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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMO

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857800

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of different cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha on the dynamics and concentration of the larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes in the soil and forage strata, as well as their effects on the performance of naturally infected lambs. Overall, 48 90-day-old lambs with an initial weight of 19.04 ± 0.96 kg were observed. Moreover, a randomised block factorial design with four cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Marandu, Xaraés, Piatã and Paiaguás grasses) under intermittent stocking (with a pre-grazing canopy height of 40 cm and post-grazing canopy height of 20 cm) for two grazing cycles was used. The following variables were analysed: faecal egg counting, faecal culture, mean corpuscular volume, FAMACHA© score, weight and body condition score, the recovery of larvae from pasture and soil samples, nutritional value and the production and structural components of forage. Lambs grazing Marandu grass demonstrated the highest level of nematode infection (P < 0.05). However, the nutritional value did not differ between cultivars. Marandu grass had the highest pasture density (P < 0.05), while Paiaguás grass had the highest percentage of dead material (P < 0.05). The various genera of gastrointestinal nematodes found in the faecal cultures, regardless of the cultivars, include Haemonchus (92.01%), Trichostrongylus (4.55%), Strongyloides (3.06%) and Oesophagostomum (0.37%). Lambs grazing Xaraés grass had the lowest body weight (P < 0.05). Furthermore, larvae concentrations were highest in Marandu and Paiaguás pastures; infective Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus larvae were recovered from pasture and soil samples. The different cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha produce diverse and relevant microclimatic conditions to contaminate soil, pastures and animals. Animal performance was not compromised despite the Marandu and Paiaguás cultivars having the highest levels of contamination and infection. Based on parasitological aspects, the Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Xaraés and Piatã are recommended for grass-based sheep production systems over the other cultivars since they contribute to the reduction of larval contamination and infection.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Meio Ambiente , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2965-2973, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661890

RESUMO

Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107957, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687847

RESUMO

The ruminant livestock production sector is under threat due to the infections with gastrointestinal nematode parasites and the subsequent development of anthelmintic resistance. One of most common and pathogenic species in small ruminants is Haemonchus contortus. The ability to control the infections with this and other gastrointestinal nematodes relies heavily on the use of anthelmintic drugs. Although resistance to all major classes of anthelmintics has been shown in H. contortus, the precise mechanism of resistance acquisition is only known for benzimidazoles. F200Y (TAC) is a common point mutation in the isotype 1 ß tubulin gene which is associated with an effective increase in the resistance towards benzimidazole drugs. Here, we show the utility of using this mutation as a marker in a droplet digital PCR assay to track how two H. contortus laboratory strains, characterized by different resistance levels, change with respect to this mutation, when subjected to increasing concentrations of thiabendazole. Additionally, we wanted to investigate whether exposure to a discriminating dose of thiabendazole in the egg hatch test resulted in the death of all H. contortus eggs with a susceptible genotype. We found the MHco5 strain to maintain an overall higher frequency of the F200Y mutation (80-100%) over all drug concentrations, whilst a steady, gradual increase from around 30%-60% was observed in the case of the MHco4 strain. This is further supported by the dose-response curves, displaying a much higher tolerance of the MHco5 strain (LD50 = 0.38 µg/ml) in comparison to the MHco4 strain (LD50 = 0.07 µg/ml) to the effects of thiabendazole. All things considered, we show that the F200Y mutation is still a viable and reliable marker for the detection and surveillance of benzimidazole drug resistance in H. contortus in Europe.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Haemonchus/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Tiabendazol/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/classificação , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2851-2862, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651637

RESUMO

The field strain of Haemonchus contortus has a long history of anthelmintic resistance. To understand this phenomenon, the benzimidazole resistance profile was characterized from the Malaysian field-resistant strain by integrating phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic approaches. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) demonstrated that benzimidazole resistance was at a critical level in the studied strain. The primary resistance mechanism was attributed to F200Y mutation in the isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene as revealed by AS-PCR and direct sequencing. Furthermore, the protein response of the resistant strain towards benzimidazole (i.e., albendazole) treatment was investigated via two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These investigations illustrated an up-regulation of antioxidant (i.e., ATP-binding region and heat-shock protein 90, superoxide dismutase) and metabolic (i.e., glutamate dehydrogenase) enzymes and down-regulation of glutathione S-transferase, malate dehydrogenase, and other structural and cytoskeletal proteins (i.e., actin, troponin T). Findings from this study are pivotal in updating the current knowledge on anthelmintic resistance and providing new insights into the defence mechanisms of resistant nematodes towards drug treatment.


Assuntos
Albendazol/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteômica , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574178

RESUMO

The abomasal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus can influence the abomasal microbiome of the host. On the other hand, no information occurs on the influence of the parasite on the hindgut microbiome of the host. We evaluated the impact of Haemonchus contortus on the fecal microbial community of the experimentally infected lambs treated with a mixture of medicinal herbs to ameliorate the haemonchosis. Twenty-four female lambs were divided into four groups: infected animals (Inf), infected animals supplemented with a blend of medicinal herbs (Inf+Herb), uninfected control animals (Control), and uninfected animals supplemented with medicinal herbs (C+Herb). Inf and Inf+Herb lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 L3 larvae of a strain of H. contortus susceptible to anthelmintics (MHco1). Herb blend (Herbmix) consisted of dry medicinal plants of Althaea officinalis, Petasites hybridus, Inula helenium, Malva sylvestris, Chamomilla recutita, Plantago lanceolata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Solidago virgaurea, Fumaria officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, Melisa officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia absinthium. Each animal was fed meadow hay and a commercial concentrate (600 + 350 g DM/d). Inf+Herb and C+Herb lambs were fed Herbmix (100 g DM/d and animal). Treatment lasted for 50 days. The fecal microbial fermentation parameters (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and pH) were evaluated at intervals of 0, 20, 32, and 50 days. The fecal eubacterial populations were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) at day 32 when H. contortus infection was the highest. No substantial effects of the H. contortus infection and the herbal treatment on fecal microbial fermentation parameters and fecal eubacterial populations were observed. Evaluation of DGGE patterns by Principal component analysis pointed to the tendency to branch the C+Herb group from the other experimental groups on Day 32. The results indicate that hindgut microbial activity was not disturbed by H. contortus infection and herbal treatment.


Assuntos
Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/microbiologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 392-394, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556162

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to identify the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep herds from 3 municipalities from Jalisco, Mexico, as well as estimate the association between seroprevalence and certain factors presents in the farms. In total, 12 sheep farms that maintain only hair breeds were included in the work. From these farms, 336 blood samples were collected, corresponding 324 to ewes and 12 rams. Serum samples were subjected to ELISA test, and the association between the frequency of antibodies and some potential risk factors was estimated. The overall seroprevalence to anti-T. gondii antibodies in the population studied was 17.8% (60/336; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 14-22), all farms had positive animals, and the seroprevalence of antibodies ranged between 7 to 32%. Seroprevalence in specific municipalities was 18.7% in Lagos de Moreno, 17.8% in Encarnación de Díaz, and 16.9% in San Juan de los Lagos. Seroprevalence in ewes was 17.5% (57/324; 95% C.I. 13-22), and seroprevalence in rams was 25% (3/12; 95% C.I. 6-57), while among breeds it was 17.8% in Pelibuey (20/112; 95% C.I. 11-26), 16.6% in Kathadin (14/84; 95% C.I. 9-26), 15.4% in Blackbelly (13/84; 95% C.I. 8-25), and 23.2% in Dorper (13/56; 95% C.I. 13-36); no differences were observed among breeds (p < 0.05). The presence of cats on the farms was associated with seroprevalence (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% C.I. 1.8-7.3, p < 0.001), as was the absence of a rodent-control program (OR 1.5; 95% C.I. 0.8-3.2, p < 0.05). No other factors were identified as associated with seroprevalence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2813-2819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583163

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract of various hosts. Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep may pose a threat to the survival and productivity, causing considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China are infected with Cryptosporidium. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in Yunnan province, China. A total of 590 fecal samples were obtained from black-boned goats and black-boned sheep from five counties in Yunnan province, and the prevalence and species distribution of Cryptosporidium were determined by amplification of the 18S rDNA fragment using the nested PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 13.2% (78/590), with 18.0% (55/305) in black-boned goats and 8.1% (23/285) in black-boned sheep. The age and sampling site were identified as main factors that result in significant differences in Cryptosporidium prevalence. Three species, namely C. muris, C. xiaoi, and C. ubiquitum, were identified in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in the present study, with C. muris (46/78) as the predominant species. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China, and the findings will facilitate better understanding, prevention, and control of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428186

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/parasitologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/urina , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/sangue , Tricostrongilose/urina , Tricostrongilose/veterinária
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109121, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361524

RESUMO

The search of novel strategies for anthelmintic control is a crucial need considering the widespread increase in resistant parasitic populations in livestock. Bioactive phytochemicals may contribute to improve parasite control by enhancing the effect of existing anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro pharmaco-chemical interaction and the in vivo efficacy of the combination of albendazole (ABZ) with thymol (TML) in lambs naturally infected with resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Thirty (30) lambs were allocated into three experimental groups. Each group was treated orally with either ABZ (5 mg/kg), TML (150 mg/kg, twice every 24 h) or the co-administration of both compounds. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 51 h post-treatment and TML, ABZ and its metabolites were measured by HPLC. Individual faecal samples were collected at days -1 and 14 post-treatment to perform the faecal egg count reduction test. Additionally, the effect of TML on the sulphoreduction and sulphonation of ABZ sulphoxide was assessed in vitro using ruminal content and liver microsomes, respectively. The metabolism of TML in the ruminal content was very low and the monoterpene exhibited a low degree of association with the particulate phase of the ruminal content. No changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ sulphoxide were observed in the presence of the natural product (TML). In contrast, the ABZ sulphone Cmax and AUC were lower (P 0.002 and 0.001 respectively) in the co-administered animals (0.16 ±â€¯0.07 µg/mL and 3.63 ±â€¯1.21 µg.h/mL) compared with those that received ABZ alone (0.45 ±â€¯0.15 µg/mL and 9.50 ±â€¯2.84 µg.h/mL). TML was detected in the bloodstream between 1 and 48 h post-treatment, which indicates the time of target nematodes being exposed to the bioactive monoterpene. However, the in vivo efficacy of TML was 0% and the presence of this terpene did not increase the efficacy of ABZ. The presence of TML significantly inhibited the ruminal sulphoreduction (P 0.001) and the hepatic sulphonation (P 0.001) of ABZ sulphoxide. These observations point out that in vivo pharmaco-parasitological studies are relevant to corroborate the adverse kinetic/metabolic interactions and the efficacy of bioactive natural products combined with synthetic anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 316-322, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330281

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection of humans and, more commonly, ruminants. It is caused by 2 liver fluke species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which differ in size. The traditional morphological methods used to distinguish the 2 species can be unreliable, particularly in the presence of hybrids between the 2 species. The development of advanced molecular methods has allowed for more definitive identification of Fasciola species, including their hybrids. Hybrids are of concern, as it is thought that they could acquire advantageous traits such as increased pathogenicity and host range. In 2013, we collected flukes from Fasciola-positive cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in 4 Chadian abattoirs. DNA from 27 flukes was extracted, amplified, and analyzed to identify species using the ITS1+2 locus. Twenty-six of the 27 flukes were identified as F. gigantica, while the remaining fluke showed heterozygosity at all variable sites that distinguish F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Cloning and sequencing of both alleles confirmed the presence of 1 F. hepatica and 1 F. gigantica allele. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous, molecular demonstration of the presence of such a hybrid in a bovine in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Quimera/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Chade , Quimera/classificação , Sequência Consenso , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola hepatica/classificação , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 47-54, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292002

RESUMO

Echinococcosis caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is known as an important zoonotic disease in various parts of the world, including Iran. The genetic diversity of this parasite is very high, particularly in areas where the disease is endemic. It has been suggested in the literature from different parts of the world that diverse factors, such as parasite life cycle, transmission pathways, pathologic disease, immunization, and disease control can be affected by the genetic diversity of the parasite. Various studies indicated sheep strain G1 as the most common genotype throughout the world. This strain is commonly found in the liver and lung repeatedly causing echinococcosis in humans, sheep, and cattle. The present study was conducted to determine the genetic affinity between the protoscolex of E. granulosus in humans and sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran for the first time. A total of 120 hydatid cyst samples were collected, 60 of which were from people who referred to the hospitals of East Azerbaijan and 60 were from the sheep slaughtered in Tabriz slaughterhouse. Following DNA extraction, certain regions of the cox1 gene were amplified and evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction. The replicated parts in all isolates had the same size of 450 bp. Electrophoresis was followed by selecting a total of 60 suitable samples, including 30 human samples and 30 sheep samples and sending them for genome sequencing. The overlap of the samples was investigated using the BLAST software. The results of BLAST, sequencing, and overlap demonstrated a genetic linkage of approximately 91.76% between the protoscolex of E. granulosus in human and sheep.


Assuntos
Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/genética , Ovinos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251964

RESUMO

Benzimidazoles (BZ) have been the anthelmintic of choice for controlling Nematodirus battus infections since their release in the 1950s. Despite heavy reliance on this single anthelmintic drug class, resistance was not identified in this nematode until 2010 (Mitchell et al., 2011). The study aimed to explore the prevalence of BZ-resistance mutations in N. battus from UK sheep flocks using deep amplicon sequencing and pyrosequencing platforms. Based on evidence from other gastrointestinal nematodes, resistance in N. battus is likely to be conferred by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the ß-tubulin isotype 1 locus at codons 167, 198 and 200. Pyrosequencing and deep amplicon sequencing assays were designed to identify the F167Y (TTC to TAC), E198A (GAA to GCA) and F200Y (TTC to TAC) SNPs. Nematodirus battus populations from 253 independent farms were analysed by pyrosequencing; 174 farm populations were included in deep amplicon sequencing and 170 were analysed using both technologies. F200Y was the most prevalent SNP identified throughout the UK, in 12-27% of the populations tested depending on assay, at a low overall individual frequency of 2.2 ±â€¯0.6% (mean ±â€¯SEM, based on pyrosequencing results). Four out of the five populations with high frequencies (>20%) of the F200Y mutation were located in NW England. The F167Y SNP was identified, for the first time in this species, in four of the populations tested at a low frequency (1.2% ±â€¯0.01), indicating the early emergence of the mutation. E198A or E198L were not identified in any of the isolates. Results obtained were comparable between both techniques for F200Y (Lins' CCC, rc = 0.96) with discrepancies being limited to populations with low frequencies. The recent emergence of resistance in this species will provide a unique opportunity to study the early stages of anthelmintic resistance within a natural setting and track its progress in the future.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Nematodirus/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Mutação , Nematodirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 360-368, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227225

RESUMO

Anaplasmosis is caused by a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium of the genus Anaplasma with the pathogen having a zoonotic impact. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Pakistan, to unravel the association of potential risk factors, and to investigate the effect on hematological parameters in affected small ruminants. A total of 150 (n = 75 sheep; n = 75 goats) blood samples were initially screened microscopically and then subjected to PCR targeting the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of Anaplasma. The PCR-based positive samples were then processed for sequencing. Statistical analysis regarding risk factors was performed using R software. The study revealed an overall 29.33% (44/150) prevalence of anaplasmosis in small ruminants. Sheep had higher (P > 0.05) prevalence (32%) as compared to goats (25.30%). The final statistical model resulting from backward elimination showed only tick infestation as a significant predictor of infection status. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. revealed 9 study isolates clustered together and showed a close resemblance (99%) with Anaplasma ovis isolate (DQ837600) from Hungary. One of the isolates showed (99%) similarity with the isolate of Anaplasma marginale (MH155594) from Iraq. Furthermore, the hematological parameters pack cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelet count were decreased in Anaplasma-positive animals. This is the first study at the molecular level to characterize Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants of Pakistan, and it will be useful in developing control strategies for anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/fisiologia , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores Sexuais , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/sangue , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107872, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165145

RESUMO

Theileriosis is a widespread and economically important disease of small ruminants in Pakistan. Ruminants are the intermediate hosts in the lifecycle of Theileria spp., with ticks of the family Ixodidae being the definitive hosts. To better understand the distribution and prevalence of theileriosis in Pakistan, a molecular survey was performed in small ruminants from the Lower Dir district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. A total of 200 healthy sheep and goats were screened from Maidan, Samar Bagh and Munda districts of district Dir Lower, Pakistan during December (2017) to April (2018). DNA samples were screened through nested PCR using universal primers. The amplified 492-498 bp amplicon was subjected to RLB analysis which was based on the hypervariable of the 18S rRNA gene to test for the presence of genotypes of Theileria in blood samples. A phylogeny was constructed to determine the species of Theileria genotypes. Nested PCR results indicated 53.5% prevalence of one or more Theileria genotypes in the blood of the host animal. From RLB assay, 27 animals (13.5%) showed infection with only a single species of Theileria while 80 animals (40%) showed coinfection by multiple Theileria spp. Based on the 18S rRNA phylogeny, the unknown genotype is of the species Theileria luwenshuni and is closely related to Chinese isolates. The present finding is the first report on molecular diagnosis of Theileria luwenshuni in small ruminants in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Distribuição por Idade , Análise de Variância , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hibridização Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Distribuição por Sexo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 279: 109060, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143013

RESUMO

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the period of spelling necessary for a pasture to become free of contamination by infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep, in different seasons of the year, as well as to determine when the greatest pasture contamination occurs and how long it lasts. An area was divided into four paddocks, one for each season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter). In order to contaminate the paddocks with free living stages of GIN, eight ewes, naturally infected, grazed on each paddock for 14 consecutive days, starting on the following dates: autumn, on April 4, 2017; winter, on July 4, 2017; spring, on September 26, 2017; summer, on January 2, 2019. At the beginning and end of the grazing period, faecal samples were taken directly from the rectums of the ewes to count eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and for faecal cultures. Every 14 days pasture samples were collected to assess the number of infective larvae (L3) per kilogram of dry matter. At the end of the 14 day ewe grazing period, 21 stakes were placed where there were faeces on the paddock. Subsequently, every 14 days, the faeces located at three of the stakes were collected and the L3 were recovered. After the exit of the ewes, monthly, two tracer lambs, free of helminth infection, were allocated into the paddock for 14 days. At the end of this period they were housed in covered stalls for 28 days. Faeces from the lambs were collected for individual EPG counting and faecal culture at 21 and 28 days after grazing. Infective larvae recuperation was observed from faeces and pasture in all seasons. In the autumn, spring, and summer, high EPG counts were observed in the first tracer lambs (8521, 4800, and 8064 EPG, respectively), while in winter, high infection (14132 EPG) of the animals was observed only from the second pair of tracer lambs. For a pasture to become "clean", 322 days, 350 days, 294 days, and 182 days following contamination were necessary, respectively, in the autumn, winter, spring, and summer. In autumn, spring, and summer, massive contamination of the pasture with L3 occurred soon after an area had been grazed by infected sheep, while in winter this took a little longer. The contamination persisted, approximately, from a minimum of six months post contamination in summer to up to almost one year post contamination in winter.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brasil , Fazendas , Fezes , Pradaria , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 278: 109040, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007679

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants around the world, seriously hampering the healthy development of the sheep industry. The control of this parasite mainly depends on anthelmintics, however, drug resistance of H. contortus has become a serious problems worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated that the E198A (GAA to GCA), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the isotype-1 ß-tubulin gene is associated with benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus. However, only PCR-RFLP and ARMS-PCR methods have been previously used for the detection of the E198A mutation. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established for rapid detection of the E198A SNP in H. contortus. The results showed that optimization of LAMP reaction reagents and conditions could achieve this. The resulting amplicons were visualized by adding hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB) prior to amplification. The color of LAMP products amplified without DNA or from DNA from worms with the E198A homozygous susceptible genotype was still violet, but the products with DNA from worms with the E198A heterozygous genotype or the E198A resistant homozygous genotype changed to sky blue. The specificity of this method was further verified by sequencing, which confirmed the successful LAMP detection of the E198A mutation with high specificity. In conclusion, the developed LAMP method has high specificity and good reproducibility for screening the E198A SNP of isotype-1 ß-tubulin gene of H. contortus of field samples without using sophisticated equipment, providing useful technique for the rapid detection and thus prevention and control of benzimidazole resistant H. contortus infections.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/análise , Animais , China , Genes de Helmintos , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Ovinos
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049139

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Nanocápsulas/toxicidade , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Roedores , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 109-123, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029178

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and Fascioloides magna are liver flukes causing disease in cattle and sheep. Damage to the liver due to F hepatica and F gigantica results in clinical disease and/or production losses. F magna seems to have little effect in cattle but causes high mortality in sheep. The fluke life cycle involves an aquatic or amphibious snail intermediate host and thus requires suitable moisture and temperature conditions. F magna requires the presence of deer. Drug treatment is the mainstay of control and needs to be applied considering the life cycle and epidemiology of the parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
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