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1.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 35-42, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917649

RESUMO

Since its first report in 1942, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) has caused several epidemics in a wide range of susceptible hosts around the world. In the last 30 years, the evidence of natural and experimental infections and virus isolation were reported from novel but unusual hosts such as camel, cattle, buffalo, dogs, Asiatic lion and pigs. In addition, PPRV in a potential vector, biting midges (Culicoides imicola), has been reported. Either presented as clinical and/or subclinical infections, the presence of the virus in an extended range of susceptible hosts highlights the cross-species transmission and supports the hypothesis of an endemic circulation of PPRV among susceptible hosts. However, the potential role of large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts for PPRV epidemiology is still obscure. Therefore, there is a need for molecular and epidemiological investigations of the disease among usual and unusual hosts to achieve the goals of disease control and eradication programmes initiated by national and international organisations, such as the FAO and OIE. This review is the first to summarise the scattered data on PPR in large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts to obtain the global scientific communities' attention for further research on epidemiological aspects, not only in its native hosts, but also in large ruminants, camels and other unusual hosts.


Assuntos
Búfalos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 317: 108479, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874303

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in many developing countries and becomes of interest in the developed countries. Several animals are sources of HEV infection to humans. Recently, HEV was detected in the milk of cows in China, this data comes up with the probability of HEV transmission to humans via ingestion of contaminated milk. In Egypt, contaminated water and residing in rural communities are risk factors for HEV infection, while limited data is available on the zoonotic HEV transmission. Since pigs, wild boars, camels are not common in Egypt, we investigated if cows and/or cow milk represent a risk factor for HEV transmission in the Assiut governorate. Milk samples (n = 480), collected from Assiut city and 12 non-mixed dairy farms distributed in the rural communities, were tested for HEV markers such as anti-HEV IgG, HEV RNA, and HEV Ag. All milk samples collected from Assiut city (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. Also, milk samples collected from 11 farms (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. While, in one farm, we could detect anti-HEV IgG in 8 out of 40 samples (20%), HEV RNA and HEV Ag were detectable in 1 out of 40 samples (2.5%). However, we could not detect the HEV markers in the stool from anti-HEV IgG positive cows. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analysis of the isolated virus revealed it belonged to HEV-3 subtype 3a. Importantly, when cows from the positive farm were retested 1 month later, we observed an increase in the number of animals that were positive for anti-HEV IgG (10/40, 25%). In addition, the level of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher in the milk of these cows in the second collection than the samples of the first collection suggesting ongoing infection on this farm. In conclusion: we reported that HEV-3 and/or HEV like agent was detected in the milk of the cow distributed in rural communities of Assiut governates. Investigation of the cow milk should be done to assess if the cow milk is a risk factor for HEV transmission for Egyptian people, especially in rural communities.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E , Leite/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Egito , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
3.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105203, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574252

RESUMO

Detailed post mortem analyses of 68 free-ranging, slaughter-age pigs from two sites in the Banke District of Nepal identified 36% as being infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts ranged from infertile, immature cysts a few millimetres in diameter to fertile cysts >10 cm in diameter. PCR RFLP and DNA sequencing identified the cysts as being E. granulosus sensu stricto. The Banke district has recently been identified as having a high prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. These data suggest that cestode zoonoses in this, and possibly other parts of Nepal may be a serious concern for human health. An assessment of the level of human cystic echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis, in the region is warranted and the introduction of control measures are required to limit the parasites' transmission.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Vet J ; 254: 105406, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836167

RESUMO

The tail biting management tool 'SchwIP' was developed to analyse estimated farm individual risk for tail biting and to support farmers to reduce risk. The risk factors included in SchwIP had been weighted by 61 experts regarding their strength of influence on tail biting. SchwIP was applied on 21 conventional farms throughout Germany that kept weaner pigs in closed barns. All farms were assessed with the SchwIP questionnaire and received farm-individual feedback and advice on how to reduce tail biting risk. There were no control farms with assessment only, because asking questions could raise awareness thus triggering improvements. Each farm was visited three times at 6 monthly intervals. Risk factor data collected on farms were replaced with the corresponding expert weighting, and weightings were then standardised to a range of 0 - 1 across all farms and visits. All standardised risks were summarised per farm and visit. From this, within-farm differences in farm risk sums between visit 1 and 2 (ΔRS12), 2 and 3 (ΔRS23) and 1 and 3 (ΔRS13), and the association between changes in single risk factors with ΔRS, were calculated. Farm risk sums significantly decreased from visit 1 to visit 2 and 3, respectively, but not from visit 2 to visit 3. Change in farm risk sums between visit 1 and 2 was significantly correlated with 59 factors; ΔRS23 with 54 factors; and ΔRS13 with 57 factors. Eighteen factors were significantly associated with all three ΔRS. The management tool SchwIP contributed to a reduction in estimated risk for tail biting in weaners after the first visit. There was no apparent pattern of changes in risk factors on the farms, which underlines the multifactorial nature of tail biting. Further on-farm research on tail biting risk factors and tail lesions is needed to better understand the complex relationship.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Cauda , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Alemanha , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/psicologia , Cauda/lesões , Desmame
5.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 717-723, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867929

RESUMO

Pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have devastated many swine farms in several parts of China since late 2011. The outbreak-associated pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant strains exhibited some typical amino acid changes in glycoprotein E (gE), a diagnostic antigen used for discriminating between PRV-infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). To counteract the potential impact of epitope variations on current serological diagnostics of PRV, we produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gE protein of one representative PRV variant strain and developed a blocking immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (b-IPMA) for DIVA. The b-IPMA was based on the inhibition of binding between PRV-infected cells and mAb by PRV-specific antibodies present in clinical swine sera and was validated by comparison with a commercial PRV gpI Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). The diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and agreement were determined to be 99.25%, 98.18% and 99.02% respectively upon testing 509 serum samples. b-IPMA detected only PRV-specific antibodies and showed no cross- -reactivity with antibodies elicited by gE-deleted vaccine or other common swine pathogens. Thus, b-IPMA has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening of PRV-infected animals in veterinary clinics.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/imunologia , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Vacinas contra Pseudorraiva/imunologia , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Epitopos , Ligação Proteica , Pseudorraiva/diagnóstico , Pseudorraiva/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585655

RESUMO

Diarrhea is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality in pigs. In the present study, 31 pig farms with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea were investigated in Catalonia (NE Spain) from February 2017 until June 2018. Two hundred and fifteen diarrheic samples from 1 to 7 days old piglets were tested for a panel of enteric pathogens. In 19 of the studied farms additional fecal samples from apparently healthy pen-mates were collected and tested for the same panel of infectious agents. Samples were bacteriologically cultured and tested by PCR for E. coli virulence factors genes, C. perfringens types A and C toxins (Cpα, Cpß, Cpß2) and C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB). Moreover, Rotavirus A (RVA), Rotavirus B (RVB), Rotavirus C (RVC), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were also determined by RT-qPCR. More than one pathogen could be detected in all of the outbreaks. Nevertheless, RVA was the only agent that could be statistically correlated with the outcome of diarrhea. For the other viruses and bacteria analyzed significant differences between the diseased pigs and the controls were not found. In spite of this, the individual analysis of each of the studied farms indicated that other agents such as RVB, RVC, toxigenic C. difficile or pathogenic E. coli could play a relevant role in the outbreak of diarrhea. In conclusion, the large diversity of agent combinations and disease situations detected in neonatal diarrhea outbreaks of this study stand for a more personalized diagnosis and management advice at a farm level.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Diarreia/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
7.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 84, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640807

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Paridade , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1456-1464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603050

RESUMO

Pigs play an important role in interspecies transmission of the influenza virus, particularly as "mixing vessels" for reassortment. Two influenza A/H1N1 virus strains, A/swine/Siberia/1sw/2016 and A/swine/Siberia/4sw/2017, were isolated during a surveillance of pigs from private farms in Russia from 2016 to 2017. There was a 10% identity difference between the HA and NA nucleotide sequences of isolated strains and the most phylogenetically related sequences (human influenza viruses of 1980s). Simultaneously, genome segments encoding internal proteins were found to be phylogenetically related to the A/H1N1pdm09 influenza virus. In addition, two amino acids (129-130) were deleted in the HA of A/swine/Siberia/4sw/2017 compared to that of A/swine/Siberia/1sw/2016 HA.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 366, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, can infect almost all warm-blooded animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate T. gondii oocyst-driven infection in pigs, chickens and humans in Jilin province, northeastern China. RESULTS: The serum samples of pigs, chickens and humans were sampled and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using dense granule antigen GRA7, oocyst-specific protein OWP8, and sporozoite-specific protein CCp5A, respectively. Results showed a prevalence of 16.7% by GRA7-ELISA, and 12.2% by OWP8- and CCp5A-ELISA in pigs; 10.4% by GRA7-ELISA, 13.5% by OWP8-ELISA, and 9.4% by CCp5A-ELISA in chickens; and 14.2% by GRA7-ELISA, 3.6% by OWP8-ELISA, and 3.0% by CCp5A-ELISA in humans. No significant differences were observed between T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs and chickens among the three antigens-based ELISAs (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences between T. gondii seroprevalence rates in humans (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of T. gondii oocyst-driven infection in humans, a medium prevalence in pigs, and a high prevalence in chickens. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that different oocyst-driven infection rates in different animal species, which would help to design effective strategies to prevent T. gondii transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first study to differentiate T. gondii infective forms in pigs, chickens and humans in China.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/sangue , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
10.
Anim Sci J ; 90(11): 1475-1483, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515907

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of pathological lesions in pigs from small-scale farms and to determine associations between pathological lesions and hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality in slaughtered pigs. The study was conducted on 625 pigs (~115 kg) originating from 20 small-scale farms. Any signs of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis, and liver milk spots were recorded as present or absent. Complete blood count was investigated. The following carcass quality parameters were measured: live, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and meatiness. Meat pH and temperature were measured 45 min postmortem. Of the 625 examined pigs, 41.8% had pneumonia, 23.5% pleurisy, 2.7% pericarditis, and 29.9% liver milk spots. The presence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs adversely affected hematological parameters, reduced live, hot and cold carcass weights, and meatiness and had deleterious effects on meat quality (higher pH45min and higher prevalence of dark, firm and dry meat). In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs, indicating serious health problems in smallholder pig production systems. The presence of single and, especially, multiple pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs negatively affected hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Pericardite/epidemiologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Pleurisia/epidemiologia , Pleurisia/veterinária , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/patologia , Pericardite/patologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2943-2951, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549302

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and genetic variation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Tibetan pigs and to determine its ability to infect mice. A total of 38 out of 229 (16.59%; 95% CI = 12.00%-22.10%) fecal samples from Tibetan pigs from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in 2018 were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected by RT-nPCR. Significantly different detection rates were observed between samples from diarrheic and clinically healthy animals (OR = 9.56; 95% CI, 2.84-32.14; p < 0.001), suggesting a potential association between HEV infection and diarrhea in Tibetan pigs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HEV isolates were clustered into subtypes 4a (31 samples), 4b (1), 4d (2), and 4j (4). HEV-4a was the predominant subtype, indicating that it might be circulating in Tibetan pigs. Nine complete HEV genome sequences obtained from Tibetan pigs were found by phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to those of genotype 4 HEV isolates from humans. Two recombinant events were identified in both HEV-4a strains; a novel recombination breakpoint was first identified at the 3' end of the ORF2 region in the SWU/L9/2018 strain, and a common recombination region was found at the junction of the ORF1 and ORF2 regions in the SWU/31-12/2018 strain. Furthermore, HEV-4a could be detected in all BALB/c mice that were experimentally infected by gavage and contact exposure. The information presented here about the prevalence and genotype diversity of HEV from Tibetan pigs provides important insights into the epidemic features of HEV on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tibet
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 628, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted four cross-sectional studies over 1 year among humans and pigs in three slaughterhouses in Central and Western Kenya (> 350 km apart) to determine infection and exposure to influenza A viruses. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from participants who reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) defined as fever, cough or running nose. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from pigs. Human NP/OP and pig nasal swabs were tested for influenza A virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pig serum was tested for anti-influenza A antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: A total of 288 participants were sampled, 91.3% of them being male. Fifteen (5.2%) participants had ARI but the nine swabs collected from them were negative for influenza A virus by PCR. Of the 1128 pigs sampled, five (0.4%) nasal swabs tested positive for influenza A/H1N1/pdm09 by PCR whereas 214 of 1082 (19.8%) serum samples tested for Influenza A virus antibodies. There was higher seroprevalence in colder months and among pigs reared as free-range. These findings indicate circulation of influenza A/H1N1/pdm09 among pigs perhaps associated with good adaptation of the virus to the pig population after initial transmission from humans to pigs.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Pandemias , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 63, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533860

RESUMO

Widespread geographic movement and extensive comingling of exhibition swine facilitates the spread and transmission of infectious pathogens. Nasal samples were collected from 2862 pigs at 102 exhibitions and tested for five pathogens. At least one pathogen was molecularly detected in pigs at 63 (61.8%) exhibitions. Influenza A virus was most prevalent and was detected in 498 (17.4%) samples. Influenza D virus was detected in two (0.07%) samples. More than one pathogen was detected in 165 (5.8%) samples. Influenza A virus remains a top threat to animal and human health, but other pathogens may be disseminated through the exhibition swine population.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus 1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Respirovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 447-451, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Australia is currently regarded as free of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by a pestivirus. This study aimed to provide additional evidence that the Victorian domestic pig population is free of CSF. DESIGN: A structured representative sero-prevalence survey of Victorian domestic pigs at slaughter. METHOD: Three-hundred and ninety-one pigs from 23 holdings were sampled at the time of slaughter between March 2016 and October 2017. RESULTS: All samples were negative for CSF virus Ab on ELISA. Because of uncertainty in the sensitivity of the CSF Ab ELISA, estimates of the true prevalence of CSF were calculated using Bayesian methods. The median and upper bound of the 95% credible intervals for the true prevalence of CSF was zero when the diagnostic sensitivity of the CSF Ab ELISA was assumed to range from 0.75 to 0.95. CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that the population of domestic pigs in Victoria in 2016-2017 was free of CSF.


Assuntos
Peste Suína Clássica/epidemiologia , Peste Suína Clássica/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Peste Suína Clássica/sangue , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vitória/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 778, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A diagnostic method to simultaneously detect and discriminate porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) in clinical specimens is imperative for the differential diagnosis and monitoring and control of PCVs in the field. METHODS: Three primer pairs were designed and used to develop a multiplex PCR assay. And 286 samples from 8 farms in Hubei province were tested by the developed multiplex PCR assay to demonstrate the accuracy. RESULTS: Each of target genes of PCV1, PCV2 and PCV3 was amplified using the designed primers, while no other porcine viruses genes were detected. The limit of detection of the assay was 10 copies/µL of PCV1, PCV2 OR PCV3. The results of the tissue samples detection showed that PCV1, PCV2 and PCV3 are co-circulating in central China. The PCV1, PCV2 and PCV3 singular infection rate was 52.4% (150/286), 61.2% (175/286) and 45.1% (129/286), respectively, while the PCV1 and PCV2 co-infection rate was 11.2% (32/286), the PCV1 and PCV3 co-infection rate was 5.9% (17/286), the PCV2 and PCV3 co-infection rate was 23.4% (67/286), and the PCV1, PCV2 and PCV3 co-infection rate was 1.7% (5/286), respectively, which were 100% consistent with the sequencing method and real-time PCR methods. CONCLUSIONS: The multiplex PCR assay could be used as a differential diagnostic tool for monitoring and control of PCVs in the field. The results also indicate that the PCVs infection and their co-infection are severe in Hubei province, Central China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/diagnóstico , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Genes Virais , Incidência , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Virologia/métodos
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
17.
Parasitol Int ; 73: 101972, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400466

RESUMO

We examined lingual tissues of Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) captured in the Amakusa Islands off the coast of Kumamoto Prefecture. One hundred and forty wild boars were caught in 11 different locations in Kamishima (n = 36) and Shimoshima (n = 104) in the Amakusa Islands, Japan between January 2016 and April 2018. Lingual tissues were subjected to histological examinations, where helminths and their eggs were observed in the epithelium of 51 samples (36.4%). No significant differences in prevalence were observed according to maturity, sex or capture location. Lingual tissues positive for helminth infection were randomly selected and intact male and female worms were collected for morphological measurements. Based on the host species, site of infection, and morphological details, we identified the parasite as Eucoleus garfiai (Gállego et Mas-Coma, 1975) Moravec, 1982 (syn. Capillaria garfiai). This is the first report from outside Europe of E. garfiai infection in wild boars. Phylogenetic analysis of the parasite using the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence confirmed that the parasite grouped with other Eucoleus species, providing additional nucleotide sequence for this genus. Since wild boar populations are widely distributed in Japan, continuing surveys on the epidemiology of the parasite and identifying possible intermediate host candidates are crucial for elucidating the transmission route of the parasite.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Trichuroidea/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Helmintos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Língua/parasitologia , Trichuroidea/anatomia & histologia , Trichuroidea/classificação
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2857-2861, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435765

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the parasitic species of the complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. This disease is hyperendemic in the Republic of Moldova. Recent molecular analyses have revealed the exclusive presence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in sheep and cattle. Previous reports of prevalence in pigs suggest the potential presence of Echinococcus canadensis G6/G7, as this species is also reported in neighboring countries. The presence of cystic echinococcosis in pigs was specifically monitored at the slaughterhouse. In the meantime, human cases were genotyped for the first time. E. canadensis G6/G7 was identified in all ten pigs infected by E. granulosus s.l. One human case of infection by E. canadensis G6/G7 was also identified, while E. granulosus sensu stricto was found to be the cause for the 13 others. The description of one human case of E. canadensis G6/G7 has confirmed its zoonotic impact in the country. Future studies will be needed to estimate the relative proportion and distribution of both parasitic species in Moldova.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Cistos/classificação , Cistos/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Moldávia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104637, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421498

RESUMO

The pig industry is growing very fast in Argentina with an increasing need for replacement animals, feedstuff and transportation of animals. One of the main competitive advantages of the Argentinian pig industry is its being free of most major pig diseases. Within this context, applying measures aimed to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pathogens is critical. The aim of the present study was to assess the biosecurity of Argentinian pig farms. Two types of farms were assessed: firstly, all official suppliers of high-genetic-value (n = 110) and secondly, a sample from commercial farms (n = 192). Data on the external and internal biosecurity practices applied on the farms was collected with a questionnaire. Data was analysed using a correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering analysis, which allowed identification of types of farms with regard to the biosecurity measures applied. Key variables characterizing the clusters were identified through an indicator value analysis. In addition, the external biosecurity of the farms was evaluated by using risk assessment tools with respect to the potential introduction of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. Results made evident three clusters: the first one which, amongst other measures, applied several barriers to prevent the entry of people, trucks and other vehicles, and could be considered as a group of high biosecurity, and the two other groups which applied a lower number of external and internal biosecurity measures. The results of the risk assessment showed that the routes with the highest risk of disease introduction were: replacement animals, vehicles transporting feed or animals, and visitors. The assessment of the external biosecurity showed that most Argentinian farms were not prepared for the contingency of a pathogen such as porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. Special efforts should be made in official suppliers of high-genetic-value farms with poor biosecurity scores since they are at the top of the pig production chain and can be key for the spread of diseases.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Criação de Animais Domésticos/classificação , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 53, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to human health because of their wide host range and ability to reassort into novel viruses that can cause serious disease and pandemics. Since transmission of these viruses between humans and pigs can be associated with occupational and environmental exposures, we investigated the association between occupational exposure to pigs, occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), and influenza A virus infection. METHODS: The study was conducted in Kiambu County, the county with the highest level of intensive small-scale pig farming in Kenya. Up to 3 participants (> 2 years old) per household from pig-keeping and non-pig-keeping households were randomly recruited and followed up in 2013 (Sept-Dec) and 2014 (Apr-Aug). Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from participants with ARI at the time of study visit. For the animal study, nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, and serum samples were collected from pigs and poultry present in enrolled households. The human and animal swab samples were tested for viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR and sera by ELISA for antibodies. A Poisson generalized linear mixed-effects model was developed to assess the association between pig exposure and occurrence of ARI. RESULTS: Of 1137 human participants enrolled, 625 (55%) completed follow-up visits including 172 (27.5%) pig workers and 453 (72.5%) non-pig workers. Of 130 human NP/OP swabs tested, four (3.1%) were positive for influenza A virus, one pig worker, and three among non-pig workers. Whereas none of the 4462 swabs collected from pig and poultry tested positive for influenza A virus by RT-PCR, 265 of 4273 (6.2%) of the sera tested positive for virus antibodies by ELISA, including 11.6% (230/1990) of the pigs and 1.5% (35/2,283) of poultry. The cumulative incidence of ARI was 16.9% among pig workers and 26.9% among the non-pig workers. The adjusted risk ratio for the association between being a pig worker and experiencing an episode of ARI was 0.56 (95% CI [0.33, 0.93]), after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate moderate seropositivity for influenza A virus among pigs, suggesting the circulation of swine influenza virus and a potential for interspecies transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Faringe/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão
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