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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3585-3594, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025215

RESUMO

The infective stage of Anisakidae nematodes responsible for allergic reactions in humans is found in a variety of edible fish and cephalopods. The identification of geographical regions that are high risk for infected seafood may help prevent allergic reactions in humans. Despite an abundance of published literature which has identified anisakid larvae in an array of edible seafood as well as scattered reports of human allergic anisakiasis, the relationship between the two has not been fully explored. Therefore, a systematic spatio-temporal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in fish from January 2000 to August 2020 firstly to explore the relationship between fish infection and cases of allergic anisakiasis and secondly to use fish infection data to map potential allergic anisakiasis 'hot spots'. A systematic literature search for original English text articles was conducted through search engines, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Out of 3228 articles which describe anisakid infection in fish, 264 were used for data extraction. Of 904 articles describing allergic anisakiasis, 37 were used for data extraction. A qualitative summary of the extracted data was performed using equal interval method (ArcMap software) in order to compare the global distribution of Anisakis-infected fish. Of the 152-identified fish hosts, five families were most commonly infected with Anisakis spp. These included Lophiidae (86.9%), Trichiuridae (77.05%), Zeidae (70.9%), Merlucciidae (67.8%) and Gadidae (56.8%). The hot spot areas for allergic anisakiasis were North and northeast of Atlantic Ocean, southwest of USA, west of Mexico, south of Chile, east of Argentina, Norway, UK and west of Iceland (confidence 99%). The highest rate of allergic anisakiasis was in Portugal and Norway with the prevalence rate of 18.45-22.50%. Allergologists should consider allergic anisakiasis as a public health issue particularly in high-risk countries where high prevalences in fish have been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/etiologia , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Larva , Prevalência
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 426-427, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the situation of Anisakis infection of in market-available marine fish in Dongtai City, so as to provide the evidence for the assessment of the risk of human Anisakis infections. METHODS: Raw and fresh marine fish caught in the sea of Dongtai City for sale were collected in 2018. The fish were weighted and dissected for the identification of Anisakis, and the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infections were calculated. In addition, the correlation between the weight of Anisakis-infected marine fish and the infection intensity of Anisakis was examined. RESULTS: There were four species of marine fish infected with Anisakis, including Trichiurus haumela, Scomberomorus niphonius, Pneumatophorus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis. Among the 149 fish samples, there were 78 with Anisakis infections, with a prevalence rate of 52.35%. The prevalence of Anisakis infection was 100.00% (28/28), 30.00% (9/30), 0 (0/30), 53.33% (16/30) and 80.65% (25/31) in T. haumela, S. niphonius, cuttle fish, P. japonicus and L. polyactis, respectively. A total of 1 049 Anisakis worms were collected, and the overall intensity of infection was 13.45 worms per fish. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the weight of T. haumela and the intensity of Anisakis infection (rs = 0.38, P = 0.047), and no correlation was found in other fish species. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of Anisakis infection in marine fish along the offshore areas of Dongtai City. Intensification of health education is required and healthy and safe dietary habits are encouranged.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Peso Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935771

RESUMO

This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. These 201 species comprise 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura and 2 Pentastomida, arranged in 84 host fish species. This work carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River contributes to the listing of parasite species and host interactions of the local ichthyofauna. Little is known about these communities and its riches are underestimated due to the high density of fish found in this region, highlighting the importance of conducting studies on the local fauna.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935738

RESUMO

Metacercariae of Diplostomidae are widely distributed in America and may cause diplostomiasis, an ocular disease in fishes. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum in Plagioscion squamosissimus (non-native fish species) from Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, Tietê River, Brazil and an explanation for the high infection rates with this parasite in the Paraná River Basin is proposed. Eyes of 70 hosts were examined, the metacercariae were preserved and identified. The prevalence (P), mean intensity of infection (MII) ± standard deviation, mean abundance (MA) ± standard deviation, were calculated and a bibliographic review was performed. There was no difference in parasitism between male and female hosts. The values of P = 80%, MII = 21.55 ± 3.25 and MA = 17.24 ± 2.91 were high, as in most studies in areas where P. squamosissimus were introduced, while these values were low in areas of natural occurrence. This may be explained by the genetic susceptibility of the host to the parasite. The entire population of P. squamosissimus from the Upper Paraná has been founded by a few specimens, resulting in very low genetic variability. Consequently, the population may be highly susceptible to A. compactum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metacercárias , Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Rios
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857792

RESUMO

The ciliated protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans infects a wide range of marine fish and causes the highly lethal white spot disease. This parasite possesses three morphologically and physiologically distinct life stages: an infectious theront, a parasitic trophont, and an asexually reproductive tomont. In the past few years, several attempts have been made to help elucidate how C. irritans transforms from one stage to another using transcriptomic or proteomic approaches. However, there has been no research studying changes in transcription profiles between different time points of a single C. irritans life stage-the development of this parasite. Here we use RNA-seq and compare gene expression profiles of theront cells collected by 1 and 10 hrs after they emerged from tomonts. It has been shown that infectivity of theront cells declines 6-8 hours post-emergence, and we used this characteristic as a physiological marker to confirm the aging of theront cells. We identified a total of 41 upregulated and 90 downregulated genes that were differentially expressed between young and aging theront cells. Using Blast2Go to further analyze functions of these genes, we show that genes related to energy production are downregulated, but quite surprisingly many genes involved in transcription/translation processes are upregulated. We also show that expression of all nine detectable agglutination/immobilization antigen genes, with great sequence divergence, is invariably downregulated. Functions of other differentially expressed genes and indications are also discussed in our study.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Cilióforos/metabolismo , Cilióforos/patogenicidade , Animais , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Perciformes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3285-3296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812144

RESUMO

The taxonomy of Hysterothylacium genus in Mediterranean waters remains incomplete and unresolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphological and molecular identification of selected species of Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fish from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. A total of 192 marine fish samples were examined. In total, thirty-seven third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium type V. In the present study, representatives of this type from the Mediterranean Sea were genetically characterized for the first time by sequencing the rDNA ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) regions and mtDNA cox2 gene. This study represents the first report of Hysterothylacium type V from the Mediterranean Sea. We also report Mullus barbatus, M. surmuletus, and Pagellus erythrinus as new hosts for this larval type. Based upon molecular and phylogenetic analyses considering the rDNA ITS regions, the Hysterothylacium type V described here was classified as a new genotype, named Genotype B. The valid genetic data of the described Hysterothylacium type V in the present study can be used to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Hysterothylacium species from the Mediterranean Sea and worldwide for future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/classificação , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genótipo , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3297-3304, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827105

RESUMO

A comparative study on the strobilar morphology of the tapeworm Proteocephalus percae (Müller, 1780) (Cestoda), a parasite of the perch Perca fluviatilis (L.), showed a high percentage of abnormally developed parasite individuals. The evaluation of biological samples showed seven types of morphological abnormalities, mostly related to reproductive organs of the model tapeworm species. The most commonly identified deformity was an incomplete segmentation of the strobila. A malformed ovary, which is a structural anomaly linked with proglottization and maturation of the strobila, was also shown to be rather frequent. Offish hosts (P. percae) were collected from two localities with different levels of heavy metal pollution, the highly contaminated water reservoir Ruzín and a control locality, the water reservoir Palcmanská Masa, which belongs to the European network of protected areas in Slovakia. Tapeworm abnormalities occurred more frequently in individuals from the contaminated environment (29.9%) compared with individuals from the control site (4.9%). The concentrations of heavy metals found in the parasites and their fish hosts from the heavily polluted reservoir support our assumption that the occurrence of abnormalities could be linked with the destructive effect of toxic substances. The present study also demonstrates that the enumeration of body deformities exceeding the common level of phenotypic variability of particular parasitic species could potentially be used as an indicator of environmental problems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Percas/parasitologia , Animais , Cestoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Feminino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Eslováquia , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3617-3625, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833049

RESUMO

Two myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa were isolated from the gallbladders of marine fish in the South China Sea. Sphaeromyxa scorpaena n. sp. was collected from Scorpaenodes albaiensis Evermann and Seale, 1907. The mature myxospores were arcuate-shaped with tapered to pointed ends, and a length of 14.1 ± 0.7 (13.8-15.1) µm and a width of 5.2 ± 0.3 (4.9-5.8) µm. The polar capsules (PCs) were pyriform with a length of 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.1-3.5) µm and a width of 1.6 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.8) µm, and containing ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded 1.5-2.5 turns. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA as well as morphological comparison confirmed that S. scorpaena n. sp. was a previously undescribed species. Sphaeromyxa theraponi, isolated from Terapon jarbua Forsskål, 1775, was reported for the first time from the South China Sea. The mature myxospores were slightly arched, tapering to bluntly rounded ends, with a length of 17.3 ± 0.9 (15.5-19.4) µm and a width of 4.8 ± 0.3 (4.1-5.3) µm. A sporoplasm was situated in the space between PCs in the myxospore. The PCs were pyriform, which contained ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded by 2-3 turns, with a length of 7.0 ± 0.5 (5.8-8.1) µm and a width of 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.2-3.0) µm. Our morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pointed ends of S. scorpaena n. sp. might be a secondarily acquired characteristic rather than an ancestral trait.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Percas , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3627-3637, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852620

RESUMO

This study increases the known biodiversity of cnidarian parasites in neotropical bryconid fishes. Two novel Myxobolus species are described based on morphology, ultrastructure and small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) sequencing: Myxobolus vetuschicanus n. sp. infecting fins of Salminus franciscanus and Myxobolus mineirus n. sp. infecting the mesentery of Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ultrastructural analysis of the two species revealed an asynchronous sporogenesis process, with germinative cells and young developmental stages of myxospores in the periphery of the plasmodia. In M. vetuschicanus n. sp., the plasmodia were surrounded by a layer of fibroblasts and in M. mineirus n. sp., the plasmodial membrane had direct contact with the host tissue. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ssrDNA of Henneguya/Myxobolus species showed that the two novel Myxobolus species grouped in subclades together with other parasite species of bryconid fishes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos , Rios/parasitologia
10.
Mol Immunol ; 126: 73-86, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771671

RESUMO

Natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) of peroxiredoxin family is an important innate immune molecule with having anti-oxidant activity. Although this gene has already been studied in a few fish species, it is yet to be identified and functionally characterised in Indian major carps. In the present study, the complete NKEF-B cDNA of rohu, Labeo rohita was cloned that encoded a putative protein of 197 amino acids. The phylogenetic study showed that L. rohita NKEF-B (LrNKEF-B) is closely related to NKEF-B of Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio species. Tissue-specific expression of LrNKEF-B gene revealed the highest transcript level in the liver tissue. In the ontogeny study, the highest level of the expression was observed in milt and at 18 h post-development. The expression pattern of this gene was also studied in various pathogen models viz., Gram-negative bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila), ectoparasite (Argulus siamensis) and a dsRNA viral analogue (poly I:C) in the liver and anterior kidney tissues of L. rohita juveniles. During A. hydrophila infection, the increase in expression of transcripts was observed at 3 h post-infection in both liver (15-fold) and anterior kidney (8-fold). In A. siamensis infection, the expression gradually increased up to 3 d post-infection in the anterior kidney, whereas in liver 3-fold up-regulation was noticed at 12 h post-infection. Similarly, during poly I:C stimulation, up-regulation of NKEF-B transcript was observed in anterior kidney from 1 h to 24 h post-stimulation and down-regulated afterwards whereas, the transcript level increased gradually from 6 h to 15 d post-stimulation in liver tissue. In vitro exposure to concanavalin, A and formalin-killed A. hydrophila upregulated NKEF-B gene expression in anterior kidney and peripheral blood leukocytes of L. rohita, however, down-regulated the same in the splenic leukocytes. A recombinant protein of LrNKEF-B (rLrNKEF-B) of 22 kDa was produced and it showed anti-oxidant activity by protecting supercoiled DNA and reducing insulin disulfide bonds. The minimum bactericidal concentration of this recombinant protein was found to be 4.54 µM against A. hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, rLrNKEF-B showed relative percent survival of 72.6 % in A. hydrophila challenged L. rohita, and the survival was found to be associated with a high level of expression of different cytokines, anti-oxidant genes and perforin in the rLrNKEF-B treated L. rohita. An indirect ELISA assay for estimation of NKEF was developed in L. rohita, and the concentrations of NKEF-B increased with time periods post A. hydrophila challenge viz., 0 h (42.56 ng/mL), 12 h (174 ng/mL) and 48 h (370 ng/mL) in rohu serum. Our results suggest a crucial role of LrNKEF-B in innate immunity against biotic stress and oxidative damage and also having antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Peroxirredoxinas/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/imunologia , Animais , Arguloida/imunologia , Carpas/genética , Carpas/microbiologia , Carpas/parasitologia , Clonagem Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Rim Cefálico/enzimologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Filogenia , Poli I-C/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108829, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836093

RESUMO

Globalization opens new market areas and affects food consumption habits, resulting in rapid and remarkable cultural change. Food habits such as consumption of raw fish meat have become popular, resulting in increased risk of emerging infectious diseases. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s) and A. pegreffii are the most common and important fish-borne zoonotic nematodes responsible for human anisakiasis, which occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish as well as cooked fish due to their heat-stable allergens. Here, we investigated the prevalence, intensity, and abundance of Anisakis larvae in imported fish and ready-to-eat local fish products in Turkey. A total of 205 ready-to-eat fish products, 100 imported frozen Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets, and 100 imported frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) were sampled from supermarkets, sushi restaurants, and fish markets. All samples were individually examined using a pepsin digestion technique. In total, 602 Anisakis type I larvae were recovered from 98/100 mackerel. No larvae were found in ready-to-eat products or frozen Atlantic salmon fillets. Overall, 8.8% of the larvae were found in the muscle tissue. The overall mean intensity and abundance of infection in mackerel were 6.14 and 6.02, respectively. The larvae were molecularly identified and their phylogenetic relationships with the relevant Anisakis sequences in GenBank were investigated. For this purpose, a subsample of randomly selected 100 Anisakis larvae were analyzed with PCR-RFLP of the ITS region. The larvae were identified as A. simplex (s.s.) (n = 87) and hybrids (n = 13). ITS and cox2 gene regions of all hybrids and randomly selected 50 A. simplex (s.s.) larvae were sequenced for species confirmation and phylogenetic analyses. No intraspecific nucleotide variation was found among the ITS sequences of either species. Seven and three haplotypes, respectively, were identified for A. simplex (s.s.) and hybrid species according to DNA polymorphism of the cox2 gene. Hybrids in our study clustered within the common A. simplex (s.s.) clade in the cox2 phylogenetic tree indicating the dominance of A. simplex (s.s) in the catching area of Atlantic mackerel. Consequently, our study indicates high occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae with an overall 98.0% prevalence in imported Atlantic mackerel, and highlights the importance of these fish as potential reservoirs for human allergic anisakiasis in Turkey and possibly in other countries.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Larva/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Salmo salar/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/embriologia , Anisakis/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 333-338, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615748

RESUMO

A small survey was performed to investigate the recent infection status of Clonorchis sinensis and other zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from a local market of Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. A total of 118 fish in 7 species were examined by the artificial digestion method on March 2016. The metacercariae of 4 species of zoonotic trematodes, i.e., C. sinensis, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus, were detected. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were found in 62 (69.7%) out of 89 fish (5 species), and their intensity of infection was very high, 81.2 per fish infected. Prevalences of 3 intestinal flukes, H. pumilio, H. taichui and C. formosanus, were 75.0%, 47.6%, and 31.7% in positive fish species, respectively, with the metacercarial intensities of 15.5, 10.3, and 2.2 per fish infected. From the above results, it has been confirmed that various species of freshwater fish continue to play the role of the infection source of C. sinensis and other zoonotic trematodes in Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. It is of particular note that the prevalence and intensity of C. sinensis metacercariae are much higher than those reported in previous studies in fish in northern Vietnam.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638835

RESUMO

Siganids are the most important marine fish distributed along the African coast. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate parasite fauna infects one of the most important mariculture fish species in the Red Sea, the Rabbit fish Siganus rivulatus. One acanthocephalan species has been isolated from the posterior region of fish intestine, belonging to the Neoechinorhynchidae family, and named as Neoechinorhynchus macrospinosus Amin & Nahhas, 1994 based on its morphological and morphometric features. In order to determine the accurate taxonomic position of this acanthocephalan species, molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on the partial sequences of 18S rDNA gene region. The obtained data revealed that this species was associated with a close identity ˃71% for other species belonging to the Neoechinorhynchidae family. In addition, the recovered species deeply embedded in the Neoechinorhynchus genus, closely related to the previously described Neoechinorhynchus sp., N. mexicoensis, and N. golvani with identity percent of 95.14, 93.59, 93.59%, respectively. Therefore, the present study provide a better understanding about the taxonomic status of N. macrospinosus based on 18S rDNA that can be useful for achieving a proper assessment of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Filogenia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e001620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638834

RESUMO

More than 1.450 marine fish species are commercialized as ornamental fish and approximately 90% of these are wild-caught. Rainford's butterflyfish, Chaetodon rainfordi (McCulloch, 1923), is endemic to the western Pacific. This fish species belongs to one of the main ornamental fish families imported into Brazil. Haliotrema is a genus of the family Dactylogyridae. Species of this genus have very interesting host associations and geographic distributions. The aim of this study was to report on occurrences of exotic Haliotrema aurigae in diseased Rainford butterflyfish that were imported to Brazil. One Rainford's butterflyfish with suspected parasitic disease was euthanized and subjected to skin and gill scraping. The parasite specimens were mounted on semi-permanent slides with Hoyer's solution for morphological analysis of sclerotized structures. The hard-sclerotized structures of these specimens were compared and were identified as those of Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968). These results emphasize the importance of implementation of correct control measures at the country's borders, to avoid the introduction of exotic parasites. In addition, it can be emphasized that the easy adaptation of this parasite to new environments is a concern for ornamental fish farmers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Trematódeos , Animais , Ásia , Brasil , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Oceano Pacífico , Perciformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667503

RESUMO

Infection of fish gills by Henneguya causes greater contact between the secondary gill lamellae, thereby giving rise to decreased absorption surface area at the end of the filaments. This ectoparasite can cause damages on the gills infected fish. In the present study, fresh gills of Metynnis lippincottianus were analyzed using optical microscopy techniques. The myxoporean Henneguya sp. was found to be infecting 80% of the gills of this host fish. Presence of this parasite caused hyperplasia and fusion of the gill lamellae, but without inflammation in the parasitized organ.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Brânquias , Myxozoa , Animais , Brasil , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609239

RESUMO

This study describes Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp. in specimens of the Osteichthyes Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840), collected in the Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá Brazil. Using optical microscopy and molecular analysis, these cyst-shaped parasites were analyzed. The gills of 57.14% of the analyzed S. jurupari contained hundreds of spores. The cysts found on the gill lamellae were oval-shaped and whitish. The Henneguya spores had an average length of 46.5 (41.3-56.92) µm. The fusiform body of the Henneguya measured 16.5 (13.16-20.01) µm long and 5.1 (3.91-6.12) µm in width, the two polar capsules had a taper of 3.83 (3.4-4.32) µm and a width of 1.68 (1.4-1.99) µm, and the tail measured 30 (22.47-41.67) µm in length, containing a polar filament coiled seven to nine times. Morphogical and phylogenetic analysis allowed the preposition of a new species, Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp, that belongs to the family Myxobolidae and the genus Henneguya.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Brasil , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609240

RESUMO

This study investigated the fauna of ectoparasitic crustaceans in Leporinus affinis from Reservoir Coaracy Nunes, in eastern Amazon (Brazil), as well as the parasite-host interactions. The mouth, gills and tegument of 50.9% of the fish examined were parasitized by Argulus chicomendesi, Ergasilus turucuyus and Excorallana berbicensis, and a total of 118 parasites were collected. The dominance was found for E. berbicensis and the higher infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts, but E. turucuyus had the highest prevalence on the gills of this host. The cluster analysis revealed higher similarity in the infestations by E. berbicensis and A. chicomendesi in relation to infestation site in hosts. Host sex and relative condition factor (Kn) were not influenced by moderate parasitism, but the abundance of parasites presented negative correlation with weight and Kn of the fish. This is the first study on the parasites of L. affinis showing low species diversity, with moderate prevalence and low parasite abundance.


Assuntos
Arguloida , Caraciformes , Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Animais , Arguloida/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Copépodes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2799-2811, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677004

RESUMO

The third-stage larvae (L3) of the Anisakidae family are parasitic nematodes with zoonotic impact and are frequently encountered in the organs and musculature of various fish intended for human consumption. Since Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii are the major aetiological agents of human disease, this study aims to combine the morphological and molecular data on the recovered anisakid larvae to contribute to a simplified morphological distinction of those species and conducted a survey of anisakid larvae infection in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Here, 116 horse mackerel caught in Portuguese waters were analysed for the presence of L3 of anisakids, and 3148 larvae were collected, of which only 30% were retrieved during visual inspection. As such, visual inspection does not appear to be very effective in anisakid detection. A prevalence of 84.5% of infected fish was found, and the mean intensity and mean abundance were 32.1 and 27.1 parasites per fish, respectively. The morphological and molecular analyses of 196 L3 randomly chosen from the total sample of parasites demonstrated the presence of L3 of mostly Anisakis spp., with only one L3 of Hysterothylacium aduncum. Relative frequencies of 62.9% for A. pegreffii and 37.1% for A. simplex (s.s.) were obtained. The morphometry differences between these two sibling species were evaluated, and the results demonstrated significant differences between the length of the ventriculus and the length of the oesophagus. Precisely, A. simplex (s.s.) has a longer oesophagus and ventriculus than A. pegreffii. As such, these differences may be used to distinguish the two species through morphological analysis.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne/parasitologia , Portugal , Prevalência
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3233-3241, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656658

RESUMO

Anisakid nematode larvae occur frequently in the liver of Atlantic cod, but merely few infection data from cod in waters around Greenland exist. The present study reports the occurrence of third-stage anisakid larvae in the livers of 200 Atlantic cod caught on fishing grounds along the West coast of Greenland (fjord systems of Maniitsoq) in May, June, August and September 2017. Classical and molecular helminthological techniques were used to identify the nematodes. A total of 200 cod livers were examined, and 194 were infected with third-stage nematode larvae (overall prevalence of infection 97%) with a mean intensity of 10.3 (range between 1 and 44 parasites per fish). Prevalences recorded were 96% for Anisakis simplex (s.l.), 55% for Pseudoterranova decipiens (s.l.) and 8% for Contracaecum osculatum (s.l.). Sequencing the mtDNA cox2 from 8 out of 23 these latter larvae conferred these to C. osculatum sp. B. A clear seasonal variation was observed, with a rise in A. simplex (s.l.) and P. decipiens (s.l.) occurrence in June and August and a decline in September. The study may serve as a baseline for future investigations using the three anisakids as biological indicators in Greenland waters.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadus morhua/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Anisakis/genética , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Larva , Fígado/parasitologia
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMO

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Washington/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
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