Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.909
Filtrar
1.
Vet Surg ; 50(2): 383-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome for horses with fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial complex. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter case series. ANIMALS: Thirty horses evaluated for fibro-osseous lesions of the skull from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2019 in four centers. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical presentation, histological and diagnostic imaging findings, treatment instituted, and outcome. Long-term outcome information was obtained by owner questionnaire or the medical record. RESULTS: Diagnoses included ossifying fibroma in 20 of 30 horses, osteoma in eight of 30 horses, and fibrous dysplasia in two of 30 horses. Twelve of 30 lesions were diagnosed in horses <1 year old, and 20 of 30 lesions originated from the rostral mandible. The most common treatment was rostral mandibulectomy. Recurrence was not reported after complete excision. Incomplete excision was confirmed in eight horses (four ossifying fibromas, three osteomas, and one fibrous dysplasia), and follow-up information was available for seven horses. Recurrence occurred in one horse, while six horses had long-term resolution of clinical signs. Prognosis for survival and return to use was excellent in 23 horses with long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Fibro-osseous lesions were uncommon in this multicenter study; they were most commonly diagnosed in young animals and most frequently affected the rostral mandible. Long-term survival was excellent. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The definitive diagnosis of fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial complex in horses is made from results of histopathology and cannot be determined on the basis of clinical presentation alone. Surgical excision is indicated, and prognosis can be favorable even when complete surgical margins are not obtained.


Assuntos
Fibroma Ossificante/veterinária , Displasia Fibrosa Óssea/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Osteoma/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Fibroma Ossificante/diagnóstico , Fibroma Ossificante/patologia , Fibroma Ossificante/cirurgia , Displasia Fibrosa Óssea/diagnóstico , Displasia Fibrosa Óssea/patologia , Displasia Fibrosa Óssea/cirurgia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Osteoma/diagnóstico , Osteoma/patologia , Osteoma/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744528

RESUMO

In mares, endometrial cysts are associated with endometriosis and can cause maternal recognition failure or compromise and delay pregnancy diagnoses. Historical treatments were invasive and had adverse effects on the endometrium. Hysteroscopically guided laser therapy is easy and effective for endometrial cysts resection, with no deleterious effects for the endometrium. A 110 cm long and 1.0 cm wide endoscope is sterilely introduced in the uterus through the open cervix of an estrous mare after vulvar cleaning. The uterus is slowly infused with less than 1 L of physiologic solution and the laser fiber is inserted in the biopsy canal of the endoscope. Cysts are then cauterized with the 980 nm diode laser with a contact fiber set at 20‒2 5W in continuous mode. Each cyst is punctured until complete voiding of the cyst and shrinking of the cyst wall around the fiber. Uterine lavages with sterile saline solution are performed directly after the surgery and for one or two days as non-inflammatory fluid can be observed. This procedure is easy and quickly performed, with no obvious deleterious effects. Cysts resection makes ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis easier and, in some cases, could restore proper embryo migration in the uterine horns between day 6.5 and 17. However, this treatment does not improve the underlying histological lesions related to endometriosis. These considerations should be clearly expressed to the breeder before this procedure.


Assuntos
Cistos/diagnóstico , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia/métodos , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Cistos/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos
3.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 611-615, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687008

RESUMO

The only Sarcocystis species currently known to inhabit the fibers of skeletal and cardiac muscles in horses are S. fayeri, S. bertrami, and S. asinus. We describe herein the invasion of myofibers in a horse by S. gigantea, a sheep-specific species with low virulence in the original host. A hunter gelding was referred to a veterinary surgeon in Newmarket (UK). The anamnestic data reported that the horse had an initial history of swelling of the right forelimb with fluid on the front of the carpus and edema spreading up the forearm. Subsequently, 2 firm lumps were found on the left pectoral muscle adjacent to the axilla of the left forelimb. Histologic examination of biopsies from the lumps revealed multifocal granulomatous eosinophilic myositis associated with intact and degenerate encysted parasites, consistent with Sarcocystis spp. Based on amplification and DNA sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, S. gigantea was identified. The presence of sarcocysts in equine skeletal muscles has been considered an incidental finding, and there are only sporadic associated reports of myositis. Our finding suggests that some Sarcocystis spp. have a wider intermediate host range than believed previously, and that Sarcocystis of other species (not considered horse-associated) can invade the muscle fibers of equids, leading to myositis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Miosite/veterinária , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Cavalos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/parasitologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/parasitologia , Miosite/patologia , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sarcocistose/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
4.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 621-625, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687009

RESUMO

A 22-y-old American Quarter Horse gelding was presented with a history of chronic progressive respiratory problems and a diffuse pulmonary nodular pattern in thoracic radiographs. The horse was euthanized, and 4 formalin-fixed samples of lung were submitted for histopathology. There were multifocal areas of marked thickening of alveolar septa as a result of proliferation of myofibroblasts embedded in fibromyxoid matrix (interpreted as "Masson bodies"), focal areas of fibrosis, and numerous papillary projections of connective tissue into bronchioles. A diagnosis of organizing pneumonia was reached. No etiology was found for this lesion. It is important to consider causes of chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis in horses other than equid herpesvirus 5, such as complicated viral or bacterial pneumonia or chronic toxicoses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/veterinária , Pneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/patologia
5.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 303-322, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654784

RESUMO

Horses perform in a variety of disciplines that are visually demanding, and any disease impacting the eye has the potential to threaten vision and thus the utility of the horse. Advances in equine genetics have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations and are enabling cross-species comparisons. Genetic testing for multiple congenital ocular anomalies, congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, and squamous cell carcinoma can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management and breeding decisions. This article describes the current knowledge of inherited ocular disorders.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Transtornos da Visão/veterinária , Animais , Oftalmopatias/genética , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Transtornos da Visão/genética , Transtornos da Visão/patologia
6.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 379-394, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654786

RESUMO

Laminitis is a devastating disease with diverse etiologies and few, if any, effective treatments. Gene expression and hypothesis-generating genomic studies have provided a fresh look at the key molecular players at crucial timepoints in diverse experimental and naturally affected tissues. We summarize findings to date, and propose a unifying model of the laminitis disease process that includes several pathogenesis concepts shared with other diseases of epidermal and epithelial tissues. The value of these new pathways as potential therapeutic targets is exciting but will require careful future work to validate new methods and launch systematic clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Pé/genética , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Casco e Garras/metabolismo , Casco e Garras/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 289-301, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534855

RESUMO

Orthopedic diseases are a common cause for limited exercise capacity in the horse. They often underlie genetic risk factors, which can affect bone, articular cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and adnexal structures among others. The genetic effects can directly interfere with tissue development and skeletal growth or can trigger degenerative or inflammatory processes. Many of these diseases of the locomotor system like osteochondrosis are complex and can be affected by multifactorial influences. For this reason, it is important for those performing diagnostic procedures to have a comprehensive knowledge of orthopedic diseases, their prevalence within breeds, and genetic background.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/veterinária , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Osteocondrose/genética , Osteocondrose/veterinária
8.
Exp Hematol ; 86: 43-52.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417302

RESUMO

Whole transferrin receptor (TfR) is present in reticulocyte exosomes. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is cleaved from whole TfR in human plasma, with the remnant cytoplasmic domain (cTfR) remaining membrane associated. In humans, sTfR is a biomarker that can detect iron deficiency in the presence of inflammatory disease. This condition is still a diagnostic dilemma in veterinary species. We aimed to (1) confirm the presence of exosomes and exosome-associated TfR in the serum of dogs, cats, and horses; and (2) to assess and compare the proportion of cTfR to total (cTfR + whole) in exosomal membranes of healthy and diseased dogs and cats and in healthy horses to indirectly predict their anticipated levels of circulating sTfR. We used discarded serum and whole blood samples from canine and feline patients, separated into healthy and diseased groups based on the health status of each patient, and healthy equine participants from a previous study. Ultracentrifugation, followed in some experiments by OptiPrep discontinuous density gradient fractionation, was used to isolate exosomes. Exosomes and associated TfR were identified using TEM and Western blot for TfR, respectively. Densitometry tracings of Western blots of serum exosomes were used to measure the proportion of cTfR to total TfR. Extracellular vesicles compatible with exosomes were successfully isolated and expressed TfR. The proportion of cTfR in dogs was greater than 50%, indicating that a majority of the whole TfR was cleaved to produce sTfR (and remnant cTfR). There was significant interindividual variation and no significant difference between healthy and diseased animals. The proportion of cTfR in cats was very low at 11%, indicating that very little sTfR was likely produced. There was a small yet significant difference between healthy and diseased cats. Healthy horses do not appear to cleave exosome-associated TfR. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in the presence of inflammatory disease remains a challenge in veterinary medicine. Our results indicate that TfR is poorly or unpredictably cleaved in veterinary species, revealing that there are species differences in exosomal TfR handling. These data suggest that development of an assay for the detection and quantification of sTfR in the species investigated may not be warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Exossomos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Exossomos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 242-253, Apr. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135616

RESUMO

Equine colic is one of the most common cause of death in horses, but few studies have investigated specifically the conditions at the necropsy. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological features of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in horses. A retrospective study was conducted in search of cases of these diseases affecting horses from 2005 to 2017. During this period, 114 horses died of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and the main causes were: primary gastric dilation (27/114), volvulus (27/114), enterolithiasis (20/114), rectal (colonic) perforation (15/114), gastric or cecocolonic impaction (10/114), incarcerations (6/114), intussusception (4/114), and others (5/114). Mixed breeds horses (56/114) and males (69/114) were mostly affected. The horses had a median and mean age of 10 and 10.9-years old, respectively. Primary gastric dilation was characterized by distension of the stomach by moderate to large amounts of content, which in 21 cases caused tearing of the stomach wall at the greater curvature (peritonitis), and the main predisposing factor was alimentary overload (17/27). Intestinal volvulus occurred within the small intestine (14 cases) and within the large intestines (13 cases). Grossly, there was intestinal ischemia with reddened to deep-black serosa and diffusely red mucosae. Enterolithiasis caused partial or complete obstruction of the right dorsal colon (9/20), transverse colon (4/20), small colon and right dorsal colon (3/20), rectum and right dorsal colon (2/20), and small colon (2/20). Viscera perforation and peritonitis occurred in 11 cases. Rectal (colonic) perforation involved the rectum (10/15), rectum/small colon (4/15), and the small colon (1/15). It was characterized by a focally extensive transmural tearing, associated with reddened borders, and retroperitoneal to diffuse peritonitis. Palpation related iatrogenic injuries (11/15) were the main cause. Impactions affected the large colon (7/10), the cecum (2/10), and the stomach (1/10). Incarcerations consisted of inguinoscrotal hernias (2/6), small intestine entrapment by a mesenteric failure (2/6), diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical eventration. Grossly, the organs were constricted by a hernial ring, with intestinal ischemia and reddened to dark-red serosa. Predisposing factors included previous surgeries (2/6) and patent inguinal ring (1/6). Intussusception involved the small intestine (3/4) and ileocecum (1/4). Foals with lack of colostrum intake and concomitant pneumonia was a characteristic presentation (3/4). Grossly, the intussusceptum slipped into intussuscipiens, with diffuse deep black-red discoloration. Other causes included large colon displacement (2/5), extrinsic and intrinsic obstruction of the small intestine (2/5), and an intestinal adenocarcinoma. Noninfectious gastrointestinal diseases are major causes of death in horses. Epidemiological and gross features of the conditions should be accounted to obtain a final diagnosis of the cause of the colic.(AU)


A cólica em equinos é considerada como a principal causa de morte de cavalos, porém poucos estudos têm investigado especificamente as condições envolvidas através da necropsia. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal de equinos. Foi conduzido um estudo retrospectivo em busca de casos dessas doenças envolvendo cavalos de 2005 a 2017. Durante esse período, 114 equinos morreram devido a doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal, e as principais causas foram: dilatação gástrica (27/114), vólvulos (27/114), enterolitíase (20/114), ruptura retal (colônica) (15/114), compactação gástrica ou cecocolônica (10/114), encarceramentos (6/114), intussuscepções (4/114), e outros (5/114). Animais sem raça definida (56/114) e machos (69/114) foram mais afetados. Os equinos apresentavam uma média e mediana de idade de 10 e 10,9 anos, respectivamente. A dilatação gástrica primária era caracterizada por distensão do estômago por moderada a grande quantidade de conteúdo, que em 21 casos provocava ruptura da parede gástrica na curvatura maior (peritonite), e o principal fator predisponente foi sobrecarga alimentar (17/27). Vólvulo intestinal ocorreu no intestino delgado e no intestino grosso (14 e 13 casos, respectivamente). Macroscopicamente, havia isquemia intestinal com serosa avermelhada a enegrecida e mucosa difusamente avermelhada. A enterolitíase causou obstrução parcial ou completa do cólon dorsal direito (9/20), cólon transverso (4/20), cólon menor e cólon dorsal direito (3/20), cólon menor (2/20), e reto e cólon maior direito (2/20). Perfuração de vísceras e peritonite foram observadas em 11 casos. A ruptura retal (colônica) envolveu o reto (10/15), reto/cólon menor (4/15) e cólon menor (1/15). Essa era caracterizada por ruptura transmural focalmente extensa, com bordos avermelhados e peritonite retroperitoneal a difusa. Traumas relacionados à palpação (11/15) foram a principal causa. Compactações afetaram o cólon maior (7/10), ceco (2/10) e estômago (1/10). Encarceramentos consistiram em hérnias inguinoescrotais (2/6), encarceramento de alças intestinais por falha no mesentério (2/6), hérnia diafragmática e eventração umbilical. Macroscopicamente, os órgãos estavam constritos por um anel hernial, com isquemia intestinal e serosa avermelhada a vermelho-escura. Fatores predisponentes incluíram cirurgias prévias (2/6) e anel inguinal patente (1/6). Intussuscepções envolveram o intestino delgado (3/4) e íleoceco (1/4). A apresentação característica foi em potros com falta de colostro e concomitante pneumonia. Macroscopicamente, o intussuscepto deslizava em direção ao intussuscepiente, exibindo coloração vermelho-enegrecida difusa. Outras causas incluíram deslocamento de cólon maior (2/5), obstrução extrínseca e intrínseca do intestino delgado (2/5), e um caso de adenocarcinoma intestinal. Doenças não infecciosas são importantes causas de morte em equinos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos e macroscópicos das condições devem ser considerados para o que o diagnóstico final da causa da cólica seja obtido.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dilatação Gástrica , Cólica , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Volvo Intestinal , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Intussuscepção , Cavalos
10.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 73-85, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145835

RESUMO

The dynamic physiologic changes and unique diet during the neonatal period contribute to key differences in clinicopathologic test results of healthy foals relative to healthy adult horses. When reporting results, most diagnostic laboratories only provide reference intervals for mature horses. Thus, failure to recognize the unique differences that occur in foals relative to adult horses can lead to erroneous interpretation of neonatal clinical pathologic values. Thus, the main objective of this article was to review distinct features of common clinicopathologic tests in foals, relative to mature horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica
11.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 87-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145836

RESUMO

Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Asma/veterinária , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 651-663, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192415

RESUMO

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has recently been associated with cases of Theiler's disease, a form of fulminant hepatic necrosis in horses. To assess whether EqPV-H is the cause of Theiler's disease, we first demonstrated hepatotropism by PCR on tissues from acutely infected horses. We then experimentally inoculated horses with EqPV-H and 8 of 10 horses developed hepatitis. One horse showed clinical signs of liver failure. The onset of hepatitis was temporally associated with seroconversion and a decline in viremia. Liver histology and in situ hybridization showed lymphocytic infiltrates and necrotic EqPV-H-infected hepatocytes. We next investigated potential modes of transmission. Iatrogenic transmission via allogeneic stem cell therapy for orthopedic injuries was previously suggested in a case series of Theiler's disease, and was demonstrated here for the first time. Vertical transmission and mechanical vectoring by horse fly bites could not be demonstrated in this study, potentially due to limited sample size. We found EqPV-H shedding in oral and nasal secretions, and in feces. Importantly, we could demonstrate EqPV-H transmission via oral inoculation with viremic serum. Together, our findings provide additional information that EqPV-H is the likely cause of Theiler's disease and that transmission of EqPV-H occurs via both iatrogenic and natural routes.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Dípteros/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/transmissão , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/virologia , Boca/virologia , Necrose , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus/patogenicidade , Tropismo Viral , Viremia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 382-388, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207378

RESUMO

Ocular diseases are an important category in equine medicine; however, most articles regarding histologic ocular lesions in horses are exclusive to a specific condition and do not provide a complete review of clinically significant ocular disease frequency in a diagnostic laboratory. We reviewed sections of equine eyes from 140 cases (98 enucleations [biopsies] and 42 autopsies) with clinically relevant ocular alterations at 2 diagnostic centers in the United States. The most common primary conditions were non-traumatic keratitis (36), equine recurrent uveitis (ERU; 31), traumatic injuries (22), ocular and periocular neoplasms (19), and uveitis and/or endophthalmitis resulting from sepsis (18). Congenital anomalies (3) and retinal atrophy and detachment alone (3) were infrequent. Non-traumatic keratitis was frequently accompanied by anterior uveitis (22), corneal rupture (16), pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane formation (13), and secondary mycotic infection (11). ERU was the second and third most prevalent disease in autopsies and enucleations, respectively. This condition was commonly associated with glaucoma (15). Glaucoma (25) and cataract (20) were the most prevalent secondary alterations in the evaluated cases. Keratitis (20) and corneal rupture (16) were among the most prevalent consequences of trauma. Information presented herein may guide clinicians and pathologists, contributing to the early diagnosis of potentially vision-impairing conditions and raising the chances of successful treatment and cure.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Animais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 121-134, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037140

RESUMO

Clinicopathologic evaluation of renal function and renal disease in sick adult horses remains grounded in detection of azotemia, assessment of serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and evaluation of urinalysis findings, including specific gravity, reagent strip analysis, and sediment examination. Because increases in serum or plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations are insensitive indicators of a decreased glomerular filtration rate, there is considerable interest in identifying novel biomarkers of renal function or injury in blood and urine, with serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration being the most recent addition to the commercial market.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/urina , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/urina , Masculino , Urinálise/veterinária
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069321

RESUMO

This study has investigated the immediate effect of induced hindlimb length difference on hindlimb lameness measured as differences in minimum (Pmin) and maximum (Pmax) pelvic heights in 16 horses trotting in a straight line and lungeing on both hard and soft surfaces with body-mounted inertial sensors. Hindlimb length differences were induced by applying an Easyboot Glue-on shoe to one hindlimb. Changes in Pmin and Pmax with induced hindlimb length difference were assessed with a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with trial (straight, lunge with inside limb elevation, lunge with outside limb elevation) and surface (hard, soft) as within-subject factors. Change in Pmin, indicating an impact-type lameness, in the hind limb with the elevation, was significant in both the straight line and while lunging on both hard and soft surfaces. Change in Pmax, indicating pushoff-type lameness, in the opposite, non-elevated hind limb, was significant when trotting in a straight line but not while lunging.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiopatologia
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 285-290, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020748

RESUMO

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia (DIRT) is commonly identified on either the lateral to medial (LM) or dorso45°medial-plantarolateral oblique (D45M-PLO) projection of the tarsus. This manuscript describes a retrospective case series out of Hagyard Equine Medical Institute, for which medical records and radiographic projections of the tarsus were reviewed, consistent with Keeneland's repository requirements. This original investigation identified seven yearling Thoroughbred horses between 2008 and 2018 with radiographic signs of atypical osteochondrosis lesions within the tarsus. The atypical lesions, originating along the medial margin of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, were initially only diagnosed on the dorso10°lateral-plantaromedial (D10L-PMO) projection and were overlooked on the LM and D45M-PLO views. Following the diagnosis of osteochondrosis in these seven cases, the radiographs were reviewed and re-evaluated, but osteochondrosis and/or fragmentation could not be definitively diagnosed on the LM and/or D45M-PLO projections alone. Our findings highlight the importance of a complete radiographic study of the equine tarsus when screening horses for OCD lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia and that atypical DIRT lesions may go undetected if the D10L-PMO projection is not performed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondrite Dissecante/veterinária , Tíbia/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Osteocondrite Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondrite Dissecante/patologia , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ossos do Tarso
17.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 269-278, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020759

RESUMO

Cholesterinic granulomas are mass-like lesions that form at the choroid plexus of the ventricular system. Large cholesterinic granulomas within the lateral ventricles have been reported to cause severe neurological signs. However, little data are available about their prevalence or appearance in the overall population. The objective was to report the prevalence of presumed cholesterinic granulomas on CT in a population of horses, and investigate associations between presumed cholesterinic granuloma presence, lateral ventricle size, age, and neurological signs. The study was cross sectional, CT scans of the head were assessed for presumed cholesterinic granuloma presence and size, and lateral ventricle height. Computed tomography findings and clinical information were compared using nonparametric testing. Computed tomography scans of 139 horses were included. Presumed cholesterinic granulomas were found in 22 horses (15.8%), nine were unilateral and 13 bilateral. A significant increase in prevalence was observed with age (P < .0001), with 38% of horses over 15 years old affected. The median volume of presumed cholesterinic granulomas was 242 mm3 with a range from 51 to 2420 mm3 . The mean lateral ventricle height was significantly increased in horses with presumed cholesterinic granulomas present (P = .004), with a median of 7.3 mm compared to 4.9 mm without. Neurological signs were not associated with presumed cholesterinic granuloma presence or lateral ventricle height. Fourth ventricle mineralizations were found in seven horses, which may represent cholesterinic granulomas. In conclusion, presumed cholesterinic granulomas occurred in a large proportion of the examined population and are associated with increased lateral ventricle dilation and advanced age.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/veterinária , Calcinose/veterinária , Quarto Ventrículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Quarto Ventrículo/patologia , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093296

RESUMO

Post-breeding endometritis (i.e., inflammation/infection of the endometrium), is a physiological reaction taking place in the endometrium of mares within 48 hours post-breeding, aimed to clear seminal plasma, excess sperm, microorganisms, and debris from the uterine lumen in preparation for the arrival of an embryo. Mares are classified as susceptible or resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) based on their ability to clear this inflammation/infection by 48 hours post-breeding. Mares susceptible to PBIE, or those with difficulty clearing infection/inflammation, have a deficient immune response and compromised physical mechanisms of defense against infection. Molecular pathways of the innate immune response known to be involved in PBIE are discussed herein. The role of the adaptive uterine immune response on PBIE remains to be elucidated in horses. Advances in the pathobiology of microbes involved in PBIE are also revised here. Traditional and non-traditional therapeutic modalities for endometritis are contrasted and described in the context of clinical and molecular aspects. In recent years, the lack of efficacy of traditional therapeutic modalities, alongside the ever-increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, has enforced the development of non-traditional therapies. Novel biological products capable of modulating the endometrial inflammatory response are also discussed here as part of the non-traditional therapies for endometritis.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Endometrite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Cavalos/imunologia , Animais , Endometrite/imunologia , Endometrite/patologia , Endometrite/terapia , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia
19.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 35-52, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954548

RESUMO

This article describes the indications for sampling of bone marrow, the technical aspects of obtaining marrow core biopsies and aspirates, and the preparation of marrow smears. All aspects are illustrated with clinical cases. The information that can be expected from the pathologist's report of marrow samples is outlined, and the clinical features and prognosis of different types of leukemia are detailed.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/veterinária , Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos/sangue , Animais , Doenças da Medula Óssea/sangue , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Leucemia/sangue , Leucemia/patologia , Leucemia/veterinária , Patologia Clínica , Prognóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
20.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 135-145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992502

RESUMO

The assessment of blood analytes in racehorses can provide useful data on performance and health. The horses' adaptive responses to training that occur to optimize performance should be considered when interpreting alterations seen on laboratory results. Similarly, the alterations observed in laboratory test results can identify subclinical and clinical disease and be helpful for identifying organ dysfunction and, in many cases, monitoring progress and response to treatment. This article discusses hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of performance and health in racehorses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Patologia Clínica , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...