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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMO

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMO

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Cabras , Ovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
3.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466238

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease that threatens more than 1.74 billion goats and sheep in approximately 70 countries globally. In 2015, the international community set the goal of eradicating PPR by 2030, and, since then, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have jointly developed and implemented the Global Control and Eradication Strategy for PPR. Here, data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), the OIE World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), Regional Roadmap Meetings, and countries' responses to PPR Monitoring and Assessment Tool (PMAT) questionnaires were analyzed to inform on current progress towards PPR eradication. OIE recorded the use of over 333 million doses of vaccine in 12 countries from 2015 to 2018, 41.8% of which were used in Asia and 58.2% in Africa. Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 12,757 PPR outbreaks were reported to OIE: 75.1% in Asia, 24.8% in Africa, and 0.1% in Europe. The number of global outbreaks in 2019 fell to 1218, compared with 3688 in 2015. Analysis of vaccine use and PPR outbreaks in countries indicates that disease control strategies, particularly vaccination campaigns and vaccine distribution strategies, still require scientific evaluation. It is imperative that vaccination is undertaken based on the epidemiology of the disease in a region and is coordinated between neighboring countries to restrict transboundary movements. Strengthening surveillance and post-vaccination sero-monitoring at the national level is also essential. The PPR vaccine stock/bank established by FAO, OIE, and other partners have improved the quality assurance and supply of vaccines. However, to achieve PPR eradication, filling the funding gap for vaccination campaigns and other program activities will be critical.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Saúde Global , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 82, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411066

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of plantain herb (Plantago lanceolata L.) supplementation on growth, plasma metabolites, liver enzymatic activity, hormonal status, gastrointestinal parasites, and carcass characteristics of lambs. A total of 24 lambs, aged 6 months weighing 8.0 ± 0.5 kg were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: (1) CL diet-roadside grass and concentrate mixture; (2) PL diet-CL diet + 5% fresh plantain supplementation on a DM basis. The PL diet group exhibited 23% higher (P = 0.01) average daily gain and 15% improved (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency. Circulating cholesterol concentrations were suppressed by 9% (P = 0.03), and liver enzyme activity was improved by 5-25% (P < 0.05) in the lamb fed PL diet, compared with CL diet only. The inclusion of plantain in the diet was highly effective at suppressing the parasites, Paramphistomum spp. (P = 0.003) and coccidial parasites (P = 0.04), but not stomach worms. Moreover, plantain supplementation increased growth hormone and insulin concentrations in plasma level, whereas decreased carcass fat by 32.7%. Therefore, supplementation of the lambs' diet with plantain showed some beneficial effects on productivity and parasitic infection, while it led to a leaner carcass.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Carne/análise , Plantago/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569297

RESUMO

Trade in animals and animal products is a key factor in the transmission of infectious diseases. Livestock traders play an important role in this process, yet there is little knowledge of traders' perceptions of animal disease or their associated actions. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and practices of Zambian small ruminant traders with regard to sheep and goat health and disease. It also analysed how existing perceptions and practices might affect risks of disease transmission through trade. A case study was performed at the two largest small livestock markets in Zambia: the Lusaka market in the capital and the Kasumbalesa market near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. Semi-structured interviews with 47 traders performed in April-May and September 2018 represent the core material. Zambian small ruminant traders frequently trade animals that have clinical signs of disease, either because they appear unaware or indifferent to the associated risks, experience financial constraints or assign responsibility for disease prevention to other value chain actors. In their decision about whether or not to sell a visibly sick small ruminant, traders appear to consider whether the clinical sign is perceived as 'natural' or the result of an illness, whether the buyer is aware of the animal's health condition, and whether the animal is sold for consumption or breeding purposes. Traders appear to regard the veterinary certificate required to transport small ruminants in Zambia as proof of health, placing the responsibility for potential disease in traded animals on the veterinary authorities. In their description of a model trader, taking good care of and being sensitive to customer needs was emphasized, indicating that an efficient way to encourage traders to change their behaviour is to influence customer demands. In contrast to the focus in previous studies on identifying and filling knowledge gaps, the present study show that lack of knowledge is not central to why traders engage in disease-transmitting behaviour. Greater awareness of other reasons for certain perceptions and practices could lead to the formulation of risk communication strategies and mitigation measures that are relevant for the local context, as well as alternative strategies for changing trader behaviour.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
7.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 478-485, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A producer survey by questionnaire assessed supplements used in sheep and reasons for use. This was followed by field trials on eight sheep properties in SE NSW to determine the effect of commonly used commercially available supplements on growth rates of Merino and crossbred lambs. DESIGN: On each property, 450 lambs were selected at weaning and randomly allocated to nine groups of 50 sheep (eight treatment and a control group). Supplements were applied as per manufacturer's recommendation every 6-12 weeks. At each application, all sheep were weighed and data on general flock health and management were collected. RESULTS: All but one of the survey respondents (n = 77) had used supplements in their sheep at some stage. The reasons for use were most commonly for general health and production benefits (n = 21; 26.9%) and to prevent or treat specific diseases/deficiencies (n = 7; 9.0%). The average daily weight gains (ADWG) of the lambs over the trial period varied from 0.074 kg to 0.213 kg/head/day. Statistical analysis showed that overall there was not a significant difference (P = 0.587) between ADWG among lambs that received supplements and lambs that did not. CONCLUSION: Results of this study show that application of supplements were not linked to improved growth rates in clinically normal crossbred and Merino lambs under the trial farm conditions between weaning and 15 months of age. Effects of supplements on health and production in adult sheep and how supplement response can be best measured in sheep flocks (especially in relation to health and welfare) and linked to productivity requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Ovinos , Desmame
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 103-109, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171998

RESUMO

In the context of significant public health benefits of brucellosis control and shrinking public resources for livestock vaccination, this paper considers the willingness of small ruminant livestock owners to pay for vaccination of their animals against brucellosis. The willingness to pay is estimated through a binary choice contingent valuation approach using data from a rural household survey specially designed for this purpose. The survey was conducted in southern Tajikistan, one of its poorest regions, in March 2009. The study used a non-parametric method for estimating the willingness to pay and a parametric (Probit) model for identifying determinants. The results show that households, including poor households, were willing to pay for continuing vaccination of their sheep and goats against brucellosis. Controlling for other attributes of willingness to pay, there was practically no correlation between willingness to pay and household asset level. This means both poor and rich alike are willing to pay for the service. On the other hand, the results also show that the willingness to pay was comparatively higher in households with relatively higher levels of education of adult females. This suggests that an awareness campaign targeted at female members of households would enhance the ownership and coverage of cost recovery programs and should form an integral part of any efforts towards introducing financial participation from sheep and goat owners for brucellosis vaccination.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Propriedade , Ovinos , Tadjiquistão
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 279: 109060, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143013

RESUMO

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the period of spelling necessary for a pasture to become free of contamination by infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep, in different seasons of the year, as well as to determine when the greatest pasture contamination occurs and how long it lasts. An area was divided into four paddocks, one for each season (spring, summer, autumn, and winter). In order to contaminate the paddocks with free living stages of GIN, eight ewes, naturally infected, grazed on each paddock for 14 consecutive days, starting on the following dates: autumn, on April 4, 2017; winter, on July 4, 2017; spring, on September 26, 2017; summer, on January 2, 2019. At the beginning and end of the grazing period, faecal samples were taken directly from the rectums of the ewes to count eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and for faecal cultures. Every 14 days pasture samples were collected to assess the number of infective larvae (L3) per kilogram of dry matter. At the end of the 14 day ewe grazing period, 21 stakes were placed where there were faeces on the paddock. Subsequently, every 14 days, the faeces located at three of the stakes were collected and the L3 were recovered. After the exit of the ewes, monthly, two tracer lambs, free of helminth infection, were allocated into the paddock for 14 days. At the end of this period they were housed in covered stalls for 28 days. Faeces from the lambs were collected for individual EPG counting and faecal culture at 21 and 28 days after grazing. Infective larvae recuperation was observed from faeces and pasture in all seasons. In the autumn, spring, and summer, high EPG counts were observed in the first tracer lambs (8521, 4800, and 8064 EPG, respectively), while in winter, high infection (14132 EPG) of the animals was observed only from the second pair of tracer lambs. For a pasture to become "clean", 322 days, 350 days, 294 days, and 182 days following contamination were necessary, respectively, in the autumn, winter, spring, and summer. In autumn, spring, and summer, massive contamination of the pasture with L3 occurred soon after an area had been grazed by infected sheep, while in winter this took a little longer. The contamination persisted, approximately, from a minimum of six months post contamination in summer to up to almost one year post contamination in winter.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brasil , Fazendas , Fezes , Pradaria , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 176: 104923, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066029

RESUMO

The acceptance of serology data instead of challenge for market release of new batches of commercial vaccine is under evaluation by regulatory agencies in order to reduce the use of animals and costs for manufacturers. In this study two vaccines for Bluetongue virus serotype 8 were submitted to quality controls required by the European Pharmacopoeia and tested on sheep in comparison with a commercial inactivated vaccine. Body temperature, antibody titres and viraemia of vaccinated and controls sheep were recorded. In addition IL4 and IFNγ in sera and supernatant derived from in vitro stimulation of blood cells were also quantified using two commercial ELISA kit. The outer-capsid protein VP2 contained in vaccine formulations was quantified using a home-made capture-ELISA. Results obtained indicates that in-lab evaluation of cell-mediated and humoral immune response are useful parameters to predict the efficacy of BTV inactivated vaccines avoiding the challenge phase required to release new batches of vaccines with proven clinical efficacy and safety. The correlation observed between serology data and VP2 protein concentration of final product could be useful in-process control to predict if a new vaccine batch of BTV must be discarded or released to the market.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/métodos , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Animais , Controle de Qualidade , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/farmacologia
12.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 9, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024546

RESUMO

Genetic variation is associated with differences in disease resistance and susceptibility among individuals within a population. To date, molecular genetic analyses of host responses have relied on extraction of genomic DNA from whole blood or tissue samples. However, such samples are not routinely collected during large-scale field studies. We demonstrate that cell-free genomic DNA (cfDNA) may be extracted and amplified from archived plasma samples, allowing retrospective analysis of host genetic diversity. This technique was also applicable to archived serum samples up to 35 years old and to different ruminant species. As proof of concept, we used this cfDNA approach to genotype the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB1 locus of 224 Merino sheep which had participated in field trials of a commercial Haemonchus contortus vaccine, Barbervax®, in Australia. This identified a total of 51 different DRB1 alleles and their relative frequencies. This is the first study to examine host MHC diversity using DNA extracted from archived plasma samples, an approach that may be applied to retrospective analyses of genetic diversity and responses to vaccination or infection across different species and populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/imunologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Austrália , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Haemonchus/imunologia , Plasma/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soro/imunologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
13.
Benef Microbes ; 11(2): 183-189, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028777

RESUMO

Related to previous reports on correlations between an animal's genotype, its commensal microbiota, and the ability to resist infections, the aim of the current study was to investigate the associations between sheep genotype and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) DNA methylation patterns, sheep genotype and cell surface hydrophobicity of sheep gut commensal bacteria. In addition, the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain INMIA 9602 Er 317/402 (probiotic formulation Narine) on Salmonella carriage in sheep at Armenian farms was also investigated. Allelotypes and genotypes of different pathogen-sensitive sheep breeds from Armenian farms were studied based on genetic markers of blood transferrin, albumin, and ceruloplasmin. Additionally, the differences between the breeds of Mazekh, Balbas, and Mazekh/Balbas hybrids were reported. The relationship between host sheep blood transferrin and albumin polymorphisms and cell surface hydrophobicity/5-mC DNA methylation patterns from the predominant gut commensal bacteria was shown. The Narine probiotic eliminates Salmonella from the sheep gut microbiota. At the same time, no significant changes in the percentage of 5-mC DNA methylation of predominant gut bacteria after probiotic administration were observed. The evaluation of bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, the most significant factor affecting bacterial adhesion, as well as 5-mC DNA methylation, might be used for specific sheep husbandry/breeding programs. This study suggests that the commercial probiotic Narine could potentially be used to reduce Salmonella carriage in sheep.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Salmonella , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Animais , Armênia , Aderência Bacteriana , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Metilação de DNA , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polimorfismo Genético , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 109-123, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029178

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and Fascioloides magna are liver flukes causing disease in cattle and sheep. Damage to the liver due to F hepatica and F gigantica results in clinical disease and/or production losses. F magna seems to have little effect in cattle but causes high mortality in sheep. The fluke life cycle involves an aquatic or amphibious snail intermediate host and thus requires suitable moisture and temperature conditions. F magna requires the presence of deer. Drug treatment is the mainstay of control and needs to be applied considering the life cycle and epidemiology of the parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
15.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 159-171, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029181

RESUMO

This article summarizes the state of the art in vaccine research against parasitic helminths in sheep and cattle. Optimization of antigen production (eg, recombinant expression) and antigen delivery, followed by extensive field testing, is still required for further development of vaccines. Helminth vaccines should sufficiently reduce parasite transmission to protect vaccinated animals against parasite-induced disorders and production loss. Vaccine efficacy requirements depend on the parasite's epidemiology and farm management, both of which vary in different geographic regions and are influenced by climate. Vaccination is likely to be part of integrated worm control, together with other worm control measures.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia
16.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 187-203, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029184

RESUMO

Ruminant coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is a significant and widespread enteric disease in young livestock worldwide. High morbidities and significant mortalities may be observed. For disease diagnosis, fecal samples from clinically ill animals should be analyzed for both, identity (ie, pathogenicity) of Eimeria species and excreted oocyst amount. To prevent coccidiosis-related economic losses, management measures to reduce infection pressure and improve general animal health are crucial. Anticoccidial drugs are widely used to control clinical and subclinical disease. Treatment is most efficient when applied prophylactically or metaphylactically. To avoid development of parasite drug resistance, drugs should be used sustainably.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Gado/parasitologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 73-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029190

RESUMO

Strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. These parasites are important in most of the United States, with the bloodsucking parasite Haemonchus contortus being the predominant species of concern. Sheep and goats are infected while grazing, and the biology of infective larvae on pastures is important in the design of parasite management programs. Widespread resistance to anthelmintics requires strategies designed to preserve remaining drug activity; these include combination treatments with multiple classes of anthelmintics and targeted treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1633-1644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012445

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects ruminants and pigs. Countries with large exports of livestock products are highly vulnerable to economic damage following an FMD incursion. The faster disease spread is controlled, the lower the economic damage. During the past decades, the structure of livestock production has dramatically changed. To maintain the relevance of contingency plans, it is important to understand the effects of changes in herd structure on the spread and control of infectious diseases. In this study, we compare the spread and control of FMD based on 2006/2007 and 2018 livestock data. Spread of FMD in Denmark was simulated using the DTU-DADS model, applying different control measures. The number of cattle, swine and sheep/goat herds reduced from about 50,000 in total in 2006/2007 to about 33,000 in 2018. During this period, the average number of outgoing animal movements and the exports of swine and swine products increased by about 35% and 22%, respectively. This coincided with an overall increase in herd size of 14%. Using the EU and national control measures (Basic: 3 days standstill, depopulation of detected herds followed by cleaning and disinfection and establishment of control zones, where tracing, surveillance and contact restrictions are implemented), we found that the simulated epidemics in 2018 would be about 50% shorter in duration, affect about 50% fewer herds but cause more economic damage, compared to epidemics using 2006/2007 data. When 2006/2007 data were used, Basic + pre-emptive depopulation (Depop) overall was the optimal control strategy. When 2018 data were used, this was the case only when epidemics were initiated in cattle herds, whereas when epidemics were initiated in sow or sheep/goats herds, basic performed as well as Depop. The results demonstrate that regular assessment of measures to control the spread of infectious diseases is necessary for contingency planning.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 21, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovine footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus (D nodosus) is an infectious disease affecting sheep worldwide. Switzerland plans a nationwide footrot eradication program, based on PCR-testing of interdigital swab samples. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of D nodosus in clinically footrot-free sheep flocks which had been subjected to different treatment strategies, to assess whether they were feasible for the eradication process, especially focussing on antimicrobial flock treatments. Clinical scoring and PCR-results were compared. Ten farms had used hoof bathing and hoof trimming without causing bleeding, ten had used individual treatments and flock vaccines to gain the free status and ten had become free through whole-flock systemic macrolide treatment. For every farm, three risk-based collected pool samples were analysed for the occurrence of virulent and benign D nodosus by PCR detection of aprV2/aprB2. RESULTS: Six flocks from any treatment group tested positive for aprB2 in all pools. Clinical signs were absent at the time of sampling, but some flocks had experienced non-progressive interdigital inflammation previously. Two flocks tested aprV2-positive in the high-risk pool. One of them underwent a progressive footrot outbreak shortly after sampling. Individual retesting indicated, that virulent D nodosus most likely was reintroduced by a recently purchased ram. In the second flock, a ram was tested positive and treated before clinical signs occurred. CONCLUSIONS: All treatment strategies eliminated the causative agent and were found to be suitable for implementation in the PCR-based eradication process. PCR-testing proved to be more sensitive than visual scoring, as it also detected clinically healthy carriers. It will be of benefit as a diagnostic tool in elimination and surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Dichelobacter nodosus/isolamento & purificação , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Dichelobacter nodosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dichelobacter nodosus/patogenicidade , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Casco e Garras/microbiologia , Macrolídeos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Suíça , Vacinação/veterinária
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