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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20201017, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605431

RESUMO

Seasonal disease and parasitic infection are common across organisms, including humans, and there is increasing evidence for intrinsic seasonal variation in immune systems. Changes are orchestrated through organisms' physiological clocks using cues such as day length. Ample research in diverse taxa has demonstrated multiple immune responses are modulated by photoperiod, but to date, there have been few experimental demonstrations that photoperiod cues alter susceptibility to infection. We investigated the interactions among photoperiod history, immunity and susceptibility in laboratory-bred three-spined stickleback (a long-day breeding fish) and its external, directly reproducing monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei. We demonstrate that previous exposure to long-day photoperiods (PLD) increases susceptibility to infection relative to previous exposure to short days (PSD), and modifies the response to infection for the mucin gene muc2 and Treg cytokine foxp3a in skin tissues in an intermediate 12 L : 12 D photoperiod experimental trial. Expression of skin muc2 is reduced in PLD fish, and negatively associated with parasite abundance. We also observe inflammatory gene expression variation associated with natural inter-population variation in resistance, but find that photoperiod modulation of susceptibility is consistent across host populations. Thus, photoperiod modulation of the response to infection is important for host susceptibility, highlighting new mechanisms affecting seasonality of host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias , Fotoperíodo , Smegmamorpha/imunologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Trematódeos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656652

RESUMO

Vibrio alginolyticus is posting an increasing threat to survival of grouper. Classical complement cascade can trigger initiation of immunity, while complement 9 (C9) is a major complement molecule involved in final step of membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. In this study, full-length EcC9 contained an ORF sequence of 1779 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 592 amino acids. A high-level expression of EcC9 mRNA was observed in liver. Following vibrio challenge, increased expression levels of EcC1q, EcBf/C2, EcC4, EcC6, EcC7 and EcC9 mRNA were detected in liver and kidney. These results implied that elevated expression level of classical complement pathway (CCP) and terminal complement components (TCCs) may assess toxicological effect of V. alginolyticus.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Complemento C9/genética , Complemento C9/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Complemento C9/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542025

RESUMO

There are differences in disease susceptibility to whirling disease (WD) among strains of rainbow trout. The North American strain Trout Lodge (TL) is highly susceptible, whereas the German Hofer (HO) strain is more resistant. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key in inhibiting cytokine signaling. Their role in modulating the immune response against whirling disease is not completely clear. This study aimed at investigating the transcriptional response of SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes to Myxobolus cerebralis along with that of several upstream regulators and immune response genes. M. cerebralis induced the expression of SOCS1, the IL-6-dependent SOCS3, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the Treg associated transcription factor FOXP3 in TL fish at multiple time points, which likely caused a restricted STAT1 and STAT3 activity affecting the Th17/Treg17 balance. The expression of SOCS1 and the IL-6-dependent SOCS3 was induced constraining the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 in TL fish, thereby causing Th17/Treg17 imbalance and leaving the fish unable to establish a protective immune response against M. cerebralis or control inflammatory reactions increasing susceptibility to WD. Conversely, in HO fish, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was restrained, whereas the expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 was induced potentially enabling more controlled immune responses, accelerating parasite clearance and elevating resistance. The induced expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 likely maintained a successful Th17/Treg17 balance and enabled fish to promote effective immune responses favouring resistance against WD. The results provide insights into the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in regulating the activation and magnitude of host immunity in rainbow trout, which may help us understand the mechanisms that underlie the variation in resistance to WD.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Myxobolus/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/imunologia , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia
4.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(8): e12766, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564378

RESUMO

Gill health is one of the main health challenges for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture worldwide, and amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the marine ectoprotozoan Neoparamoeba perurans, is currently one of the most significant diseases in terms of prevalence and economic impact. This review describes the host response of Atlantic salmon to the disease, focusing on the pathological changes, immune response and mechanisms underlying the prominent epithelial proliferation and mucus hypersecretion occurring in affected fish. Health management strategies and risk factors are also discussed.


Assuntos
Amebíase/imunologia , Amebozoários/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Salmo salar/parasitologia , Amebíase/patologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/imunologia , Brânquias/patologia , Muco/metabolismo , Salmo salar/imunologia
5.
Gene ; 753: 144777, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428695

RESUMO

As a crucial member of the Forkhead Box family, class O (FoxO) plays an essential role in growth, cell differentiation, metabolism, immunization, and apoptosis. Meanwhile, FoxO3 is the primary regulator and effective inhibitor of primordial follicle activation. In this study, seven foxo genes were identified in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii), including two foxo1 genes (foxo1a, foxo1b), two foxo3 genes (foxo3, foxo3l), one foxo4 gene, and two foxo6 genes (foxo6a, foxo6b). foxo3l was derived from teleost-specific whole-genome duplication events. Evaluation of tissue expression pattern revealed that foxo3l displayed sexually dimorphic expression with a high level in the ovary and spatial expression only in the cytoplasm of follicle cells and oocytes. When the ovaries were stimulated by estrogen and gonadotropin, foxo3l expression was remarkably reduced, and the effect of androgen was completely different. We considered that foxo3l lost its ability to inhibit follicular precocity because of mass ovulation by hormone stimulation, resulting in its decreased expression. Such evidence indicated that foxo3l is an important regulator of reproduction-related functions in black rockfish. This study provides new insights into foxo3l genes for further functional research in teleost.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Perciformes/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oogênese/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105494, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422488

RESUMO

Little is known about the impacts of dietary exposure to inorganic mercury (Hg) for a long duration on the health indicators, growth, and disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus. Accordingly, the current study was designed to assess the effects of Hg contaminated diets on blood biochemistry, growth, chemical composition, Hg bioaccumulation in the tissues, histopathology of liver and head kidneys, and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of O. niloticus. Also, the efficiency of citronella oil, geranium oil (GO), curcumin (CUR), Bacillus toyonensis (BT), and Bacillus subtilis (BS) as dietary supplements on reversing the negative impacts of Hg were assessed. A total of 240 tilapia fingerlings were assigned to eight dietary treatments fed on the basal diet (G1), G1 diet contaminated with 50 ppm Hg (G2), whereas the other groups fed the G2 diet and enriched with 400 mg CO (G3), 400 mg GO (G4), 200 mg CUR (G5), 7 × 107 cells BT (G6), 7 × 107 cells BS (G7), and 7 × 107 BT + BS/ kg diet (G8) for 16 weeks. The obtained results showed that fish fed on the G2 diet had significantly impaired growth performance indicators, blood parameters, and resistance to bacterial infection compared with fish in the control group. Additionally, distinct pathological perturbations in liver and head kidneys were observed. In contrast, fish groups G3 to G8 had a significant enhancement in the growth performance, Hg bioaccumulation in fish tissues, blood biochemistry, and resistance against A. hydrophila infection compared with fish in the G2 group. Maximum improvement was recorded in G5, G6, and G8. Conclusively, from both health and an economic point of view, these results suggested that several benefits might be gained by adding these additives, especially CUR, BT, and BT + BS, on growth enhancement and ameliorating Hg negative impacts in O. niloticus.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bioacumulação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 177-185, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388020

RESUMO

Heat-killed (HK) Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (B), HK Lactobacillus plantarum (P), and their combination were dietary supplemented to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to quantify the effects on growth, innate immunity, and disease resistance. Four test diets were supplied: a control feed free of HK probiotics, 1 × 108 CFUs g-1 single treatments of each of HK B (HKB) and HK P (HKP), and an equal proportion of (0.5 HKB + 0.5 HKP) × 108 CFUs g-1 (HKB0.5 HKP0.5). At 8 weeks of completion feeding trail, HKB0.5 HKP0.5 significantly (P < .05) improved growth, feed utilization, and nonspecific immune parameters (respiratory burst and superoxide dismutase) compared to the control group. Similarly, serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were higher in both HKB and HKB0.5HKP0.5 groups. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the liver and IL-1ß in the liver, kidney, and spleen were also improved in the treatments, but microvilli length was only increased in HKB0.5HKP0.5. After Streptococcus iniae 1 × 108 CFUs mL-1 challenged; HKB and HKB0.5HKP0.5 had a higher survival than control and HKP. Overall, dietary administration of synergy HK probiotics elevated growth, cellular and humoral immunity, and streptococcosis resistance in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Dieta/veterinária , Linguado , Lactobacillus plantarum , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus iniae
8.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(8): e12731, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403169

RESUMO

The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Lsal) is an ectoparasitic copepod that exerts immunomodulatory and physiological effects on its host Atlantic salmon. Over 30 years of research on louse biology, control, host responses and the host-parasite relationship has provided a plethora of information on the intricacies of host resistance and parasite adaptation. Atlantic salmon exhibit temporal and spatial impairment of the immune system and wound healing ability during infection. This immunosuppression may render Atlantic salmon less tolerant to stress and other confounders associated with current management strategies. Contrasting susceptibility of salmonid hosts exists, and early pro-inflammatory Th1 type responses are associated with resistance. Rapid cellular responses to larvae appear to tip the balance of the host-parasite relationship in favour of the host, preventing severe immune-physiological impacts of the more invasive adults. Immunological, transcriptomic, genomic and proteomic evidence suggests pathological impacts occur in susceptible hosts through modulation of host immunity and physiology via pharmacologically active molecules. Co-evolutionary and farming selection pressures may have incurred preference of Atlantic salmon as a host for Lsal reflected in their interactome. Here, we review host-parasite interactions at the primary attachment/feeding site, and the complex life stage-dependent molecular mechanisms employed to subvert host physiology and immune responses.


Assuntos
Copépodes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Salmão/imunologia , Salmão/parasitologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Larva/imunologia , Proteômica , Salmão/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Cicatrização/imunologia
9.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(8): e12730, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403171

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is one of the most serious parasitic diseases of salmonids in which outbreaks cause severe economic constraints for the aquaculture industry and declines of wild species throughout Europe and North America. Given that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely farmed freshwater fish and an important model species for fish immunology, most of the knowledge on how the fish immune response is affected during PKD is from this organism. Once rainbow trout are infected, PKD pathogenesis results in a chronic kidney immunopathology mediated by decreasing myeloid cells and increasing lymphocytes. Transcriptional studies have revealed the regulation of essential genes related to T-helper (Th)-like functions and a dysregulated B-cell antibody type response. Recent reports have discovered unique details of teleost B-cell differentiation and functionality and characterized the differential immunoglobulin (Ig)-mediated response. These studies have solidified the rainbow trout T. bryosalmonae system as a sophisticated disease model capable of feeding key advances into mainstream immunology and have contributed essential information to design novel parasite disease prevention strategies. In our following perspective, we summarize these efforts to evaluate the immune mechanisms of rainbow trout during PKD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunoglobulina D/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1599-1609, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399788

RESUMO

The viral hemorrhage disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a serious contagious disease of grass carp that mainly infects fingerlings and yearlings. Epidemiological studies have shown that GCRV genotype II is currently the prominent genotype. However, little is known about the histopathological characteristics, virus distribution, and expression of immunity-related genes in grass carp infected by GCRV genotype II. In this study, we found that grass carp infected by GCRV genotype II lost appetite, swam alone, and rolled, and their fins, eyes, operculum, oral cavity, abdomen, intestine, and muscles showed pronounced punctate hemorrhage. Congestion, swelling, deformation, thinning of membranes, dilatation and darkened color of nucleoli, cathepsis, erythrocyte infiltration, and vacuole formation were observed in some infected tissues. A qRT-PCR test showed that the 11 genome segments of GCRV had similar expression patterns in different tissues. The S8 segment, with unknown function and no homologous sequences, had the highest expression level, while the most conserved segment, L2, had the lowest expression level. GCRV particles were distributed in different tissues, especially in the intestine. In the infected intestine, the expression of various receptors and adaptor molecules was modulated at different levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression was 2160.9 times higher than that in the control group. The upregulation of immunity-related genes activated the antiviral immunity pathways. Therefore, the intestine might play a dual role in mediating GCRV infection and the antiviral immune response. This study provides detailed information about the pathogenicity of GCRV and expression of immunity-related genes, laying the foundation for further research on virus control and treatment.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 276-282, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294759

RESUMO

Heterobothrium okamotoi, a monogenean gill parasite, exhibits high host specificity for the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, and it has been experimentally verified that the parasite cannot colonize either closely related species such as the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles or distantly related fish such as the red seabream Pagrus major. Previously, we demonstrated in T. rubripes that immunoglobulin M (IgM) with d-mannose affinity induced deciliation of the oncomiracidia, the first step of parasitism, indicating that the parasite utilizes the molecule as a receptor for infection. In the present study, we purified mannose-specific IgM from 2 nonhost species, T. niphobles and P. major, by affinity and gel-filtration chromatography techniques and compared their deciliation-inducing activity against H. okamotoi oncomiracidia. The IgM of the former showed activity, whereas the latter had no effect, suggesting that in addition to d-mannose-binding ability, the crystallizable fragment domain of IgM, which is not part of the antigen-binding domain, plays an important role in host recognition by the oncomiracidia, such as direct binding to the parasites. It also suggests that the host specificity of H. okamotoi is relatively low upon initial recognition, and the specificity is established by exclusion in nonhosts during a later stage.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina M/fisiologia , Manose/imunologia , Platelmintos/imunologia , Takifugu/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Western Blotting , Cílios/imunologia , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/imunologia , Ectoparasitoses/imunologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Imunoglobulina M/isolamento & purificação , Membrana Mucosa/química , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/parasitologia , Platelmintos/patogenicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Takifugu/imunologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/imunologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 184-192, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199177

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the etiological agent of koi herpersvirus disease (KHVD), which causes serious economic losses in global common carp and ornamental koi carp production of larvae as well as adult type fish. To control KHVD, vaccines against CyHV-3 utilizing different immunization routes have been developed, among them, oral vaccination is the most desirable method to prevent fish diseases occurring at the early larval stage. Here, we developed an oral subunit vaccine through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display of CyHV-3 envelope protein pORF65, then, the recombinant yeast fed to Artemia which served as bio-encapsulation vector by subsequently feeding the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) larvae. The fluorescent observation showed that the Artemia and S. cerevisiae could deliver intact antigen to the hindgut of carp larvae suggesting the possibility of the vector for oral immunization. On this basis, after three immunizations at a week interval, the oral vaccine induced high level of specific anti-pORF65 antibody. Meanwhile, a significant difference of immune-related genes expression occurred including cxca, IL-1ß, IFN-a1, lysozyme, IgM and CD8α between vaccined group and blank control group. In addition, 30% of relative percent survival of carp larvae after immunization was obtained post the animal infection assay, offered an certain immune protection. Our results indicated that the oral pORF65 subunit vaccine bioencapsulated in Artemia induced the activation of immune response and high level of antibodies, which could be served as an oral vaccine candidate for the prevention of CyHV-3 infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Artemia/química , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
13.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 123-137, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150792

RESUMO

Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a novel cytokine that plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammatory processes by binding to the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). However, information on the function of IL-34 in fish remains limited. In the present study, we identified an IL-34 homolog from mudskippers ( Boleophthalmus pectinirostris). In silico analysis showed that the mudskipper IL-34 (BpIL-34) was similar to other known IL-34 variants in sequence and structure and was most closely related to an orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) homolog. BpIL-34 transcripts were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with the highest level of expression found in the brain. Edwardsiella tarda infection significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of BpIL-34 in the mudskipper tissues. The recombinant mature BpIL-34 peptide (rBpIL-34) was purified and used to produce anti-rBpIL-34 IgG. Western blot analysis combined with PNGase F digestion revealed that native BpIL-34 in monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MФs) was N-glycosylated. In vitro, rBpIL-34 treatment enhanced the phagocytotic and bactericidal activity of mudskipper MOs/MФs, as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor α ( BpTNF-α) and BpIL-1ß in these cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of mudskipper CSF-1R1 ( BpCSF-1R1), but not mudskipper BpCSF-1R2, significantly inhibited the rBpIL-34-mediated enhanced effect on MO/MФ function. In conclusion, our results indicate that mudskipper BpIL-34 modulates the functions of MOs/MФs via BpCSF-1R1.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Interleucinas/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/imunologia
14.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 222: 110035, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200172

RESUMO

Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are prone to various conditions affecting the quality of the fillet. A well-known but so far poorly understood condition is the focal red changes in muscle, often referred to as haemorrhages. Such changes are characterized by muscle necrosis, haemorrhages and acute inflammation. They can progress into focal melanised changes, a chronic inflammatory condition with melanin-producing leukocytes. The initial cause of intramuscular haemorrhages is unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal some of their key immunological features. Samples of red focal changes were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and RT-qPCR for various immune markers. The results were compared with samples of melanised changes and control muscle, subjected to the same analyses. In all red changes, infiltrates with mononuclear cells were detected, consisting mostly of MHC class I/II+ cells, but also of CD3+ and CD8+ cells. ISH studies on IgM showed few to moderate amounts of B-cells in red focal changes. Trends in the RT-qPCR showed upregulation of genes related to innate immunity in the red changes, whereas genes related to adaptive immunity were upregulated in the melanised changes. An important result was the significant downregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 in all red changes. Our findings indicate that we can rule out an auto invasive nature of the changes. The downregulation of IL10 at an early phase is a trait for the condition.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Hemorragia/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Músculos/patologia , Salmo salar/anatomia & histologia , Salmo salar/imunologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Biomarcadores/análise , Regulação para Baixo , Imunidade Inata , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Músculos/imunologia
15.
J Fish Biol ; 96(6): 1341-1348, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162333

RESUMO

Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) plays an important role in both innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of myd88 from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was characterized. The myd88 cDNA is 1333 bp in length and contains an 855 bp open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 284 amino acids. The predicted protein possesses typical Myd88 domain structural features including a death domain in the N-terminus, and box 1, 2, and 3 motifs of the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain in the C-terminus. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that myd88 messenger RNA (mRNA) was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues, especially highly in brain, kidney, blood, intestines and liver. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of Myd88 after Aeromonas veronii challenge, respectively. The Myd88 was remarkably upregulated in response to infection of A. veronii. These results suggested that Myd88 may play a vital role during the immune response of M. anguillicaudatus against bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/genética , Cipriniformes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/imunologia , Aeromonas veronii/imunologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 46-52, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212545

RESUMO

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone widely used in animals including fish. Intramuscular (IM) injection of enrofloxacin is a feasible and efficacious option for drug delivery. In many species IM injection has been associated with injection site reactions and increases in serum muscle enzymes. Injection site reactions have not been well characterized in fish. Three groups of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) received an IM injection of enrofloxacin 2.27% in the right epaxial musculature 24, 48, or 96 hr prior to evaluation. Mean dose was 7.69 mg/ kg (6.14-9.69 mg/kg). The 24- and 48-hr groups received an injection of equal-volume 0.9% saline in the left epaxial musculature. A corresponding noninjected tissue sample was designated in the left epaxial musculature from each fish of the 96-hr group. Fish were euthanized and injection sites and noninjection control sites were evaluated grossly and histologically. Grades 1-4 were assigned to samples, with grade 1 corresponding to normal tissue and grades 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe inflammation and/or necrosis respectively. Externally, all control and injection sites appeared visually unremarkable. On cut surface, epaxial muscle of the enrofloxacin-injected tissue appeared moderately to severely hemorrhagic compared to saline and noninjected tissue, which was normal or mildly hemorrhagic. Histologically, eight of eight noninjected tissues were grade 1. For saline-injected tissues, 14 of 16 tissues were grade 2 and 2 samples were grade 3 when 24- and 48-hr groups were combined. For enrofloxacin-injected tissues, 8 of the 8 24-hr samples were grade 3 and 16 of the 16 48- and 96-hr samples were grade 4. These data show that IM injection of enrofloxacin 2.27% is associated with severe hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in striped bass, and may negatively affect animal welfare.


Assuntos
Bass , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Enrofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100325

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of a co-infection with Moritella viscosa at different exposure levels of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). M. viscosa (1.14 × 106  cfu/ml) was introduced to all experimental tanks at 10 days post-lice infection (dpLs). Mean lice counts decreased over time in both the medium lice co-infection (31.5 ± 19.0 at 7 dpLs; 16.9 ± 9.3 at 46 dpLs) and high lice co-infection (62.0 ± 10.8 at 7 dpLs; 37.6 ± 11.3 at 46 dpLs). There were significantly higher mortalities and more severe skin lesions in the high lice co-infected group compared to medium lice co-infected group or M. viscosa-only infection. Quantitative gene expression analysis detected a significant upregulation of genes in skin from the high lice co-infection group consistent with severe inflammation (il-8, mmp-9, hep, saa). Skin lesions retrieved throughout the study were positive for M. viscosa growth, but these were rarely located in regions associated with lice. These results suggest that while M. viscosa infection itself may induce skin lesion development in salmon, co-infection with high numbers of lice can enhance this impact and significantly reduce the ability of these lesions to resolve, resulting in increased mortality.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Copépodes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Moritella/fisiologia , Salmo salar , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Animais , Aquicultura , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/parasitologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/parasitologia , Cicatrização/genética
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 585-594, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004616

RESUMO

Oil-adjuvant formulated formalin killed cells of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (FKC + Adj) is strongly effective against bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD) in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. In this study, we aimed to understand mechanisms underlying the strong protection by the vaccine in ayu. Antibody titer of FKC + Adj and formalin-killed cells (FKC) group was significantly higher than those of modified cytophaga broth injected (MCY) group and MCY with the adjuvant (MCY + Adj) group. The highest antibody titer was observed in FKC + Adj group. Granulomatous inflammation without lymphocyte cuff was observed in the spleen and trunk kidney of FKC + Adj and MCY + Adj group, while the size of the granuloma was bigger in FKC + Adj than in MCY + Adj group. Gene expression level for IL-8 was significantly up-regulated in FKC + Adj group at 4 weeks after the vaccination. In contrast, IL-10 gene expression level was significantly suppressed in FKC + Adj at 4 weeks after the vaccination. F. psychrophilum was almost cleared in the spleen and trunk kidney of FKC + Adj group within 2 days after the challenge. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that a lot of bacterial signals were detected in the spleen and trunk kidney of challenged fish in MCY, FKC and MCY + Adj group. However, the fluorescent signal was not detected in the organs of FKC + Adj group after the challenge. These data suggest that F. psychrophilum is immediately cleared in FKC + Adj vaccinated fish and both specific antibody and activation of phagocytes are essential to clear F. psychrophilum in ayu.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium/imunologia , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Osmeriformes/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056240

RESUMO

The caspase family proteins are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that transmit extracellular signals to cells, ultimately cause apoptosis and therefore play a key role in cellular immunity. In this study, we cloned and characterized three caspases from Chinese black sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis), Bscasp-1, Bscasp-8 and Bscasp-9. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Bscasp-1, Bscasp-8 and Bscasp-9 were universally expressed in all tested tissues of B. sinensis. Expression analyses showed that after poly(I:C) stimulation and bacterial (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) infection, the three caspases were significantly upregulated. After poly(I:C) stimulation, the change of Bscasp-1 expression in the head kidney was the most obvious; peak expression was about 80.78-fold more than that of the control. In addition, the expression of Bscasp-8 and Bscasp-9 in the peripheral blood and liver was 167.99- and 17.98-fold higher than that in the control group, respectively. After V. parahaemolyticus infection, the expression peaks of Bscasp-1 and Bscasp-8 in the peripheral blood and spleen were 85.82-fold and 280.83-fold that of the control. However, the expression of Bscasp-9 in the peripheral blood was upregulated only 8.33-fold higher than that in the control group. These results indicate that Bscasp-1, Bscasp-8 and Bscasp-9 are likely involved in response to viral and bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Caspases/genética , Caspases/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Caspases/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
20.
Virology ; 540: 184-194, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929000

RESUMO

To determine the role of piscine anti-viral cytotoxic cells, we analyzed the response of channel catfish to Ictalurid herpesvirus 1, commonly designated channel catfish virus (CCV). Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from catfish immunized with MHC-matched, CCV-infected G14D cells (G14D-CCV) showed marked lysis of G14D-CCV but little to no lysis of uninfected allogenic (3B11) or syngeneic (G14D) cells. Expansion of effectors by in vitro culture in the presence of irradiated G14D-CCV cells generated cultures with enhanced cytotoxicity and often broader target range. Cytotoxic effectors expressed rearranged TCR genes, perforin, granzyme, and IFN-γ. Four clonal cytotoxic lines were developed and unique TCR gene rearrangements including γδ were detected. Furthermore, catfish CTL clones were either CD4+/CD8- or CD4-/CD8-. Two CTL lines showed markedly enhanced killing of G14D-CCV targets, while the other two lines displayed a broader target range. Collectively, catfish virus-specific CTL display unique features that illustrate the diversity of the ectothermic vertebrate immune response.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Ictaluridae/imunologia , Ictaluridae/virologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Células Clonais , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunização , Imunofenotipagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia
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