. RESULTS: A total of 61 archived equine penile lesions were histologically re-assessed and classified as benign hyperplasia, papilloma, CIS or SCC. From these, 19 representative lesions and adjacent normal skin were comparatively analysed for the presence of EcPV2 DNA and transcripts using PCR and RNA in situ hybridisation (RISH). All lesional samples were positive by EcPV2 PCR and RISH, while adjacent normal skin was negative. RISH analysis yielded signal distribution patterns that allowed distinction of early (hyperplasia, papilloma) from late stage lesions (CIS, SCC). Subsequently, the 19 lesions were further assessed for expression of p53, Ki67, MCM7 and MMP1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All four proteins were expressed in both normal and lesional tissue. However, p53 expression was up-regulated in basal keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs, as well as in upper keratinocyte layers of CIS and SCCs. MCM7 expression was only up-regulated in upper proliferating keratinocyte layers of papillomas, CIS and SCCs. CONCLUSION: This study proposes combining a refined histological protocol for analysis of equine penile lesions with PCR- and/or RISH based EcPV2-screening and p53/MCM7 IHC to more accurately determine the type of lesion. This may help to guide the choice of optimum treatment strategy, especially at early stages of disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Neoplasias Penianas/veterinária , Pênis/patologia , Animais , DNA Viral/análise , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Neoplasias Penianas/virologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/veterinária , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/virologia
19.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 43, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal pain, unexplained hind limb lameness, back pain or behavioural problems in geldings could be attributable to painful neuromas that develop as a consequence of crushing and severing the testicular nerves during castration. The presence of neuroma in this anatomical location has never been reported, hence the knowledge of possible clinical relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to histologically investigate the testicular nerves at the castration site in geldings for the presence of neuromas. Proximal spermatic cord remnants were collected from 20 geldings admitted to routine post mortem examination for various reasons. The time of castration was unknown, but it had not been performed during the last year. Spermatic cord specimens were immersed in 10% formalin, trimmed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) for light microscopy. Identification of nerve tissue was done by immuno-localization of nerve specific enolase (NSE). RESULTS: Neuromas were found in 21 spermatic cords from 13 geldings and were bilateral in eight of the horses. The neuromas consisted of areas with small groups of non-neoplastic proliferations of peripheral neural tissue. The tissue included neurofilaments and Schwann cells, intermingled or surrounded with, epineural, perineural and endoneural fibrous tissue. The neural tissue immunostained positive with NSE. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed neuromas of the remnant testicular nerves at the site of castration. Further studies are required to establish if these neuromas in the castration site are painful and if certain castration methods promote their formation. Future studies should also investigate the clinical consequence of these neuromas for the individual horse.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Neuroma/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Neuroma/diagnóstico , Neuroma/etiologia , Neuroma/patologia , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 296, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM) remains one of the most important abnormalities of the cervical spine resulting in neurological deficits in horses. The aim of the following study was to compare the results of the clinical and neurological examination, the results of myelography and the post mortem anatomical and histological appearance of the spinal cord and cervical vertebrae in a horse with CVSM. CASE PRESENTATION: The following study describes a clinical case of an eight-month-old stallion with ataxia. Plain cervical radiographs indicated narrowing of the spinal canal. Conservative therapy using NSAIDs did not result in any improvement in the gait of the horse. Due to economic constraints, surgical intervention was excluded. The owner chose to humanely euthanise the horse. Immediately after euthanasia, post mortem myelography was performed, and measurements of the myelographic dye column were taken. They revealed a 67% DMC reduction and a 64% DD reduction at the C3/C4 level. Afterwards, an anatomical dissection was performed. The cervical vertebrae and vertebral canal were macroscopically inspected and measured and indicated a 44% narrowing of the canal at the C3/C4 level. The spinal cord was removed and underwent histological evaluation after staining. Microscopic lesions were visible at the level of the compression and included axonal degeneration with partial or complete loss of myelin in the white matter of the lateral and dorsal funiculi as well as the formation of dysfunctional so-called "spongy structures". An increase in the number of microglial cells and collagen was also observed. The formation of glial scars was excluded. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a negative transmembrane glycoprotein CD68(-) - monocyte response and a negative tumor necrosis alpha TNFα (-) reaction. CONCLUSIONS: CVSM may be difficult to diagnose, even for experienced veterinary surgeons. Currently, an ex vivo histopathologic examination of the spinal cord is thought to be the gold standard in the diagnosis of CVSM. Our histological examination revealed no CVSM-specific glial scar formation and a CD68(-) negative and TNF-α negative reaction, which have not been previously reported. Histological lesions in CVSM may vary depending show inter-individual variability and on the treatment, which further hinders ex-vivo diagnostics.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Compressão da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Estenose Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/patologia , Ataxia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Medula Espinal/patologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia , Estenose Espinal/patologia , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA