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1.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 231-247, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759450

RESUMO

The number of fish as pets far exceeds the populations of any other companion animal. As our knowledge of aquatic animal species and aquatic animal medicine continues to expand, veterinary expertise is becoming more critical to the client, researcher, fisheries biologist, aquarist, farmer, and fish hobbyist. Similar to other vertebrates, fish are susceptible to infectious and noninfectious renal disease. This article compares vertebrate renal anatomy and physiology and highlights some renal disease examples.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/terapia , Peixes , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Vertebrados
2.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 54, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315687

RESUMO

Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in salmonids. In fish, the intestine represents an important site of nutrient uptake, host-pathogen interactions, and defense. The posterior intestine can be inflamed, reddened, and filled with an opaque, yellowish fluid during Y. ruckeri infection. Herein, we report an investigation on the proteome alteration in the posterior intestinal mucosa of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to Y. ruckeri. The intestinal mucosal proteins were identified and quantified by a shotgun proteomic approach by applying data-independent quantification with sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH). A total of 437 proteins were found to be differentially up- or downregulated in the posterior intestine. Gene ontology of upregulated proteins pointed to their involvement into exopeptidase, endopeptidase, and hydrolase activities, while the downregulated proteins were involved in lipid metabolism, actin binding, and translation processes. Additionally, upregulated proteins were predicted to be involved in lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolic pathways, while downregulated proteins were implicated in focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein digestion and absorption pathways. This study showed that Y. ruckeri infection can alter protein abundance involved in serine-type carboxypeptidase, cysteine and aspartic-type endopeptidases, metallopeptidases, antioxidant defense, calcium ion binding, glycolytic and carbohydrate metabolic processes in the proteome of the intestinal mucosa of rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Proteoma/metabolismo , Yersiniose/fisiopatologia , Yersinia ruckeri/fisiologia , Animais , Ontologia Genética , Yersiniose/veterinária
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104699, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311646

RESUMO

Pancreas disease (PD), caused by several subtypes of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), is associated with significant economic losses in European salmonid aquaculture. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigate the impact of PD caused by SAV subtype 2 (SAV2) on growth, feed conversion, and mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The study was based on harvest data from a large salmon farming company operating in the SAV2 endemic area of Norway. Mixed-effect regression analyses showed a severe impact on both growth and feed conversion when PD appeared late in the production cycle. In a scenario with fixed slaughter time the estimated impact corresponded to a growth reduction of 0.7 kg and 0.07 points increase in feed conversion ratio. No effect on mortality was observed in this data set. In conclusion, the most important consequences of PD caused by SAV2 infection is reduced growth and feed conversion in large Atlantic salmon. The lack of effect on mortality in this study may be due to other factors overshadowing the impact of PD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Pancreatopatias/veterinária , Pancreatopatias/virologia , Alphavirus , Infecções por Alphavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Alphavirus/fisiopatologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Pesqueiros , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmo salar/virologia
4.
J Fish Dis ; 42(9): 1223-1231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184378

RESUMO

Streptococcosis in tilapia Oreochromis sp. is possibly the most important bacterial disease for fish production worldwide. In Colombia, streptococcosis is caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), but in other countries, Streptococcus iniae is also involved. Prevention of streptococcosis is required and must be addressed for economic, social, international trade and public health reasons. This research used an in vitro culture of tilapia intestine to detail the intestinal mucosal response once the pathogen contacts the epithelium. We show that S. agalactiae sheds off its capsule to adhere to the epithelium. The bacterium adheres as a single individuum, in groups or in chains and is able to divide on the apical border of enterocytes. GBS adheres at and invades exclusively through the apical portion of the intestinal folds, using the transepithelial route. Once within the cytoplasm of enterocytes, the bacteria continue to divide. On the basolateral side of the epithelium, the microorganisms leave the cells to reach the propria and travel through the microcirculation. No evidence of an immuno-inflammatory reaction or goblet cell response in the epithelium or the lamina propria was seen during the process of adherence and invasion of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Azul Alciano/química , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Corantes/química , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Reação do Ácido Periódico de Schiff/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Tolônio/química
5.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3396-3409, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112144

RESUMO

Fish is among the cheapest and most promising sources of animal protein. The main edible portion of fish is muscle. This study explored the impact of dietary riboflavin on fish flesh quality and showed the possible role of muscle antioxidant defense in flesh quality in relation to dietary riboflavin. On-growing grass carp (initial average weight of 275.82 ± 0.57 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63, 1.95, 3.98, 6.02, 7.96, and 10.04 mg kg-1 diet) for eight weeks. The results indicated that compared with the optimal riboflavin levels (3.98 and/or 6.02 mg riboflavin per kg diet), riboflavin deficiency treatment (0.63 mg riboflavin per kg diet) significantly reduced the muscle nutrients, including the protein, lipid, flavor amino acid, and total essential amino acid contents. Furthermore, the muscle shear force, pH value, and hydroxyproline concentration were reduced, while the muscle cooking loss and lactic acid content increased (P < 0.05). Compared with optimal riboflavin levels, the riboflavin deficiency treatment increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl contents, while riboflavin treatments of 3.98-10.04 mg riboflavin per kg diet showed the lowest ROS and MDA contents (P < 0.05). Compared with the optimal riboflavin levels, the riboflavin deficiency treatment decreased the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, including CuZnSOD, CAT, GR and GPx, and antioxidant-related signaling molecules, including NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and casein kinase 2, were down-regulated, while those of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b were up-regulated (P < 0.05). Collectively, the present study indicates that riboflavin deficiency treatment reduces the flesh quality, partly due to inhibition of the antioxidant defense through the Nrf2 signaling pathway, while optimal riboflavin levels reverse these negative effects.


Assuntos
Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Carne/análise , Deficiência de Riboflavina/veterinária , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Riboflavina/análise , Deficiência de Riboflavina/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Riboflavina/metabolismo , Deficiência de Riboflavina/fisiopatologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 199-209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048036

RESUMO

The study of host-parasite relationships is an integral part of the immunology of aquatic species, where the complexity of both organisms has to be overlayed with the lifecycle stages of the parasite and immunological status of the host. A deep understanding of how the parasite survives in its host and how they display molecular mechanisms to face the immune system can be applied for novel parasite control strategies. This review highlights current knowledge about salmon and sea louse, two key aquatic animals for aquaculture research worldwide. With the aim to catch the complexity of the salmon-louse interactions, molecular information gleaned through genomic studies are presented. The host recognition system and the chemosensory receptors found in sea lice reveal complex molecular components, that in turn, can be disrupted through specific molecules such as non-coding RNAs.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Salmão , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Quimiotaxia/imunologia , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/imunologia , Copépodes/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Salmão/imunologia , Salmão/microbiologia , Salmão/fisiologia
7.
Lab Anim ; 53(3): 259-270, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096881

RESUMO

In recent years, tremendous advances have been made in our ability to characterize complex microbial communities such as the gut microbiota, and numerous surveys of the human gut microbiota have identified countless associations between different compositional attributes of the gut microbiota and adverse health conditions. However, most of these findings in humans are purely correlative and animal models are required for prospective evaluation of such changes as causative factors in disease initiation or progression. As in most fields of biomedical research, microbiota-focused studies are predominantly performed in mouse or rat models. Depending on the field of research and experimental question or objective, non-rodent models may be preferable due to better translatability or an inability to use rodents for various reasons. The following review describes the utility and limitations of several non-rodent model species for research on the microbiota and its influence on host physiology and disease. In an effort to balance the breadth of potential model species with the amount of detail provided, four model species are discussed: zebrafish, dogs, pigs, and rabbits.


Assuntos
Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais , Coelhos/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
8.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 261-265, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078710

RESUMO

Aeromonosis is a fish disease that leads to haemorrhagic septicaemia and high mortality. The detection of early behavioural changes associated to this disease could be helpful in anticipating the initiation of treatment, increasing the probability of success. The influence of this disease on the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and on the brain expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) is little known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aeromonas hydrophila infection on individual behaviour and brain expression of genes related to stress (slc6a2, hsp90, hspa12a, hsd20b, hsd11b2, crh) in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Thirty fish were divided into healthy and infected groups. The fish of the infected group were inoculated intramuscularly with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (6.4 × 108 CFU/mL), while control animals received 50 µL of saline. On day five post-infection, animals were submitted to the novel tank test, euthanized, and the brain was collected for molecular analysis. Infected fish swam more in the unknown aquarium and presented an increase in brain expression of genes related to HSP (hspa12a) and the route of cortisol synthesis (crh) when compared to uninfected fish. Therefore, this disease causes hyperlocomotion related to stress.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Peixes-Gato/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Locomoção , Masculino , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Norepinefrina/genética
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 223-234, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029777

RESUMO

A 10-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing dietary fishmeal with plant proteins on nutrition metabolism, immunity, inflammation and apoptosis responses in liver tissues of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicas (initial body weight = 10.42 ±â€¯0.01 g). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated. A basal diet containing 54% fishmeal (FM), whereas another diet was prepared by totally replacing FM with a plant protein blend (PP) composed with soybean protein concentrate and cottonseed protein concentrate. Although essential amino acids, fatty acids, and available phosphorus had been balanced according to the FM diet profile, the significantly lower growth performance, metabolic disorder, and fatty liver symptom were observed in the PP group. Compared with the FM group, fish in the PP group showed significantly lower plasma free EAA level and PPV. Glucose metabolism disorder was expressed as the uncontrollable fasting glycolysis and pyruvate aerobic oxidation at postprandial 24 h with significantly up-regulated GK, PK and PDH genes expression, which potentially over-produced acetyl-CoA as the substrate for protein and lipid synthesis. Significantly reduced plasma GLU, but increased GC level, along with very significantly reduced liver GLY storage could be observed in the PP group. Plasma TG and hepatic NEFA contents were significantly decreased, but the hepatic TC content was very significantly increased in the PP group, in addition, hepatocyte vacuolation appeared. The significantly up-regulated cholesterol synthesis gene (HMGCR) expression but down-regulated bile acid synthesis gene (CYP7A1) expression could be the main reason for the fatty liver induced by cholesterol accumulation. The reduced plasma IgM content accompanied by the up-regulated mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL1ß) and activated apoptosis signals of liver tissues were found in the PP group. The hyperthyroidism (higher plasma T3 and T4) and the accelerated energy metabolism rate decreased the growth performance in the PP group. The activated p65NF-kB may promote the hepatocytes apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway (caspase8/caspase3). Simultaneously, a "self-saving" response could be observed that activated cAMP promoted the lipolysis/ß-oxidation process and up-regulated gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 via promoting CREB expression, further inhibited the over-phosphorylation of JNK protein, which might impede the intrinsic apoptosis pathway (caspase9/caspase3). In conclusion, the nutrient and energy metabolic disorder induced fatty liver related to the cholesterol accumulation in Japanese seabass fed full PP diet, which was under the regulation by cAMP-JNK/NF-kB-caspase signaling pathway. The hemostasis phosphorylation of JNK protein protected the liver tissues from more serious damage.


Assuntos
Bass , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/classificação , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/classificação , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 670: 1170-1183, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018433

RESUMO

The variations of haematological parameters hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte and erythrocyte count have been used as pollution and physiological indicators of organic dysfunction in both environmental and aquaculture studies. These parameters are commonly applied as prognostic and diagnostic tools in fish health status. However, there are both extrinsic and intrinsic factors to consider when performing a blood test, because a major limitation for field researchers is that the "rules" for animal or human haematology do not always apply to wildlife. The main objective of this review is to show how some environmental and xenobiotic factors are capable to modulating the haematic cells. Visualizing the strengths and limitations of a haematological analysis in the health assessment of wild and culture fish. Finally, we point out the importance of the use of mitochondrial activities as part of haematological evaluations associated to environment or aquaculture stress.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Peixes , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Xenobióticos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/etiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Hematologia/métodos , Prognóstico , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Fish Dis ; 42(5): 657-666, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854666

RESUMO

Nocardia seriolae, a facultative intracellular bacterium, is the main pathogen of fish nocardiosis. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the histone-like DNA-binding protein (HLP) gene of N. seriolae (nshlp) encoded a secreted protein and might target the mitochondria in the host cell. To further study the preliminary function of HLP in N. seriolae (NsHLP), the gene cloning, extracellular products identification, subcellular localization, overexpression and apoptosis detection assay were carried out in this study. Mass spectrometry analysis of the extracellular products from N. seriolae showed that NsHLP was a secreted protein. Subcellular localization of HLP-GFP fusion proteins mainly assembled in the nucleus, which indicated that the NsHLP was co-located with the nucleus rather than mitochondria in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Notably, the expression of NsHLP had changed the distribution of mitochondria into lumps in the FHM cell. In addition, apoptotic features were found in the transfected FHM cells by overexpression of NsHLP. Quantitative assays of mitochondrial membrane potential value, caspase-3 activity and pro-apoptotic genes mRNA (Bad, Bid and Bax) expression level demonstrated that the cell apoptosis was induced in the transfected FHM cells. All the results presented in this study provided insight on the function of NsHLP, which suggested that it may participate in the cell apoptosis regulation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of N. seriolae.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cyprinidae , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Nocardiose/veterinária , Nocardia/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Nocardia/genética , Nocardiose/microbiologia , Nocardiose/fisiopatologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211080, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668593

RESUMO

Large numbers of lumpfish are produced for the Norwegian salmon industry and are used to combat sea lice infestations. Periodically high mortality of farmed lumpfish demonstrates the need to improve farming conditions and animal welfare. As part of such efforts, the present work tested the efficacy of three anaesthetic chemicals on lumpfish fries (average weight of 0.97 g). The anaesthetic impact from salinity (15 ppt-18 ppt), temperature (12°C versus 7 and 18°C), and fasting conditions (three days) was also examined. Surgical anaesthesia was induced within 3 to 5 min (preferred time) at concentrations of 18 mg/L (Aqui-S), 37.5 mg/L (Benzoak), and 60 mg/L (buffered MS-222). Safety margins were regarded as low when using Aqui-S; therefore, this chemical was not considered suitable for prolonged exposures. The lumpfish made a rapid recovery from both Benzoak and MS-222 even after 20 min of exposure. A 6°C increase in exposure temperature (reaching 18°C) was found to delay or inhibit recovery. The effect of a 5°C decrease (down to 7°C) significantly reduced induction time for MS-222 and was insignificant for Aqui-S, while it prolonged Benzoak induction time significantly and gave a longer recovery period. Fasting resulted in 70% recovery after 20 min of Aqui-S exposure compared to 0% in fed fish but had only minor effects on Benzoak and MS-222. Use of brackish water (15 ppt-18 ppt) gave 20% recovery from Aqui-S and significantly shorter recovery time from MS-222 exposure, while the effects on Benzoak were insignificant.


Assuntos
Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 246-253, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690359

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) can be ingested by a variety of species and mainly accumulate in the gut. However, the consequences of MPs exposure in the gut are largely unknown. Here we evaluated the impacts of MPs exposure in zebrafish gut. Animals were experimentally exposed to polystyrene MPs (5-µm beads; 50 µg/L and 500 µg/L) for 21 days and monitored for alterations in tissue histology, enzymatic biomarkers, gut microbiome and metabolomic responses. Inflammation and oxidative stress were observed in the zebrafish gut after exposed to MPs. Furthermore, significant alterations in the gut microbiome and tissue metabolic profiles were observed, with most of these were associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism. This study provides evidence that MPs exposure causes gut damage as well as alterations in gut metabolome and microbiome, yielding novel insights into the consequences of MPs exposure.


Assuntos
Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Poliestirenos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenômica , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
14.
J Fish Biol ; 95(1): 39-52, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447064

RESUMO

Underwater sound is directional and can convey important information about the surrounding environment or the animal emitting the sound. Therefore, sound is a major sensory channel for fishes and plays a key role in many life-history strategies. The effect of anthropogenic noise on aquatic life, which may be causing homogenisation or fragmentation of biologically important signals underwater is of growing concern. In this review we discuss the role sound plays in the ecology of fishes, basic anatomical and physiological adaptations for sound reception and production, the effects of anthropogenic noise and how fishes may be coping to changes in their environment, to put the ecology of fish hearing into the context of the modern underwater soundscape.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Audição , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Meio Ambiente , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Ruído , Membrana dos Otólitos/fisiologia , Som , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Zebrafish ; 16(1): 15-28, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300574

RESUMO

Testicular tumors are the most common solid malignant tumors in men 20-35 years of age. Although most of testicular tumors are curable, current treatments still fail in 15%-20% of patients. However, insufficient understanding of the molecular basis and lack of animal models limit development of more effective treatments. This study reports the identification of a novel zebrafish mutant line, ns1402, which develops testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). While both male and female ns1402 mutants were fertile at young age, male ns1402 mutants became infertile as early as 9 months of age. This infertility was associated with progressive loss of mature sperm. Failure of spermatogenesis was, at least in part, explained by progressive loss of mature Leydig cells, a source of testosterone that is essential for spermatogenesis. Interestingly, TGCTs in ns1402 mutants contained a large number of Sertoli cells and gene expression profiles of Sertoli cells were altered before loss of mature Leydig cells. This suggests that changes in Sertoli cell properties happened first, followed by loss of mature Leydig cells and failure of spermatogenesis. Taken together, this study emphasizes the importance of cell-cell interactions and cell signaling in the testis for spermatogenesis and tissue homeostasis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Células de Sertoli/fisiologia , Espermatogênese
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315922

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) and Cadmium (Cd) are two common contaminants that can be detected in aquatic environments. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NP and Cd at environmentally relevant concentrations in aquatic organisms has not been thoroughly characterized to date. In the present study, the interactions between NP and Cd on male Sebastiscus marmoratus were studied. After 21 days of exposure, the brain aromatase activity was observed to be significantly induced by 100 ng/L NP and 40 µg/L Cd, whereas all of the concentrations of co-treatment resulted in an increase in brain aromatase activity. Additionally, NP could also reduce plasma testosterone concentration, while NP, Cd and their mixture could induce plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) concentration and VTG concentration. The interactions between NP and Cd on the reproductive physiology were antagonism. Our results also support the notion of using these indicators as biomarkers for exposure to EDCs and further extend the boundary of biomonitoring to environmental levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Perciformes/fisiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aromatase/química , Aromatase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/agonistas , Estradiol/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/agonistas , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/enzimologia , Concentração Osmolar , Perciformes/sangue , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Vitelogeninas/química
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 299-303, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308292

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been reported to play important roles in virus replication. Snakehead vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a new rhabdovirus isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead and has caused heavy economical losses in cultured snakehead fish in China. Our previous study has revealed that miR-214 inhibited SHVV replication, but the underline mechanism was not completely understood. In this study, glycogen synthase (GS) gene was identified as a target gene of miR-214. Overexpression of miR-214 reduced cellular GS gene expression. Knockdown of GS by siRNA, similar to the overexpression of miR-214, inhibited SHVV replication. Moreover, we found that siGS-mediated inhibition of SHVV replication could be restored by reducing cellular miR-214 level via using miR-214 inhibitor, indicating that miR-214 inhibited SHVV replication at least partially via targeting GS. This study provided information for understanding the molecular mechanism of SHVV pathogenicity and a potential antiviral strategy against SHVV infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Glicogênio Sintase/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Perciformes , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Vesiculovirus/genética , Vesiculovirus/fisiologia
18.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(1): 75-87, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566268

RESUMO

The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, a type of sea lice (family Caligidae), is enzootic in marine waters of British Columbia and poses a health risk to both farmed Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and wild Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. At the adult stage, sea lice infections can often result in severe cutaneous lesions in their salmonid hosts. To evaluate and compare the physiological consequences of adult L. salmonis infections, smolts of Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon O. nerka were exposed to 2 (low), 6 (medium), or 10 (high) adult female lice/fish. Mean lice abundance decreased over time in all groups. Skin disruption due to parasite infection was observed in both species. Plasma samples were collected from infected fish and uninfected controls at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d postinfection and measured for indicators of osmoregulatory function and stress. Sockeye Salmon, regardless of L. salmonis exposure level, showed a rapid onset of elevated osmolality and sodium and chloride ion concentrations which were sustained until 7 d postinfection when values returned to levels comparable with the unexposed controls. Conversely, these effects were not measured in Atlantic Salmon. Additionally, differential host effects in blood glucose levels were observed, with Sockeye Salmon displaying immediate elevation in glucose. Relative to Atlantic Salmon, infection with L. salmonis caused a profound physiological impact to Sockeye Salmon characterized by loss of osmoregulatory integrity and a stress response. This work provides the first comprehensive report of the physiological consequences of infections with adult L. salmonis in Sockeye Salmon smolts and helps to further define the mechanisms of susceptibility in this species.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmo salar , Salmão , Animais , Aquicultura , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Prevalência
19.
Arch Virol ; 163(12): 3395-3402, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220031

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer of HIF-1α and HIF-1ß, and its key role in the regulation of cellular responses to hypoxia has been well-demonstrated. The participation of HIF-1α in apoptosis has been reported in mammals, however, a little information is available on the role of HIF-1α in the progression of apoptosis in fish. In this study, to know the role of HIF-1α in the apoptosis of fish cells, we produced HIF-1α knockout Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 vector, and a single cell clone showing a heterozygous insertion/deletion (indel) mutation (one nucleotide insertion and one nucleotide deletion in HIF-1α gene) was chosen for further experiments. To confirm the knockout of HIF-1α, cells were transfected with a hypoxia reporting vector containing hypoxic response elements (HREs). EPC cells transfected with the reporting plasmids showed significantly increased luminescence by exposure to cobalt chloride, a prolyl hydroxylases inhibitor. On the other hand, HIF-1α knockout EPC cells showed a non-responsiveness to a cobalt chloride exposure, suggesting that functional HIF-1α protein was not produced in the HIF-1α knockout EPC cells. Apoptosis progression induced by camptothecin and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection was severely inhibited by HIF-1α knockout, and the replication of VHSV was significantly retarded in HIF-1α knockout EPC cells. These results suggest that HIF-1α in EPC cells acts as a pro-apoptotic factor in the progression of apoptosis triggered by a DNA damaging agent and rhabdoviral infection.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Novirhabdovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Cyprinidae/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/metabolismo , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/fisiopatologia , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/virologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Novirhabdovirus/genética , Novirhabdovirus/fisiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998086

RESUMO

Finding the keys to understanding the infectious process of Yersinia ruckeri was not a priority for many years due to the prompt development of an effective biotype 1 vaccine which was used mainly in Europe and USA. However, the gradual emergence of outbreaks in vaccinated fish, which have been reported since 2003, has awakened interest in the mechanism of virulence in this pathogen. Thus, during the last two decades, a large number of studies have considerably enriched our knowledge of many aspects of the pathogen and its interaction with the host. By means of both conventional and a variety of novel strategies, such as cell GFP tagging, bioluminescence imaging and optical projection tomography, it has been possible to determine three putative Y. ruckeri infection routes, the main point of entry for the bacterium being the gill lamellae. Moreover, a wide range of potential virulence factors have been highlighted by specific gene mutagenesis strategies or genome-wide transposon/plasmid insertion-based screening approaches, such us in vivo expression technology (IVET) and signature tagged mutagenesis (STM). Finally, recent proteomic and whole genomic analyses have allowed many of the genes and systems that are potentially implicated in the organism's pathogenicity and its adaptation to the host environmental conditions to be elucidated. Altogether, these studies contribute to a better understanding of the infectious process of Y. ruckeri in fish, which is crucial for the development of more effective strategies for preventing or treating enteric redmouth disease (ERM).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia ruckeri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Yersinia ruckeri/patogenicidade , Animais , Peixes , Yersiniose/patologia , Yersiniose/fisiopatologia
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