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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e017520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533795

RESUMO

We investigated the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in pigs raised in the Northeast of Pará, Brazil. At Study I, convenience sampled 151 pigs at two slaughterhouses, with and without state inspection; and Study II, which assessed 159 pigs with probabilistic sampling from nine pig farms. Serological analysis was performed using indirect fluorescent antibody test for T. gondii and N. caninum with a cutoff of 64 and 50, respectively. Overall, 6.77% pigs were seropositive for T. gondii and 5.16% for N. caninum. In Study I, pigs slaughtered with and without state inspection presented similar occurrence for both coccidia (p>0.05). Study II found an association between N. caninum seropositivity and sludge discarded into the soil, feeding pigs with animal-based protein, subsistence system, and absence of nipple drinkers. No association was found for T. gondii. Pigs from Pará are a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to report anti-N. caninum antibodies in the serum of pigs in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMO

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1093-1102, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570666

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the most ubiquitous viral pathogen of pigs and has persistently affected the global swine industry. Since first being identified in South Korea in 1999, the virus has undergone considerable genetic change and genotype shifts during the past two decades. These events have contributed to the coexistence of genotypes PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d in Korean pig populations, which may promote viral recombination. The genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of PCV2 strains circulating in pig herds on Jeju Island from 2019 to 2020 were the focus of this study. Genotype-specific PCR indicated that PCV2d is the dominant viral genotype and that coinfections with PCV2d and PCV2a (75%) or PCV2a and PCV2b (25%) are common in provincial pig herds. The complete genome sequences of 11 PCV2 strains, including three PCV2a, two PCV2b, and six PCV2d strains, were determined. A genomic comparison showed that all of the viruses had the highest nucleotide sequence identity to their corresponding genotypic reference strain. Notably, genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one PCV2d strain, KNU-1931, exhibited nucleotide sequence variation in the ORF1 gene when compared to other PCV2d strains but showed a high degree of similarity to the PCV2b strains. Comprehensive recombination analysis suggested that KNU-1931 originated from natural recombination within ORF1 between PCV2b (the minor parent) and PCV2d (the major parent) strains. Our findings provide information about the frequency of genetic recombination between two different PCV2 genotypes circulating in the field domestically, illustrating the importance of continual intergenotypic recombination for viral fitness when multiple genotypes are present.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 981-984, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480578

RESUMO

The control and elimination of pseudorabies (PR) is one of the most important goals in the pig industry. After the first PR outbreak in Korea in 1986, all pigs infected with PR virus (PRV) were removed, and a vaccination program for pigs was implemented. No PR has occurred in Korea since 2010, and vaccination was discontinued after 2013. Information on the seroprevalence of PRV in pigs, including wild boars (Sus scrofa), is important for evaluating the PR status in a country. In this study, 2.65% (28/1057) of the wild boars tested had antibodies against PRV in 2018, indicating that PRV has been circulating continuously in the wild boar population in Korea. Effective means should be implemented to prevent the transmission of PRV between wild and domestic pigs, because the wild boar is a potential reservoir host for PRV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/imunologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , Testes de Neutralização , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Pseudorraiva/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477472

RESUMO

Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in domestic swine (IAV-S) are associated with sporadic zoonotic transmission at the human-animal interface. Previous pandemic IAVs originated from animals, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing human immunity against the increasingly diverse IAV-S. We analyzed serum samples from healthy human donors (n = 153) using hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay to assess existing serologic protection against a panel of contemporary IAV-S isolated from swine in the United States (n = 11). Age-specific seroprotection rates (SPR), which are the proportion of individuals with HAI ≥ 1:40, corresponded with lower or moderate pandemic risk classifications for the multiple IAV-S examined (one H1-δ1, one H1-δ2, three H3-IVA, one H3-IVB, one H3-IVF). Individuals born between 2004 and 2013 had SPRs of 0% for the five classified H3 subtype IAV-S, indicating youth may be particularly predisposed to infection with these viruses. Expansion of existing immunologic gaps over time could increase likelihood of future IAV-S spillover to humans and facilitate subsequent sustained human-to-human transmission resulting in disease outbreaks with pandemic potential.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Testes Sorológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 103-109, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455082

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. infection occurs when a host ingests muscle tissue containing infective larvae (L1 stage). Wild boar meat and its products represent the second largest source of human trichinellosis worldwide. For this reason, and since that in Portugal wild boar is the most hunted large game specie, the laboratory of Technology, Quality and Food Safety (TQFS) from the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro created a free service to test wild boar meat for Trichinella spp. From December 2015 to February 2020, and 857 samples were analysed. From those, the majority (719/857, 83.9%) were tested after October 2018 when a specific national legislation came into force, demanding that meat from wild boar hunted in a defined risk area should be tested for Trichinella spp. Under TQFS laboratory activity, in January 2020, a positive case was identified, being the first molecular confirmation of Trichinella britovi infection in wild boar in Portugal. Additionally to this activity, in 2019, a questionnaire was submitted to 100 hunters to acquire information about wild boar meat usage and consumption behaviours. From the total respondents, 86% declared they intended to use meat for private consumption. Of those, 93% also stated that have sold part of the meat and/or homemade sausages, the majority (80%) without prior testing for Trichinella spp., as required by EU Regulation. These results alert the hunters to a risk for human infection, which could be extended to outside the hunter's household. Given the actual epidemiological situation, it should be emphasized that testing for Trichinella spp. in wild boar meat should be maintained and reinforced, particularly in the risk area. The results presented in this report strongly support the importance of specific national legislation to mitigate the risk of trichinellosis due to consumption of non-tested wild boar meat.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Carne/normas , Portugal/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 779-788, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433693

RESUMO

Ungulate protoparvovirus 1, also known as porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1), is considered to be one of the major causes of reproductive failure in pig breeding herds. Other parvoviruses have also been identified in pigs, including ungulate tetraparvovirus 3, or PPV2, ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, or PPV3, and ungulate copiparvovirus 2, or PPV4, but their significance for pigs is unknown. In the present study, the prevalence of PPV1-4 was investigated using a total of 231 lung and serum samples collected from slaughterhouses in 13 provinces throughout Vietnam. The overall prevalence was 54.5% (126/231) for PPV1, 28.0% (65/231) for PPV2, 17.7% (41/231) for PPV3, and 7.8% (18/231) for PPV4. While PPV1 and PPV2 were found in 11 provinces, PPV4 was detected in only three provinces. Co-circulation of PPV1, PPV2 and PPV3 was frequently observed, with PPV1/PPV2 coinfection predominating, with 20.8% (48/231). All four PPVs were detected together in only one sample from Thua Thien Hue. Three nearly complete PPV4 genome sequences of 5,453 nt were determined and deposited in the GenBank database. Alignment and comparison of the three genome sequences showed 99.5-99.6% nucleotide sequence identity, and the deduced amino acid sequences of open reading frames 1-3 were 99.6-99.9% identical to each other, 98.9-99.3% identical to those of other Vietnamese strains and 99.4-99.7% identical to those of Chinese strains). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a close relationship between Vietnamese and Chinese PPV4 strains. These results are the first to report the prevalence of PPV1, PPV2, PPV3, and PPV4 and nearly complete genomic sequences of PPV4 in pigs from slaughterhouses in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirinae/classificação , Parvovirinae/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109033, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401188

RESUMO

An increasing number of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in industrialized countries have been foodborne and linked to the consumption of undercooked pork products. To date, data on the prevalence of HEV in pork products sold in the United States is limited and no standard processing method exists for the detection of HEV in foods. In order to develop a processing method for the detection of HEV in pork products, ground pork and pork liver were selected for method development. Murine norovirus (MNV) was used as a process control. A filtration step prior to RNA detection was shown to reduce the level of PCR inhibitors in ground pork and an additional ultracentrifugation process was successful in removing PCR inhibitors in pork liver. MNV RNA was detected in ground pork and liver samples inoculated with 4.7 log10 PFU/g and 3.0 log10 PFU/g, respectively. Using the developed method for viral RNA detection in ground pork and pork liver, 20 packages of ground pork (six 1 g sub-samples per package) and 14 pork livers (four 1 g sub-samples per liver) were screened for the presence of HEV RNA. Fifteen out of 119 (12.6%) ground pork samples tested positive for HEV RNA and 13 out of 20 packages (65%) contained at least one positive sample. Twenty-five of 56 (45%) of pork liver samples were positive for HEV RNA and 6 of 14 livers (43%) had all sub-samples test positive for HEV RNA. Overall, the results indicate ground pork and pig liver as a potential source of HEV.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/virologia , Carne Vermelha/virologia , Animais , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Fígado/virologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
9.
Gene ; 773: 145384, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383119

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 4 (PCV4), a novel circovirus, was identified in pigs with serious symptoms, including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)-like signs, in China in 2019. This study investigated the prevalence and genome diversity of PCV4 in pigs from Guangxi Province, China, between 2015 and 2019. Thirteen of 257 (5.1%) samples were positive for PCV4, 9 of these (69.2%) PCV4-positive samples were coinfected with PCV2 or PCV3, and one PCV4-positive sample was coinfected with both PCV2 and PCV3. Three complete PCV4 genomes shared 36.9-73.8% nucleotide similarity with other representative circovirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PCV4 was most closely related to bat-associated circovirus and mink circovirus. In summary, this is the first epidemiological investigation and evolutionary analysis of PCV4 in Guangxi Province, China, and the results provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of PCV4.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/genética , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMO

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Suínos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMO

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/psicologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Humanos , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia solium/classificação , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3559-3570, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951145

RESUMO

Blastocystis is the most frequently observed eukaryotic gastrointestinal symbiont in humans and animals. Its low host specificity and zoonotic potential suggest that animals might serve as possible reservoirs for transmission. The prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in animal populations in Southeast Asia, a hotspot for zoonotic diseases, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research aimed at understanding the zoonotic role of Blastocystis are also included. Seven countries have, so far, reported Blastocystis infection in various animals, such as livestock, poultry, companion animals, and non-human primates. Pigs were the most studied animals, and there were records of 100% prevalence in pigs, cattle, and ostriches. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, twelve Blastocystis sp. subtypes (STs), namely ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST8, ST9, ST10, ST12, and ST14 have been recognised infecting animals of Southeast Asia. ST1 and ST5 were the most frequently identified, and Malaysia observed the most diverse distribution of subtypes. Further investigations on Blastocystis sp. in various animal hosts, using adequate sample sizes and uniform detection methods, are essential for a better understanding of the distribution of this organism. Detailed genome studies, especially on STs shared by humans and animals, are also recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Primatas/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 361-367, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasitic nematodes with almost worldwide distribution. The infection can be transmitted through the foodborne route and can cause serious health problems in infected human patients. It is also an economically important issue due to the high financial cost connected with prevention of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to discover trends in the epidemiological situation in people and animals in Slovakia in 2009-2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on human trichinellosis originated from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, and data on Trichinella infection in animals from the State Veterinary and Food Administration of the Slovak Republic. A seroepidemiological study on 655 voluntary respondents was performed. RESULTS: Altogether, 29 human cases were reported between 2009-2018, with a maximum of 13 cases in 2011. Males were affected more often (19 cases) than females (10 cases); the average age of patients was 45.1 years. Antibodies to Trichinellawere detected in two sera (0.3%): in a serum from one hunter and one veterinarian. In the monitored period, the average prevalence of Trichinella infection was 9.6% in 2,295 red foxes, and 0.04% in 165,643 wild boars. Three (1.7%) of 178 surveyed brown bears were positive. Within the compulsory monitoring of trichinellosis in domestic pigs, none from a total of 1,632,688 pigs were positive. The presence of three species, Trichinellabritovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, was documented, with T. britovi representing 93.9% of identified isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that the prevalence of Trichinella infection has not changed considerably with time in Slovakia, and the risk of human infection outbreaks is connected mainly with the consumption of wild boar meat.


Assuntos
Raposas , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Ursidae , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2883-2889, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892248

RESUMO

In order to understand the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in diarrhoeal pigs in Sichuan province, 634 clinical samples were collected from individual pigs with diarrhoea in 13 regions of Sichuan province, China, from January 2017 and June 2019. The detection results showed that the infection rate of PDCoV was relatively low in diarrhoeal pigs, 13.25% (84/634), but the infection rate of PEDV (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus) was high, 32.18% (204/634). Coinfection with PEDV was common (55.95%, 47/84) in PDCoV-infected diarrhoeal pigs. Additionally, the chance of PDCoV infection was 2.77 times higher in suckling piglets than in sows, and about 3.30 times higher in spring and winter than in summer. PDCoV/PEDV coinfection was 75% less likely in sows than in suckling piglets. The complete genomes of four Sichuan PDCoV strains were sequenced and analysed. There were some insertion-deletion signatures in the whole genome sequences of four strains, including a 6-nt deletion in the non-structural gene 2 region, a 9-nt insertion in the non-structural gene 3 region, a 3-nt deletion in the S gene region, and a distinguishing 11-nt deletion in the 3'UTR region. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences revealed that the PDCoV Sichuan strains were closely related to other Chinese PDCoV reference strains; however, phylogenetic analysis based on S gene sequences showed that the CH/SC/2019 strain clustered in a large clade with strains from the USA, Japan, and Korea. These data advance our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV in China and may contribute to vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , China , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Prevalência , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948526

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize in silico enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4- and F18-positive isolates (n = 90) causing swine postweaning diarrhea, including pathogenic potential, phylogenetic relationship, antimicrobial and biocide resistance, prophage content, and metal tolerance rates. F4 strains belonged mostly to the O149 and O6 serogroups and ST100 and ST48 sequence types (STs). F18 strains were mainly assigned to the O8 and O147 serogroups and ST10, ST23, and ST42. The highest rates of antimicrobial resistance were found against streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and ampicillin. No resistance was found toward ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, and colistin. Genes conferring tolerance to copper (showing the highest diversity), cadmium, silver, and zinc were predicted in all genomes. Enterotoxin genes (ltcA, 100% F4, 62% F18; astA, 100% F4, 38.1% F18; sta, 18.8% F4, 38.1% F18; stb, 100% F4, 76.2% F18) and fimbria-encoding genes typed as F4ac and F18ac were detected in all strains, in addition to up to 16 other virulence genes in individual strains. Phage analysis predicted between 7 and 20 different prophage regions in each strain. A highly diverse variety of plasmids was found; IncFII, IncFIB, and IncFIC were prevalent among F4 isolates, while IncI1 and IncX1 were dominant among F18 strains. Interestingly, F4 isolates from the early 1990s belonged to the same clonal group detected for most of the F4 strains from 2018 to 2019 (ONT:H10-A-ST100-CH27-0). The small number of single-nucleotide polymorphism differences between the oldest and recent F4 ST100 isolates suggests a relatively stable genome. Overall, the isolates analyzed in this study showed remarkably different genetic traits depending on the fimbria type.IMPORTANCE Diarrhea in the postweaning period due to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is an economically relevant disease in pig production worldwide. In Denmark, prevention is mainly achieved by zinc oxide administration (to be discontinued by 2022). In addition, a breeding program has been implemented that aims to reduce the prevalence of this illness. Treatment with antimicrobials contributes to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development. As a novelty, this study aims to deeply understand the genetic population structure and variation among diarrhea-associated isolates by whole-genome sequencing characterization. ST100-F4ac is the dominant clonal group circulating in Danish herds and showed high similarity to ETEC ST100 isolates from China, the United States, and Spain. High rates of AMR and high diversity of virulence genes were detected. The characterization of diarrhea-related ETEC is important for understanding the disease epidemiology and pathogenesis and for implementation of new strategies aiming to reduce the impact of the disease in pig production.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Genoma Bacteriano , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2471-2478, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772174

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a fatal epizootic swine coronavirus that presents a financial threat to the global swine industry. Since the discovery of the low-pathogenic genotype 1b (G1b) in 2014, it has been responsible for sporadic outbreaks in South Korea. In this study, we identified novel G1b variants arising from the natural recombination of a major pandemic-like G2b virus and a minor G1b virus currently circulating in the domestic field. The whole-genome sequences of two 2018-19 G1b recombinants, KNU-1808 and KNU-1909, were determined. A genomic comparison showed that these two viruses share the highest nucleotide sequence similarity with the 2017 G1b strain but share less similarity with the 2014 G1b emergent strain KNU-1406. However, the putative recombination breakpoints spanning the first 1,170 nucleotides of the spike (S) gene were almost identical among the emergent and contemporary G1b strains. Recombination detection indicated that the inter-subgroup G1b recombinant first emerged in 2017 by introducing the N-terminal domain of S from KNU-1406 into the backbone of KNU-1703, possibly leading to antigenic shift. It then evolved into KNU-1808 and KNU-1909 through genetic drift, moving toward a more G2b-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 2018-2019 G1b recombinants belong to a cluster containing other G1b strains but form a new branch. This study provides an important advance warning in regard to the emergence and prevalence of new genotypes or variants that can result from genetic recombination between two different PEDV genotypes circulating in endemic areas and continuous non-lethal mutations essential for viral fitness in the host environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2487-2493, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772250

RESUMO

Since late 2018, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has reemerged and rapidly swept through pig farms in North and Central Vietnam, despite widespread use of commercial FMD vaccines. To investigate the FMD virus (FMDV) strains responsible for the current epidemics, 40 FMDV samples were collected from 17 provinces during November-December 2018, and the VP1 coding genes were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed that all of the reemerging Vietnamese FMDVs belonged to the Mya-98 lineage of the O/Southeast Asia topotype (O/SEA/Mya-98) and shared high nucleotide (99.06-100% identity) and amino acid (97.65-100% identity) sequence similarity with each other. The study results suggested that the reemerging FMDVs originated from local Vietnamese strains. Field viruses had different amino acids in the antigenic sites of VP1 when compared to the strains used in the vaccines. The present study provides an important basis for vaccine selection in the battle against FMD in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
19.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108791, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758861

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess raw pork sausages collected on the Dutch market for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. 46 of 316 (14.6%) products sampled from Dutch retail stores in 2017-2019 were positive for HEV RNA. HEV RNA was detected in 10.8% of "cervelaat" (n = 74), 18.5% of salami (n = 92), 26.1% of "metworst" (n = 46), 16.3% of "snijworst" (n = 43) samples. This was significantly more often than in other raw pork sausages like dried sausages, fuet or chorizo (3.3%, n = 61). The percentage of HEV RNA positive products was not significantly different for products sold as either sliced or unsliced deli meat. The average viral load in positive tested products was 2.76 log10 genome copies per 5 g, incidentally reaching up to 4.5 log10 genome copies per 5 g. The average HEV RNA level was significantly higher in samples collected in 2017 than those in samples collected in 2018, and most of the samples in 2019. Typing by sequence analysis was successful for 33 samples, all revealing genotype 3c. The results support recent epidemiological studies that identified specific raw pork sausages as risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection in the Netherlands. Persons at risk, including Dutch transplant recipients, have been advised to avoid the consumption of raw pork sausages. The study warrants a continuation of monitoring to follow the HEV RNA levels in pork products for use in risk assessments and risk management.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Carne Vermelha/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
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