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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 19-29, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090203

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is widespread in warm-blooded animals and humans. Currently, many studies regarding T. gondii infection in sheep have been published worldwide. However, there is no meta-analysis of sheep infection in China. In this study, five databases were used to retrieve articles related to T. gondii in China. A total of 59 studies from 1987 to June 30, 2020, have been included. We estimated that the combined prevalence of T. gondii in the selected period was 8.5% (3197/28,099). In the analysis of publication year, the lowest positive rate after 2010 was 7.4% (1883/17,313). Geographically, the highest prevalence of T. gondii in sheep was recorded in Southwest China 19.2% (490/2080). Analysis according to age showed that the prevalence of infection in sheep older than 12 months was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in younger animals. The prevalence of T. gondii in sheep farmed by farmers was 7.2% (566/6336), which was higher than 5.3% (660/3121) of large-scale farming, suggesting a role for the feeding and husbandry. We also analyzed the impact of different geographic and climatic factors on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep. The results showed that the prevalence was higher in low altitude, warm, humid, and high rainfall areas. We suggest that appropriate control programs should be formulated according to the differences in reproduction patterns and geographical conditions in different regions to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii among sheep in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 429, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease and has a great general and economic health importance in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, this systematic and meta-analytic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran. METHODS: The present study was conducted as a systematic review and meta-analysis. The SID & Magiran, MEDLINE (PubMed), ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched with a view to selecting relevant research works. As a result, 31 articles published from April 1970 to April 2020 were selected. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data analysis was conducted within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA) v.3.0 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA) and Arc map (ArcGIS 10.3) software. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using the I2 test which value was 99% showing a high heterogeneity in the studies. The results of publication bias in studies were evaluated by the Egger test, which were not statistically significant (P = 0.144). The overall prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran is 13.9% (95%CI: 10.7-17.7%). The results of the meta-regression analysis indicate the increasing trend of the hydatid cyst prevalence with the increase of sample size and publication year (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study and the relatively high prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran, health policy makers should make effective decisions in this regard, and implement careful inspections and interventions by experts and health authorities.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gado , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Acta Trop ; 219: 105920, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861973

RESUMO

The synthesis of thiophenic compounds, previously identified in Tagetes patula, revealed that 4-(5'-(hydroxymethyl)-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)but-3-yn-1-ol), or simply Thio1, has a pronounced in vitro anthelmintic effect against Haemonchus contortus, showing 100% efficacy in the egg hatch and larval development tests presenting EC50 = 0.1731 mg.mL-1 and EC50 = 0.3243 mg.mL-1, respectively. So, this compound was selected to preparation of a nanostructured formulation to be orally administered to Santa Inês sheep. In general, from the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it was observed that the product kept the parasitic load in the digestive tract of the hosts stable, with eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) counts having a mean value < 3,000 (EPGmean = 2167.1, efficacy = 36,45%), thus protecting the animals from health risks caused by a massive nematode infestation. To better understand the mode of action of this thiophene derivative, in silico molecular modeling studies were carried out with the glutamate-activated chloride channel (GluCl), a well-known molecular target of anthelmintic compounds. Based on the affinity score (GlideScore = -5.7 kcal.mol-1) and the proposed binding mode, Thio1 could be classified as a potential GluCl ligand, justifying the promising results observed in the anthelmintic assays.


Assuntos
Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Tiofenos/química , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Asteraceae/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
4.
Vet Rec ; 188(5): e73, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nematodirus battus infection is a major health concern in lambs. Development and hatch of infective larvae on pastures is temperature dependent, making model-based risk forecasting a useful tool for disease control. METHODS: Air and 30 cm soil temperature-based risk models were used to predict hatch dates using meteorological data from 2019 and compared to infection dates, estimated from the first appearance of N. battus eggs, on 18 sheep farms distributed across Great Britain. RESULTS: The air temperature model was more accurate in its predictions than the soil temperature model on 12 of the 18 farms, but tended to predict late hatch dates in the early part of the season. CONCLUSION: Overall, the air temperature model appears the more appropriate choice for predicting N. battus peak hatch in the UK in terms of accuracy and practicality, but some adjustment might be needed to account for microclimatic variations at the soil-air interface.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Nematodirus , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Ar , Animais , Fazendas , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Solo , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 5-10, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685061

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis in sheep slaughtered in a private slaughterhouse in Konya and to estimate the economic loss incurred because of the disease. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 12 months between 1 June 2018 and 31 May 2019. Given that the aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis, only the livers of 41,002 sheep were examined for hydatid cysts. Results: The liver of 810 (1.97%) sheep was found to be infected with hydatid cysts during the study period. The infection rate was determined as 5.34% in animals older than one year of age and 1.68% in animals less than one year of age. Regardless of the age group, the highest infection rate was found in autumn (3.34%), while the lowest infection rate was seen in spring (0.84%). In the sheep, the highest infection rate was in December (17.2%), and in lambs, it was in June (2.9%). On the other hand, the lowest infection rate in sheep was observed in November (1.8%), while the lowest infection rate in lambs was found in April (0.7%). The total economic loss incurred due to the annihilated livers was estimated as 36,450 TL (6.417$). Regardless of the number of cysts and degree of infection, the infected livers were completely discarded. The economic loss incurred due to the discarded livers was estimated by considering the 2019 offal prices. Conclusion: Based on the data obtained from this study, it could be concluded that hydatidosis still exists in Konya as well as throughout Turkey and that it causes serious economic loss.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Equinococose Hepática/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose Hepática/economia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Carne/economia , Carne/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1493-1497, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587159

RESUMO

The aim of this experiment was to determine the yield of Haemonchus contortus third-stage larvae (L3) in faecal cultures in different conditions, including incubation time (7 or 14 days), the addition of inert additives (polystyrene pellets, vermiculite or no additive) and physical condition of the incubated faeces (ground or whole pellets). Twelve groups of 10 cultures each were arranged and incubated at 24 °C to evaluate the interaction of the above-mentioned conditions. Significantly, more L3 (p=0.0019 to p=0.0200) were recovered from cultures incubated for 7 days than for 14 days, except for the groups containing whole pellets with no additives (p=0.53) or with vermiculite (p=0.41). Larval yields from 7-day incubated cultures did not differ between groups (p=0.47), but for the whole pellets with vermiculite group, which yielded significantly less L3 (p<0.0001) than the rest of the cultures. Incubation for 14 days showed that cultures containing whole pellets with no additives yielded significantly more L3 (p<0.05) than the rest. Culturing faeces with H. contortus seems not to require inert additives or extra manipulation to obtain good L3 yields.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Meios de Cultura , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1499-1504, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594621

RESUMO

Dicrocoeliosis is a trematode infection in cattle, sheep and goats caused by the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium spp. Though endemic in Ghana, its disease situation is poorly understood. In the present study, the prevalence, distribution and worm load of Dicrocoelium spp. in cattle at slaughter in Wa were determined. A total of 389 cattle were screened during meat inspection for liver flukes, and polymerase chain reaction accompanied by DNA sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene was used to identify Dicrocoelium spp. Generally, prevalence of bovine dicrocoeliosis (small liver fluke) stood at 19.54 % with prevalence in males and females being 17.62 % and 21.43 %, respectively. Animals under 2 years suffered more infection than older ones (23.08 % vs. 16.80 %). Dicrocoelium infection was recorded in animals from all the communities where slaughtered cattle came from. On average, 31 flukes per infected animal were recorded. A molecular confirmatory test on seven flukes identified them as D. hospes. This preliminary study highlights the importance of bovine dicrocoeliosis in Ghana and has identified D. hospes as a causal agent. The data provides basis for further studies to appraise the trematode disease situation in animals and phylogeny of Dicrocoelium spp. circulating in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/parasitologia , Dicrocoelium/anatomia & histologia , Dicrocoelium/classificação , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/normas , Carga Parasitária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 23-28, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498082

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode infection of small ruminants causes losses in livestock production. Plant compounds show promises as alternatives to commercial anthelmintics that have been exerting selective pressures that lead to the development of drug-resistant parasites. Soybean (Glycine max) is an economical value crop, with a higher protein content compared to other legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the protease inhibitors exuded from the G. max mature seeds have anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. To obtain the soybean exudates (SEX), mature seeds were immersed in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, at 10 C, for 24 hr. Then the naturally released substances present in SEX were collected and exhaustively dialyzed (cutoff 12 kDa) against distilled water. The dialyzed seed exudates (SEXD) were heated at 100 C for 10 min and centrifuged (12,000 g, at 4 C for 15 min). The supernatant obtained was recovered and designated as the heat-treated exudate fraction (SEXDH). The protein content, protease inhibitor activity, and the effect of each fraction on H. contortus egg hatch rate were evaluated. The inhibition extent of SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH on H. contortus egg proteases was 31.1, 42.9, and 63.8%, respectively. Moreover, SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH inhibited the egg hatching with EC50 of 0.175, 0.175, and 0.241 mg ml-1, respectively. Among the commercial protease inhibitors tested, only EDTA and E-64 inhibited the H. contortus hatch rate (79.0 and 28.9%, respectively). We present evidence demonstrating that soybean exudate proteins can effectively inhibit H. contortus egg hatching. This bioactivity is displayed by thermostable proteins and provides evidence that protease inhibitors are a potential candidate for anthelmintic use.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Animais , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/enzimologia , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Soja/química
9.
Vet J ; 268: 105602, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468301

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a cause of significant losses in animal production worldwide. In recent years, there have been important advances in the biological control of GIN of ruminants and horses. While these measures are still relatively under-utilised in practice, interest will undoubtedly grow due to the emergence of drug resistant parasite populations, the rise in demand for organically farmed products (which does not allow prophylactic use of drugs, including anthelmintics) and legislation, which regulates and restricts the use of anthelmintics. This review provides an overview of the most promising biocontrol agents of GIN of grazing animals including nematophagous fungi, dung beetles, earthworms, predacious nematodes and nematophagous mites. Recent advancements in these fields are evaluated, and the potential reasons for the delayed development and slow uptake of biocontrol agents are discussed. It is now widely believed that no method of GIN control is sustainable alone, and a combination of strategies (i.e. integrated pest management) is required for long term, effective parasite control. This review shows that, although their efficacies are lower than those of conventional anthelmintics, biological control agents are an important adjunct to traditional GIN control.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 82, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411066

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of plantain herb (Plantago lanceolata L.) supplementation on growth, plasma metabolites, liver enzymatic activity, hormonal status, gastrointestinal parasites, and carcass characteristics of lambs. A total of 24 lambs, aged 6 months weighing 8.0 ± 0.5 kg were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: (1) CL diet-roadside grass and concentrate mixture; (2) PL diet-CL diet + 5% fresh plantain supplementation on a DM basis. The PL diet group exhibited 23% higher (P = 0.01) average daily gain and 15% improved (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency. Circulating cholesterol concentrations were suppressed by 9% (P = 0.03), and liver enzyme activity was improved by 5-25% (P < 0.05) in the lamb fed PL diet, compared with CL diet only. The inclusion of plantain in the diet was highly effective at suppressing the parasites, Paramphistomum spp. (P = 0.003) and coccidial parasites (P = 0.04), but not stomach worms. Moreover, plantain supplementation increased growth hormone and insulin concentrations in plasma level, whereas decreased carcass fat by 32.7%. Therefore, supplementation of the lambs' diet with plantain showed some beneficial effects on productivity and parasitic infection, while it led to a leaner carcass.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Carne/análise , Plantago/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 1097-1102, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415400

RESUMO

The diversity of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) infesting domestic animals in Tchicala-Tcholoanga, Angola, in 2016 was investigated. Seventeen tick species were recorded, Amblyomma pomposum being the most abundant on cattle (40%), goats (38%) and sheep (35%); Rhipicephalus turanicus was the most abundant on dogs (46%). This study presents new records of Haemaphysalis paraleachi, R. compositus, R. kochi and R. sulcatus in Angola, the first georeferenced population of Ha. leachi in southern Africa and the second record of R. microplus in Angola. Using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assay, fifteen TBP species were detected in blood samples from cattle (n = 88), goats (n = 82), sheep (n = 85) and dogs (n = 85). F The most frequently detected species were Theileria velifera in cattle (78%), Theileria ovis in sheep (80%) and Babesia vogeli in dogs (35%). Species-specific quantitative PCR assays detected Babesia bigemina in 43% (35/80) of blood samples of cattle, while E. ruminantium was detected in 4% (3/70) of blood samples and in 7% of A. pomposum ticks. Anaplasma platys was detected from cattle (18%) and sheep (6%) during RLB analysis. These findings constitute pioneering research in Angola.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Angola/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Gado , Masculino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/fisiologia
12.
Parasite ; 28: 3, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416491

RESUMO

This study was conducted in four districts (Malakand, Swat, Bajaur and Shangla) of Northern Pakistan to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors and phylogenetic analyses of Theileria and Anaplasma species in small ruminants. A total of 800 blood samples, 200 from each district, were collected from apparently healthy animals. PCR assays were performed using generic primers for Anaplasma spp. and Theileria spp. as well as species specific primers for A. ovis and T. ovis. Overall infection prevalence was 361/800 (45.1%). Theileria spp. infection prevalence (187/800, 23.3%) was higher than Anaplasma spp. (174/800, 21.7%). Amplified partial 18S rRNA genes were sequenced and enrolled animals were found to be infected by T. ovis (115/800, 14.3%), and at least two more Theileria species (72/800, 9%) were present (T. lestoquardi and T. annulata). All blood samples that were found to be positive for Anaplasma spp. were also positive for A. ovis. Infection prevalence was higher in sheep (227/361, 28.3%) compared to goats (134/361, 16.6%) (p < 0.005). Univariable analysis of risk factors showed that host, age, grazing system and acaricide treatment were significant determinants (p < 0.05) for both Theileria and Anaplasma infections. Multivariable analysis revealed that host, sex, age, tick infestation and grazing system were significant risk factors (p < 0.005) for both pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed variants among the A. ovis and T. annulata samples analysed, indicating that different genotypes are circulating in the field while T. ovis presented the same genotype for the samples analysed.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Theileriose , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 289: 109321, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276290

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica (the liver fluke) is a common, global parasite of livestock. It can be highly pathogenic and has health and welfare implications for infected individuals. Typically, in ruminants, infections are sub-clinical, but if undiagnosed, they can lead to significant production losses. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to identify infection. Antibody detection ELISAs are commonly used to diagnose infection due to their high sensitivity and specificity and are typically based on native fluke excretory/secretory (ES) products or cathepsin L1 (CL1), the immunodominant antigen within ES products. These tests have been developed based on the antibody response of experimentally infected animals; however, this response has not been well characterised in naturally infected animals. We compared the antibody recognition of a recombinant CL1 (rCL1) antigen and native adult fluke ES products. Whilst samples from experimentally infected animals showed strong recognition of rCL1, serum antibodies from naturally infected animals did not. These results were confirmed by peptide array. Immunoblotting sera against ES products showed that experimentally infected animals had a strong, specific response to CL1/CL2 proteins whilst antibodies from naturally infected animals recognised multiple proteins and had a variable response to CL1/CL2. Mass spectrometry of proteins separated by 2D SDS PAGE, identified several antigens recognised by serum antibodies from a naturally infected cow, including cathepsins L1, L2 and L5, glutathione S-transferase and a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. Overall, these results show that the antibody response in naturally infected animals to adult fluke ES products is qualitatively different to experimentally infected animals. This suggests that a diagnostic test based on CL1 alone may not be appropriate for diagnosis of natural F. hepatica infections in sheep and cattle.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 289: 109317, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246235

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are responsible for a major impact on ruminant welfare. Although the available anthelmintics have a safe margin of toxicity to the animals, their indiscriminate use has increased the selection of resistant parasite populations. In this scenario, essential oils (EO) stand out as a promising ecofriendly therapeutic alternative against GIN. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the EO of Mentha villosa Hubs (MVEO) collected in 2017 and 2018, M. x piperita (MPEO) and their main components, carvone and limonene, against the third stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. The solutions, including in nanoemulsion preparations, were tested in a range of concentrations using the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT). The EO and carvone were also tested in combination with nitroxynil (NTX) to determine their effect as drug enhancers (additive or synergy). MVEO/2017, MVEO/2018, MPEO and carvone showed 70.6 (73.4 mg/mL), 86.3 (74.9 mL/mL), 95.5 (143.6 mg/mL), and 88.2 % (38.3 mg/mL) efficacy against L3, respectively. Carvone alone had approximately a 3-fold higher efficacy when compared to its concentration in each EO: 68.8 % in MVEO/2017 and 83.9 % in MVEO/2018. Limonene did not show any significant effect on inhibiting L3 migration. The combination of MPEO and NTX, and carvone and NTX showed a statistically significantly (P <  0.05) synergic and additive effect, respectively, when compared to the isolated treatment. The nanoemulsion of MVEO/2017 at 0.367 mg/mL, inhibited L3 migration by 83.1 %, demonstrating to be highly effective (concentration ratio of 1:0.004), when compared to the MVEO/2017 (70.6 % at 73.4 mg/mL) extraction. The in vitro data from the combination of MPEO or carvone plus NTX suggest that these products can be considered for in vivo experiments against the most important GIN of ruminants as drug enhancers, possibly reducing the final concentration of NTX`. The efficacy of carvone was higher (EC50 = 1.96 mg/mL) than its expected efficacy, based on its concentrations on both EO. Therefore, this component does not need the entire EO composition to exert its L3 motility action. The remarkable efficacy demonstrated by the MVEO/2017/nanoemulsion (EC50 = 0.10 mg/mL), supports its potential to be a candidate to the next-generation therapy to alleviate clinical parasite infections and combat GIN resistant populations.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Mentha/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/administração & dosagem , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Limoneno/administração & dosagem , Limoneno/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Nitroxinila/administração & dosagem , Nitroxinila/química , Nitroxinila/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 1115-1120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179152

RESUMO

This study describes early immunological mechanisms that underlie resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in adult Churra sheep. After a first experimental infection, 6 animals were classified as resistant (RG) and 6 as susceptible (SG) to T. circumcincta infection based on their cumulative faecal egg count (cFEC) at the end of the infection. RG showed higher IgA levels against somatic antigen of T. circumcincta fourth-larvae stage (L4) in serum at day 3 post-infection (pi) (p < 0.05) and close to significance at day 21 pi (p = 0.06). Moreover, a strong negative correlation between cFEC and specific IgA was only significant in RG at day 3 pi (r = - 0.870; p < 0.05), but absent in SG. At the end of this infection, sheep were treated with moxidectin and infected again 3 weeks later to be slaughtered at day 7 pi. At necropsy, the specific IgA levels in gastric mucosa were similar between groups; the absence differences at day 7 pi could be due to a previous increase in the IgA response, probably around day 3 pi, as described during the first infection. L4 burden, 68% lower in RG than in SG, was influenced by the specific IgA in gastric mucus and the number of γδ T cells. RG group showed a positive correlation between γδ T cells and eosinophils (r = 0.900; p = 0.037); however, this correlation was not found in SG. These results show that these two phenotypes show different early immune response pattern to T. circumcincta infection in Churra sheep.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/imunologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos/classificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Trichostrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricostrongiloidíase/genética , Tricostrongiloidíase/imunologia
16.
Parasitol Int ; 80: 102219, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160051

RESUMO

Sarcocystosis is a parasitic disease caused by intracellular coccidian protozoans that belong to the genus Sarcocystis. These parasites can cause diseases of the nervous system, abortion and economically significant losses in host animals. Previous studies have reported that Sarcocystis is found in mammals, birds and reptiles, while molecular and morphological studies of infected Tibetan sheep have not been performed in the Qinghai region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in Tibetan sheep in Qinghai, northwestern China. The results showed that in 1155 samples, sarcocysts from unspecified species were found in 50% (577/1155) of the sheep tissues by microscopy detection. The positive rates of sarcocysts in the diaphragmatic, esophageal and cardiac muscles were 78.4% (175/223), 29.1% (207/711), and 88.2% (195/221), respectively. Ultrastructural features were exclusively observed in Sarcocystis gigantea in the esophageal tissues. The specific architecture was characterized as a space between the two layers of the original capsule wall, which was filled with fiber bundles and tissue fluid. Cauliflower-like protrusions of the original capsule wall were observed toward the outer surface of the capsule. Prominent protrusions contained fibers and matrix. In addition, the Sarcocystis 18S rRNA genes from 6 esophageal tissue samples were cloned, sequenced, and aligned to related sequences from GenBank. All 5 S. gigantea sequences examined in this study were grouped into the same cluster and belonged to the same genotype. The other 5 Sarcocystis tenella sequences were obtained from cardiac muscle and diaphragm muscle and belonged to the same clade. Overall, this study revealed a high infection rate of Sarcocystis in Tibetan sheep in the region. The results of this study may provide a reference for further research investigating the sarcocystosis epidemic in Qinghai, China.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Sarcocystis/fisiologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sarcocystis/citologia , Sarcocystis/ultraestrutura , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
Gene ; 770: 145345, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333217

RESUMO

Selective breeding of genetically resistant animals is considered a promising strategy to face the problem of nematode resistance to anthelmintics and mitigate concerns about the presence of chemical residues in animal food products and the environment. Gastrointestinal nematode resistance is a complex, multifactorial trait related to host immunity. However, the mechanisms underlying host resistance and response to infection remain to be fully elucidated. In this context, the objective of this study was to provide insight into the chromosomal regions determining nematode resistance and resilience in Corriedale and resistance in Pampinta sheep breeds. A total of 170 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 76 candidate genes for immune response were studied in 624 Corriedale and 304 Pampinta animals. Lambs underwent artificial or natural challenges with infective larvae mainly from Haemonchus contortus. Fecal egg counts, estimated breeding values for fecal egg counts, and rate of packed cell volume change and FAMACHA© score change over the challenge were used, when available, as indicators of host parasite resistance or resilience. Phenotype-genotype association studies were conducted and significance values obtained were adjusted for multiple testing errors. Eight SNPs, located on OARs 3, 6, 12, and 20, reached significance in Corriedale sheep under artificial challenge. Those SNP represent allelic variants from the MHC-Ovine Lymphocyte Antigen-DRA, two C-type lectin domain families, the Interleukin 2 receptor ß, the Toll-like receptor 10, the Mannan binding lectin serine peptidase 2, and the NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 genes. On Pampinta lambs under natural challenge, we found three significant SNPs, located in the TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3, the FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog, and the Interleukin 20 receptor alpha genes, on OARs 3, 7, and 8, respectively. The results obtained herein confirm genomic regions previously reported as associated with nematode resistance in other sheep breeds, reinforcing their role in host response to parasites. These findings contribute to gain knowledge on parasite resistance and resilience in Corriedale sheep and report for the first time SNPs associated with resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections in Pampinta breed.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Hemoncose/genética , Haemonchus , Helmintíase Animal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Argentina , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 289: 109339, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359968

RESUMO

Our current understanding of differences in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species in co-grazed sheep and goats is inadequate with reference to the development of sustainable control strategies. The next-generation metabarcoding sequencing method referred to as the 'nemabiome' allows some of these differences to be explored to describe the intensity of co-infecting GIN species. We applied this platform to study sheep and goats that were co-grazed on Guinea grass pasture in northeastern Brazil. Co-grazed goats and sheep were treated with a monepantel anthelmintic, then exposed to the same gastrointestinal nematode species. Overall, there were differences in the prevalence of GIN species identified in the sheep and goats; Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta predominated in goat kids, while Haemonchus contortus predominated in adult does, ewes and lambs once burdens became re-established after anthelmintic treatment. Description of the pattern of re-infection following anthelmintic treatment was prevented by the unpredicted poor efficacy of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively, of monepantel against O. columbianum and T. circumcincta in lambs, and T. circumcincta adult does. Differences in drug efficacy between host age and species groups may be important when considering sustainable GIN control strategies for co-grazed animals. The aggregated FECs of the adult does and goat kids representing re-established GIN burdens, were higher than those of the co-grazed adult ewes and lambs. This implies that there are inherent differences in GIN species adaptation to the two naïve small ruminant host species, and shows the need for better understanding of the factors giving rise to this situation associated with exposure to infective larvae and host responses. At the start of the study, the adult does were co-infected with several GIN species, with the highest intensity of T. circumcincta, contrasting with the situation in the adult ewes, in which H. contortus predominated. However, once burdens became re-established after treatment, H. contortus predominated in both adult does and ewes. This demonstrates the potential for host burdens of H. contortus to establish and predominate after anthelmintic treatment when burdens of co-infecting GIN species are low.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Aminoacetonitrila/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genômica , Cabras , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 446, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma and Fasciola are zoonotic parasites of public health and veterinary importance. However, while the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in humans is well studied, little is known about fascioliasis and schistosomiasis in livestock in Côte d'Ivoire. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the distribution of livestock schistosomiasis and fascioliasis across Côte d'Ivoire. In 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in abattoirs and farms in 13 departments of Côte d'Ivoire. In abattoirs, the mesenteric veins and livers of slaughtered cattle, sheep and goats were examined for adult Schistosoma and Fasciola flukes. Faeces from live cattle, goats and sheep were collected and examined for Schistosoma and Fasciola eggs using a sedimentation technique. RESULTS: A total of 386 cattle, 174 goats and 151 sheep from abattoirs and 435 cattle, 22 goats and 176 sheep from farms were sampled. The observed prevalence of schistosomiasis was higher in slaughtered animals. Fascioliasis was more prevalent in farm animals. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in slaughtered cattle varied between 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-19.7%) and 53.3% (95% CI: 37.9-68.3%) with the highest prevalence observed in Ouangolodougou in the North. Cattle from farms had a relatively low prevalence of schistosomiasis, with the highest prevalence found in Ouangolodougou (2.4%, 95% CI: 0.7-6.1%). The prevalence of fascioliasis varied considerably from one department to another, ranging from nil (95% CI: 0.0-18.5%) to 50.8% (95% CI: 43.4-58.2%), with the highest prevalence found in farm cattle in Dikodougou in the North. Sheep and goats had a lower prevalence of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis than cattle. In slaughtered animals, cattle aged 4 years and older were at highest risk for schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR): 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.6) and fascioliasis (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9). In farm animals, male cattle had higher odds of being infected with Schistosoma (OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 0.7-26.9) than females. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that schistosomiasis and fascioliasis are endemic in livestock across Côte d'Ivoire. A strategic control programme should be considered, especially for cattle, including providing drinking water in troughs to reduce faecal contamination of water sources by cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Ovinos
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 25, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219890

RESUMO

Consistent quantification of trypanosomes, the parasite responsible for African animal trypanosomosis, is important for effective surveillance, control, and eradication strategies. Here, we used a rigorously predefined protocol to search and select eligible publications that utilized either microscopy, serology, or molecular methods to investigate prevalence of trypanosomosis based on the presence of any of three most common Trypanosoma spp. (T. congolense, T. vivax, and T. brucei) in the field-based naturally grazed Gambian cattle, sheep, and goats. To combine results of studies on cattle through meta-analysis, sensitivity and subgroup analyses were carried out with the random effects model, and prevalence estimates of each study with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented with a forest plot. All the eligible studies utilized the buffy coat technique (BCT) to detect trypanosomes in the blood samples, while the more sensitive serological and molecular detection methods are yet to be widely exploited. Heterogeneity among the studies on cattle was moderate (I2 = 55%), and the pooled trypanosomosis prevalence based on the BCT was 5.2% (95% CI: 4.0-6.4). Meanwhile, estimated prevalence varied according to the trypanosome detection methods, study locations, types of publication, year, and length of observations. We could not pool the trypanosomosis prevalence in sheep and goats through meta-analysis due to small number of studies. The prevalence estimates based on the BCT ranged from 3.2 to 8.1% in goats and 2.8 to 10.6% in sheep. Even though there seems to be a slight decrease in trypanosomosis prevalence in cattle in one of the Gambian districts, there was no consistent trend across the years. It is thought that the literature search and formatting procedures presented in this study contribute to doing systematic reviews on the investigated subject and can be adapted for similar cases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Tripanossomíase Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/fisiologia , Trypanosoma congolense/fisiologia , Trypanosoma vivax/fisiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Bovina/parasitologia
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