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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMO

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Filogenia , Prevalência , /veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125372

RESUMO

We studied livestock abortion and various associated risk factors in the Ili region of northwest China. Livestock abortion prevalence was estimated and correlated with infections (Brucellosis, Salmonellosis, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia seropositivity) and management (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks) risk factors. A total of 2996 serum samples (1406 cow, 1590 sheep) were identified by RBPT (Rose Bengal Plate Test) and c-ELISA (competitive-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and they showed the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the study area was cow 6.76%, sheep 9.50%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in X county was cow 7.06%, sheep 9.12%; in H county was cow 11.70%, sheep 10.80%; and in Q county was cow 4.22%, sheep 9.11%. The overall seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the study area was cow 3.20%, sheep 6.42%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in X county was cow 3.39%, sheep 7.98%; in H county was cow 5.26%, sheep 9.97%; and in Q county was cow 2.11%, sheep 4.33%. The Odds ratio of brucellosis for cow and sheep, respectively, were 45.909 [95% CI 26.912-78.317, P<0.001] and 70.507 [95% CI 43.783-113.544, P<0.001] times higher than other abortion-related factors including mixed farming, contact with other flocks and Mycoplasma infection. A total of 54 samples, including aborted cow (22), sheep (30) fetuses and milk samples (2), were identified as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) positive. A total of 38 Brucella were isolated from 16 aborted cow, 20 sheep fetuses and 2 milk samples. All of these isolates were identified, and confirmed, as B. melitensis. A phylogenetic tree showed that the Brucella isolates closely matched the B. melitensis biovar 3 isolated in Inner Mongolia, China, and B. melitensis isolated from Norway and India. These results suggest that B. melitensis biovar 3 is the main pathogen responsible for cow and sheep abortion and also pose a human health risk. Additionally, livestock reproduction can also be influenced by Mycoplasma infection and managerial factors (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks), especially in remote areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Chlamydia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108828, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866940

RESUMO

Raw milk is a continued threat to public health due to possible contamination with zoonotic pathogens. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal disease. Although there has been some evidence, the role and potential risk of raw milk of dairy animals in the transmission dynamics of E. bieneusi is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in raw milk of dairy animals in several farms of the Central Anatolia Region. We also investigated if there is a relation between the presence of E. bieneusi and mastitis. Genomic DNAs from a total of 450 raw milk including 200, 200 and 50 samples from cattle, sheep and water buffalo respectively were analyzed using nested PCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer of E. bieneusi. Totally milk samples of 9 (4.5%) dairy cattle, 36 (18.0%) sheep, and 1 (2.0%) water buffalo were PCR-positive. A significant relationship was determined between mastitis and the presence of E. bieneusi. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of eight genotypes: two known (ERUSS1, BEB6) and six novel genotypes (named as TREb1 to TREb6). The genotype ERUSS1 and BEB6 were the most common genotypes, found in all cattle and sheep farms. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the identified genotypes in Group 2. This study provides novel findings that contribute to the transmission dynamics and molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Our study also highlighted the potential risk of raw milk for public health with respect to microsporidia infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Turquia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898140

RESUMO

The relationships between host-pathogen population dynamics in wildlife are poorly understood. An impediment to progress in understanding these relationships is imperfect detection of diagnostic tests used to detect pathogens. If ignored, imperfect detection precludes accurate assessment of pathogen presence and prevalence, foundational parameters for deciphering host-pathogen dynamics and disease etiology. Respiratory disease in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a significant impediment to their conservation and restoration, and effective management requires a better understanding of the structure of the pathogen communities. Our primary objective was to develop an easy-to-use and accessible web-based Shiny application that estimates the probability (with associated uncertainty) that a respiratory pathogen is present in a herd and its prevalence given imperfect detection. Our application combines the best-available information on the probabilities of detection for various respiratory pathogen diagnostic protocols with a hierarchical Bayesian model of pathogen prevalence. We demonstrated this application using four examples of diagnostic tests from three herds of bighorn sheep in Montana. For instance, one population with no detections of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (PCR assay) still had an 6% probability of the pathogen being present in the herd. Similarly, the apparent prevalence (0.32) of M. ovipneumoniae in another herd was a substantial underestimate of estimated true prevalence (0.46: 95% CI = [0.25, 0.71]). The negative bias of naïve prevalence increased as the probability of detection of testing protocols worsened such that the apparent prevalence of Mannheimia haemolytica (culture assay) in a herd (0.24) was less than one third that of estimated true prevalence (0.78: 95% CI = [0.43, 0.99]). We found a small difference in the estimates of the probability that Mannheimia spp. (culture assay) was present in one herd between the binomial sampling approach (0.24) and the hypergeometric approach (0.22). Ignoring the implications of imperfect detection and sampling variation for assessing pathogen communities in bighorn sheep can result in spurious inference on pathogen presence and prevalence, and potentially poorly informed management decisions. Our Shiny application makes the rigorous assessment of pathogen presence, prevalence and uncertainty straightforward, and we suggest it should be incorporated into a new paradigm of disease monitoring.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro da Montanha/microbiologia , Software , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Internet , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolamento & purificação , Montana , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Ovinos
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 48, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Malopolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS: Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ß-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION: The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Malopolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenite/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/epidemiologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/patologia , Polônia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Carneiro Doméstico
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911525

RESUMO

Maedi-visna (MV) is a complex lentiviral disease syndrome characterised by long immunological and clinical latencies and chronic progressive inflammatory pathology. Incurable at the individual level, it is widespread in most sheep-keeping countries, and is a cause of lost production and poor animal welfare. Culling seropositive animals is the main means of control, but it might be possible to manage virus transmission effectively if its epidemiology was better quantified. We derive a mathematical epidemiological model of the temporal distributions of seroconversion probabilities and estimate susceptibility, transmission rate and latencies in three serological datasets. We demonstrate the existence of epidemiological latency, which has not explicitly been recognised in the SRLV literaure. This time delay between infection and infectiousness apparently exceeds the delay between infection and seroconversion. Poor body condition was associated with more rapid seroconversion, but not with a higher probability of infection. We estimate transmission rates amongst housed sheep to be at about 1,000 times faster than when sheep were at grass, when transmission was negligible. Maternal transmission has only a small role in transmission, because lambs from infected ewes have a low probability of being infected directly by them, and only a small proportion of lambs need be retained to maintain flock size. Our results show that MV is overwhelmingly a disease of housing, where sheep are kept in close proximity. Prevalence of MV is likely to double each year from an initial low incidence in housed flocks penned in typically-sized groups of sheep (c. 50) for even a few days per year. Ewes kept entirely at grass are unlikely to experience transmission frequently enough for MV to persist, and pre-existing infection should die out as older ewes are replaced, thereby essentially curing the flock.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Intersticial Progressiva dos Ovinos/transmissão , Vírus Visna-Maedi/patogenicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Intersticial Progressiva dos Ovinos/imunologia , Pneumonia Intersticial Progressiva dos Ovinos/virologia , Prevalência , Soroconversão , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus Visna-Maedi/imunologia
9.
Aust Vet J ; 98(11): 525-528, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis in sheep has negative impacts on reproductive performance. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence in Toxoplasma gondii infection in the South Australian sheep population, and assess any association between within-flock prevalence and reproductive efficiency (measured by lamb marking percentage), climatic region and rainfall. METHODS: A total of 875 individual mixed-age breeding ewes from 29 South Australian properties were blood sampled with an average of 30.2 ewes per property (min 28, max 32). Sera were tested for T. gondii-specific IgG antibody using a commercial Modified Agglutination Test kit. RESULTS: Overall, 209 of 875 (23.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3% to 31.4%) of individual ewes tested seropositive for T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies, with a flock level seroprevalence of 28/29 (96.6%, 95% CI 96.6% to 100%). On individual farms, the seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 93.3%. Analysis showed that Kangaroo Island properties had significantly higher mean seroprevalence than any mainland climatic regions, and that the mainland regions did not significantly differ from each other. Linear regression revealed a significant association between seroprevalence and lamb marking percentage, with a slope of -5.4% lamb marking per +10% seroprevalence.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
10.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e11, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787418

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia infecting domestic animals from three municipalities in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. A total of 208 blood samples collected from clinically healthy cattle, sheep, goats and dogs from uMkhanyakude district were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, using either genus or species-specific primers to determine the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of various protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia of veterinary importance. A total of 5/109 (4.6%) cattle were PCR-positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, 33/109 (30.3%) for Babesia bovis, 24/109 (22.02%) for Babesia bigemina and 20/109 (18.3%) for Trypanosoma sp., while 3/10 (30%) of sheep were PCR-positive for Theileria ovis and none of the goats were positive for any of the detected pathogens. The co-infection of 4/109 (3.7%) B. bovis and B. bigemina was detected in cattle. Only Ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs with infection rate of 20/48 (41.7%). Sequences of PCR-positive isolates (B. bovis, B. bigemina, E. canis, T. ovis and T. gondii) showed that they were closely related to their relevant species from various countries. These findings have expanded our knowledge about the prevalence and phylogenetic similarity between protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia isolates of South African origin. To date, this is the first study in South Africa to detect T. gondii infections from cattle blood using PCR.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Theileriose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/microbiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/microbiologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/microbiologia , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2147-2163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653984

RESUMO

Small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. Their husbandry is threatened by the highly infectious transboundary viral disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Given its social and economic impact, PPR is presently being targeted by international organizations for global eradication by 2030. Since its first description in Côte d'Ivoire in 1942, and particularly over the last 10 years, a large amount of molecular epidemiological data on the virus have been generated in Africa. This review aims to consolidate these data in order to have a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Africa, which will, in turn, assist authorities in global eradication attempts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
12.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently no scientific evidence regarding the current climatic or other epidemiological factors that could influence the occurrence of heartwater in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether climatic changes or other epidemiological factors influence the occurence of heartwater in South Africa. METHOD: A survey was conducted to scrutinise these factors using both veterinarians and farmers working in known areas in which heartwater had previously been confirmed to establish the value of each of these factors. Based on the observations, meaningful tendencies were noted, and conclusions drawn. RESULTS: These include changes in the spatial distribution of heartwater in many areas, with serious expansion, in some instances, of up to 150 km. In total, 48% of veterinarians and 42% of farmers reported seeing increase in the number of farms affected by heartwater. Climate change as a causative factor indicated by observations of increased average temperatures, milder frosts, less rain and shorter rainy seasons was identified by the majority of farmers but not by as many veterinarians. Respondents in both groups considered vegetation change an important factor. Increasing number of wildlife, especially antelope, was seen as a major factor by most veterinarians and also by many farmers. Both groups identified the movement of livestock and wildlife as an increasingly important factor that should be of major concern for both industries because it leads to the avoidable spread of many diseases apart from heartwater. CONCLUSION: Movement controls should be reinstated and reinforced by vigorously enforced legislation. The role of genetically determined resistance or resilience to heartwater infection in ruminants should be investigated. Breeding better adapted animals could provide part of a sustainable approach to the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hidropericárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/psicologia , Cabras , Hidropericárdio/psicologia , Incidência , Percepção , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2965-2973, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661890

RESUMO

Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645099

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq. The objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify and assess the evidence and knowledge gaps in published studies that have examined brucellosis in different food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq; using systematic review approach, and (ii) to quantify the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the city using meta-analysis approach. Google Scholar was used as a search engine to track pertinent peer-reviewed research reports. The search was conducted on November 24, 2019. Keywords used were: brucella, animal, Mosul, Iraq. Peer-reviewed published studies, MSc theses, and PhD dissertations written in Arabic or English were included. Duplicate records were removed, and the screening process was conducted at three levels: titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Identified studies that have reported the seroprevalence of brucellosis were included in a meta-analysis to calculate an overall prevalence. A total of 214 records were initially identified. Seventeen research reports were added from personal contact and qualified articles' references list. Thirty six articles were qualified for review after removing 35 duplicate records, 155 titles, 11 abstracts, and 5 full text articles. Seventeen studies reported the prevalence of brucellosis, 11 studies assessed different serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis, 9 studies isolated Brucella spp. from animal specimens and/or animal products, and 4 studies assessed vaccination procedures against brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in food-producing animals in Mosul over a period of 40 years was 14.14%, including 14.46% for sheep, 12.99% for goats, 11.69% for cattle, and 22.64% for buffalo. The study concluded that the disease is evident in the city with increasing trends over the years, buffalo shows high seroprevalence, the degree of agreement of Rose-Bengal test as a screening test is fair compared to more accurate serological tests such as ELISA; and the disease constitutes a public health concern in the city. Additional studies are important to identify the overlooked predisposing factors, estimate the abortion rate attributable to brucellosis in food-producing animals, and evaluate efficacy of vaccination programs in reducing the prevalence of brucellosis and/or abortion rate.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 211-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592460

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and Fasciola spp. are common parasites among ruminants. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these parasites in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Sabzevar abattoir, from April 2014 to March 2016. Total of 1653 cattle and 26720 sheep were inspected for helminthic infections of liver and lung in different seasons. The prevalence rates were found to be 684 (2.55%) and 235 (14.21%) in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection rate of liver in cattle was estimated to be 5.86%, 0.84% and 5.68% for hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst in cattle was 1.81%. Moreover, the liver infection rate of sheep was estimated to be 0.87%, 0.06% and 2.13% with hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst was 0.35%. The rate of infection with D. dendriticum was higher in the both animals than the other parasites. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was high, which caused high economic losses. Therefore, sanitary and preventive measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocelíase , Equinococose , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 392-394, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556162

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to identify the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep herds from 3 municipalities from Jalisco, Mexico, as well as estimate the association between seroprevalence and certain factors presents in the farms. In total, 12 sheep farms that maintain only hair breeds were included in the work. From these farms, 336 blood samples were collected, corresponding 324 to ewes and 12 rams. Serum samples were subjected to ELISA test, and the association between the frequency of antibodies and some potential risk factors was estimated. The overall seroprevalence to anti-T. gondii antibodies in the population studied was 17.8% (60/336; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 14-22), all farms had positive animals, and the seroprevalence of antibodies ranged between 7 to 32%. Seroprevalence in specific municipalities was 18.7% in Lagos de Moreno, 17.8% in Encarnación de Díaz, and 16.9% in San Juan de los Lagos. Seroprevalence in ewes was 17.5% (57/324; 95% C.I. 13-22), and seroprevalence in rams was 25% (3/12; 95% C.I. 6-57), while among breeds it was 17.8% in Pelibuey (20/112; 95% C.I. 11-26), 16.6% in Kathadin (14/84; 95% C.I. 9-26), 15.4% in Blackbelly (13/84; 95% C.I. 8-25), and 23.2% in Dorper (13/56; 95% C.I. 13-36); no differences were observed among breeds (p < 0.05). The presence of cats on the farms was associated with seroprevalence (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% C.I. 1.8-7.3, p < 0.001), as was the absence of a rodent-control program (OR 1.5; 95% C.I. 0.8-3.2, p < 0.05). No other factors were identified as associated with seroprevalence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
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