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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529342

RESUMO

High dietary protein may increase susceptibility of weaned pigs to enteric pathogens. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids (FAA) may improve growth performance of pigs during disease challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary protein content and FAA supplementation above requirements for growth on performance and immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella. Sixty-four mixed-sex weanling pigs (13.9 ± 0.82 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (AA-) or FAA profile (AA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. After a 7-d adaptation period, pigs were inoculated with either a sterile saline solution (CT) or saline solution containing Salmonella Typhimurium (ST; 3.3 × 109 CFU/mL). Growth performance, body temperature, fecal score, acute-phase proteins, oxidant/antioxidant balance, ST shedding score in feces and intestinal colonization, fecal and digesta myeloperoxidase (MPO), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) were measured pre- and postinoculation. There were no dietary effects on any measures pre-inoculation or post-CT inoculation (P > 0.05). Inoculation with ST increased body temperature and fecal score (P < 0.05), serum haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), PUN, and fecal MPO, and decreased serum albumin and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with CT pigs (P < 0.05). ST-inoculation reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) vs. CT pigs (P < 0.05) but was increased by AA+ vs. AA- in ST pigs (P < 0.05). Serum albumin and GSH:GSSG were increased while haptoglobin and SOD were decreased in ST-inoculated pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). PUN was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs postinoculation (P < 0.05). Fecal ST score was increased in ST-inoculated pigs on days 1 and 2 postinoculation and declined by day 6 (P < 0.05) in all pigs while the overall score was reduced in AA+ vs. AA- pigs (P < 0.05). Cecal digesta ST score was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs and were lower in AA+ compared with AA- fed pigs in the colon (P < 0.05). Fecal and digesta MPO were reduced in ST pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, with minimal effects of dietary protein, on performance and immune status in weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Salmonella typhimurium , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Desmame
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321377

RESUMO

Zoonotic taeniasis caused by the adult stage of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica are considered neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. The life cycle of these 3 metazoan species is very similar and includes an intermediate host: pigs in the case of T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle in the case of T. saginata. By eating meat (pork/T. solium, T. asiatica; beef/T. saginata) containing live cysticerci, humans develop taeniasis, which is practically asymptomatic but is the main risk factor for intermediate hosts to become infected. T. saginata causes bovine cysticercosis, while T. solium and T. asiatica cause swine cysticercosis, of veterinary and economic importance. T. solium cysticerci cause neurological disease in humans: neurocysticercosis. Cysticerci develop after ingesting microscopic eggs released from a human tapeworm carrier. Here we describe the life stages of the parasites, diagnosis, pathogenesis, symptomatology of neurocysticercosis, and prevention and control measures. Highlighting the need to validate diagnostic tools, treatments and vaccination in endemic areas, with the challenge of addressing the most vulnerable populations that lack resources. If people understand the transmission route, avoid eating uncooked or insufficiently cooked meat and have adequate hygienic habits, the life cycle of the 3 zoonotic Taenia species may be interrupted. In addition, we describe the growing field of immune response and immunomodulation elicited by the parasites, which may provide essential tools for diagnosis, treatment, control of taeniasis/cysticercosis, as well as for identification of parasite-derived immunomodulators that could aid in the treatment of emerging inflammatory diseases worldwide.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 102-111, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360570

RESUMO

Modified live vaccines (MLVs) have been utilized to combat porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which raises a serious concern about the MLV-derived PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates. During the routine investigation of PRRSV in China, four lung samples collected from unvaccinated diseased pigs from 2016 to 2020 were detected as PRRSV positive. The PRRSVs shared high ORF5 identities to CH-1R, JXA1-R, TJM-F92 and RespPRRS MLV vaccines, respectively. The viruses were isolated in Marc-145 cells and denominated as SD1612-1, JS1703-21, JSTZ1907-714 and JSYC20-05-1. Genome comparison confirmed that these isolates share the highest genomic homologies to CH-1R (97.96%), JXA1-R (99.64%), TJM-F92 (99.00%) and RespPRRS MLV (99.57%) than any other known isolates. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that SD1612-1 and CH-1R, JS1703-21 and JXA1-R, JSTZ1907-714 and TJM-F92, JSYC20-05-1 and RespPRRS MLV were grouped in the same branches. In addition, amino acids unique to corresponding vaccine attenuations were also identified in our isolates. Noticeably, amino-acids potentially associated with the virulence revision from MLV strains to parental virulent viruses were also identified in the MLV-derived isolates. Our results confirm that the four types of MLV-derived isolates are circulating and evolving in Chinese swine herds for years, which highlights the necessity for the fair use of PRRS MLVs.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , China , Genômica , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373390

RESUMO

The genus Rotavirus comprises eight species, designated A to H, and two recently identified tentative species I in dogs and J in bats. Species Rotavirus A, B, C and H (RVA, RVB, RVC and RVH) have been detected in humans and animals. While human and animal RVA are well characterized and defined, complete porcine genome sequences in the GenBank are limited compared to human strains. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to sequence the 11 segments of RVA, RVC and RVH strains from piglets in the United States (US) and explore the evolutionary relations of these RV species. Metagenomics identified Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronoviridae in samples MN9.65 and OK5.68 while Picobirnaviridae and Arteriviridae were only identified in sample OK5.68. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses identified multiple genotypes with the RVA of strain MN9.65 and OK5.68, with the genome constellation of G5/G9-P[7]/P[13]-I5/I5- R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1/E1-H1 and G5/G9-P[6]/P[7]-I5-R1/R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1/T7-E1/E1-H1, respectively. The RVA strains had a complex evolutionary relationship with other mammalian strains. The RVC strain OK5.68 had a genome constellation of G9-P[6]-I1-R1-C5-M6-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, and shared an evolutionary relationship with porcine strains from the US. The RVH strains MN9.65 and OK5.68 had the genome constellation of G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E4-H1 and G5-P1-I1-R1-C1-M1-A5-N1-T1-E1-H1, indicating multiple RVH genome constellations are circulating in the US. These findings allow us to understand the complexity of the enteric virome, develop improved screening methods for RVC and RVH strains, facilitate expanded rotavirus surveillance in pigs, and increase our understanding of the origin and evolution of rotavirus species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/genética , Sus scrofa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e74, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of a vaccine depends strongly on the effects of the adjuvants applied simultaneously with the antigen in the vaccine. The adjuvants enhance the protective effect of the vaccine against a viral challenge. Conversely, oil-type adjuvants leave oil residue inside the bodies of the injected animals that can produce a local reaction in the muscle. The long-term immunogenicity of mice after vaccination was examined. ISA206 or ISA15 oil adjuvants maintained the best immunity, protective capability, and safety among the oil adjuvants in the experimental group. OBJECTIVES: This study screened the adjuvant composites aimed at enhancing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) immunity. The C-type lectin or toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist showed the most improved protection rate. METHODS: Experimental vaccines were fabricated by mixing various known oil adjuvants and composites that can act as immunogenic adjuvants (gel, saponin, and other components) and examined the enhancement effect on the vaccine. RESULTS: The water in oil (W/O) and water in oil in water (W/O/W) adjuvants showed better immune effects than the oil in water (O/W) adjuvants, which have a small volume of oil component. The W/O type left the largest amount of oil residue, followed by W/O/W and O/W types. In the mouse model, intramuscular inoculation showed a better protection rate than subcutaneous inoculation. Moreover, the protective effect was particularly weak in the case of inoculation in fatty tissue. The initial immune reaction and persistence of long-term immunity were also confirmed in an immune reaction on pigs. CONCLUSIONS: The new experimental vaccine with immunostimulants produces improved immune responses and safety in pigs than general oil-adjuvanted vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13475, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078490

RESUMO

Growth performance of pigs has been associated with healthy gut microbiota. To improve production, pigs are usually treated with antimicrobials. Nonetheless, while antimicrobials harm the gut-indigenous microbiota, probiotic supplementation seems to help keep it healthy. Here, using antimicrobials, we artificially induced dysbiosis in pigs and evaluated a possible preventive effect of probiotic supplementation. Three 6-week-old piglets were given a basal feed, and 3 more the feed supplemented with 2.0 × 106  CFU of Bacillus subtilis QST713/g of feed. After 14 days, antimicrobial enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg B.W.) was injected intramuscularly to all pigs on days 14-16. Feces were collected on days 14, 17, 19, 21, and 23. Total bacteria count was unaffected by enrofloxacin or QST713. However, Lactobacillus spp. and, in particular, Escherichia coli were affected by enrofloxacin, the latter not being observed in the feces on days 17 and 19. Interestingly, a reciprocal increase in E. coli was observed in control pigs on days 21 and 23, although in QST713-supplemented piglets, this increase was attenuated. While the gut microbiota composition did not return to initial levels in antimicrobial-administered piglets, it did in QST713-supplemented piglets. QST713 supplementation was likely crucial to keep the microbiota of piglets healthy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bacillus subtilis , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/veterinária , Enrofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/microbiologia , Enrofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Injeções Intramusculares , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2301-2309, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757056

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a major pathogen associated with swine diseases. It is the smallest single-stranded DNA virus, and its genome contains four major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF2 encodes the major structural protein Cap, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro and contains the primary antigenic determinants. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency method for obtaining VLPs and optimized the purification conditions. In this method, we expressed the protein Cap with a 6× His tag using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae as well as the E. coli BL21(DE3) prokaryotic expression system. The PCV2 Cap proteins produced by the silkworm larvae and E. coli BL21(DE3) were purified. Cap proteins purified from silkworm larvae self-assembled into VLPs in vitro, while the Cap proteins purified from bacteria were unable to self-assemble. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the self-assembly of VLPs. The immunogenicity of the VLPs produced using the baculovirus system was demonstrated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, the purification process was optimized. The results demonstrated that the expression system using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae is a good choice for obtaining VLPs of PCV2 and has potential for the development of a low-cost and efficient vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Baculoviridae/genética , Bombyx/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Circovirus/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Baculoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/biossíntese , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Histidina/genética , Histidina/imunologia , Soros Imunes/química , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Larva/virologia , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735667

RESUMO

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) is an essential oil component, possessing antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties; however, the effect of eugenol on porcine gut inflammation has not yet been investigated. In this study, an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) has been set up. Cells were pretreated with 100 µM (16.42 mg/L) eugenol for 2 h followed by 10 µg/mL LPS stimulation for 6 h. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion; reactive oxygen species; gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, and nutrient transporters; the expression and distribution of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER); and cell permeability were measured to investigate the effect of eugenol on inflammatory responses and gut barrier function. The results showed that eugenol pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-stimulated interleukin-8 level and the mRNA abundance of tumor necrosis factor-α and restored the LPS-stimulated decrease of the mRNA abundance of tight junction proteins, such as ZO-1 and occludin, and the mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters, such as B0 1 system ASC sodium-dependent neutral amino acid exchanger 2, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1, excitatory amino acid transporter 1, and peptide transporter 1. In addition, eugenol improved the expression and even redistribution of ZO-1 and tended to increase TEER value and maintained the barrier integrity. In conclusion, a low dose of eugenol attenuated inflammatory responses and enhanced selectively permeable barrier function during LPS-induced inflammation in the IPEC-J2 cell line.


Assuntos
Eugenol/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ocludina/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555636

RESUMO

Increasing intensification in swine production has led to new and specialized technologies, but the occupational health and safety impacts are rarely quantified in the business plans for adoption. Needle-less injection has potential to increase productivity and eliminate needle stick injury in workers, but it is not clear whether these benefits offset high capital investment and potential increases in musculoskeletal loads. This economic evaluation employed probabilistic scenario analysis using injury, cost, and production data gathered from interviews with swine producers in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. After adoption of needle-less injection, rates of needle-stick injury went down with no measureable effect on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, resulting in lower health and safety costs for needle-less injectors. Needle-less injection duration was 40% faster once workers acclimatized, but large start-up costs mean economic benefits are realized only after the first year. The incremental benefit cost ratio promoted adoption of needle-less injectors over conventional needles for the base case of a 1200 sow barn; the conventional method is beneficial for barns with 600 sows or less. Findings indicate that well-designed technologies have the potential to achieve the dual ergonomics goals of enhancing human wellbeing and system performance. We anticipate that the economic and decision models developed in this study can be applied to other new technologies in agriculture and animal production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Injeções a Jato/veterinária , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Injeções a Jato/economia , Manitoba , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Saskatchewan , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555649

RESUMO

RATIONALE/BACKGROUND: Though much smaller than the bovine industry, the porcine sector in Argentina involves a large number of farms and represents a significant economic sector. In recent years Argentina has implemented a national registry of swine movements amongst other measures, in an effort to control and eventually eradicate endemic Aujesky's disease. Such information can prove valuable in assessing the risk of transmission between farms for endemic diseases but also for other diseases at risk of emergence. METHODS: Shipment data from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed in an effort to define strategic locations and times at which control and surveillance efforts should be focused to provide cost-effective interventions. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to characterize the network as a whole and at the individual farm and market level to help identify important nodes. Spatio-temporal trends of pig movements were also analyzed. Finally, in an attempt to classify farms and markets in different groups based on their SNA metrics, we used factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) and hierarchical clustering. RESULTS: The network involved approximate 136,000 shipments for a total of 6 million pigs. Over 350 markets and 17,800 production units participated in shipments with another 83,500 not participating. Temporal data of shipments and network metrics showed peaks in shipments in September and October. Most shipments where within provinces, with Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Santa Fe concentrating 61% of shipments. Network analysis showed that markets are involved in relatively few shipments but hold strategic positions with much higher betweenness compared to farms. Hierarchical clustering yielded four groups based on SNA metrics and node characteristics which can be broadly described as: 1. small and backyard farms; 2. industrial farms; 3. markets; and 4. a single outlying market with extreme centrality values. CONCLUSION: Characterizing the network structure and spatio-temporal characteristics of Argentine swine shipments provides valuable information that can guide targeted and more cost-effective surveillance and control programs. We located key nodes where efforts should be prioritized. Pig network characteristics and patterns can be used to create dynamic disease transmission models, which can both be used in assessing the impact of emerging diseases and guiding efforts to eradicate endemic ones.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Argentina , Análise por Conglomerados , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
12.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447386

RESUMO

Feed has been shown to be a vector for viral transmission. Four experiments were conducted to: 1) determine if medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are effective mitigants when applied to feed both pre- and post-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inoculation measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 2) evaluate varying levels and combinations of MCFA measured by qRT-PCR, and 3) evaluate selected treatments in bioassay to determine infectivity. In exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of treatment (0.3% commercial formaldehyde [CF] product, Sal CURB [Kemin Industries, Inc.; Des Moines, IA], or 1% MCFA blend (Blend) of 1:1:1 C6:C8:C10 [PMI, Arden Hills, MN]) and timing of application (pre- or post-inoculation with PEDV) plus a positive control (PC; feed inoculated with PEDV and no treatment). All combinations of treatment and timing decreased detectable PEDV compared with the PC (P < 0.05). Pre-inoculation treatment elicited decreased magnitude of PEDV detection (cycle threshold value) compared with post-inoculation (P = 0.009). Magnitude of PEDV detection was decreased for CF compared with Blend (P < 0.0001). In exp. 2, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 5) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0, 6 to 8) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0, 9 to 11) 0.125% to 0.33% C10:0, and 12 to 15) 0.125% to 0.66% C5:0. Treating feed with 0.33% C8:0 resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) PEDV detection compared with all other treatments. Increasing concentration of each individual MCFA decreased PEDV detectability (P < 0.042). In exp. 3, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 7) 0.25% to 1% Blend, 8 to 10) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C8:0, 11 to 13) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C10:0, and 14 to 16) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0 + C10:0. Treating feed with CF, 0.5% Blend, 0.75% Blend, 1% Blend, all levels of C6:0+C8:0, 0.25% C6:0 + 0.25% C10:0, 0.33% C6:0 + 0.33% C10:0, 0.25% C8:0 + 0.25% C10:0, or 0.33% C8:0 + 0.33% C10:0 elicited decreased detection of PEDV compared with PC (P < 0.05). Increasing concentration of each MCFA combination decreased PEDV detectability (linear, P < 0.012). In exp. 4, feed was treated pre-inoculation with: 1) no treatment (PC), 2) 0.3% CF, 3) 0.5% Blend, or 4) 0.3% C8:0 and analyzed via qRT-PCR and bioassay. Adding 0.5% Blend or 0.3% C8:0 resulted in decreased PEDV compared with PC and only PC resulted in a positive bioassay. Therefore, MCFA can decrease detection of PEDV in feed. Further, inclusion of lower levels of MCFA than previously evaluated are effective against PEDV.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300795

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the impact of an F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge on growth performance, aspects of intestinal function, and selected immune responses of piglets, as well as to evaluate potential protective effects of direct-fed microbial (DFM) blends. Seventy-two weaned piglets (6.4 ± 0.2 kg body weight [BW]; ~21 d of age) were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) NC: Nonchallenged (n = 10), 2) positive challenged control (PC): F18 ETEC-challenged (n = 10), 3) PC + DFM1 (n = 8; three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; 7.5 × 105 colony-forming units [cfu]/g), or 4) PC + DFM2 (n=8; 2 strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and one strain of Bacillus subtilis; 1.5 × 105 cfu/g). Feed intake and BW were recorded on day 0, 7, and 17. Pigs were sham-infected either with 6 mL phosphate-buffered saline or inoculated with 6 mL F18 ETEC (~1.9 × 109 cfu/mL) on day 7 (0 d postinoculation [dpi]). All ETEC-challenged pigs were confirmed to be genetically susceptible to F18. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the 17-d trial. Fecal scores were visually ranked and rectal temperatures were recorded daily. To evaluate ETEC shedding, fecal swabs were collected on dpi 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Blood samples were collected on dpi 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Ileal tissues were collected at necropsy on dpi 10. All challenged treatments had lower final BW, decreased average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the 10-d postchallenge period (P < 0.01). The DFM2 treatment increased E. coli shedding on dpi 2 and decreased iton dpi 7 (P < 0.05) compared with the PC. Rectal temperature decreased across all challenged treatments (P < 0.01). Ileal mRNA abundance of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) decreased in PC and DFM1 compared with NC (P < 0.05). Pigs fed DFM2 had intermediate ileal mRNA abundance of OCLN and increased ZO-1 mRNA compared with pigs in PC (P < 0.05). Interleukin 8 (IL-8) increased in the plasma of PC and DFM2 on dpi 2 compared with NC (P < 0.05). Mucosal IL-8 increased in PC compared with NC (P < 0.05). All challenged treatments tended to have elevated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA abundance compared with NC (P < 0.10). Challenged pigs had reduced secretory immunoglobulin A and villus height compared with NC pigs (P < 0.05). The impact of an ETEC challenge on intestinal function and the immune system has been revealed, information critical to developing improved treatment regimes.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Probióticos/análise , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Dieta/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333770

RESUMO

Pigs exposed to elevated ambient temperatures exhibit reduced daily gain, alterations in muscle and fat deposition, and decreased health. Negative aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function, integrity, and permeability also occur. High-intensity sweeteners can ameliorate the negative effects of heat stress (HS) by increasing GI glucagon-like peptide-2 production while capsicum oleoresin has been shown to reduce inflammatory response. The effects of an artificial high-intensity sweetener and capsicum oleoresin (CAPS-SUC; TakTik X-Hit, Pancosma, Switzerland) on growth performance of pigs were examined. Forty-eight pigs (12 wk of age, 43.2 ± 4.3 kg) were assigned to six treatments: thermoneutral conditions (21 ± 1.1 °C; 40% to 70% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (TN+) or without supplement (TN-), heat stress (35 ± 1 °C; 20% to 40% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (HS+) or without supplement (HS-), and thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS intake with (PFTN+) or without supplement (PFTN-). Supplementation (0.1 g/kg feed) began 2 d prior to the 3-d environmental treatment period. Body weights (BWs) and blood samples were collected on days -1 and 3. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were measured thrice daily and the feed intake (FI) was recorded daily. Intestinal sections were collected for histology. Pigs in HS conditions exhibited increased RT (~1.2 °C) and RR (~2.7-fold) compared with TN and PFTN groups (P < 0.01). HS+ animals had increased RR when compared with HS- animals (P < 0.02). Heat stress decreased FI compared with TN. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain compared with TN. Supplement did not alter the BW gain. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) Gain:Feed compared with TN during environmental treatment. Supplementation with CAPS-SUC increased Gain:Feed by 0.12 (P < 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to decrease in CAPS-SUC vs. non-supplemented HS and PFTN animals (P ≤ 0.1). Circulating insulin concentrations as well as monocyte count increased in HS compared with PFTN (P < 0.04) but did not differ from TN and likely linked to altered FI. CAPS-SUC increased basophil count (P < 0.02), irrespective of environment. Ileal villus height tended to decrease during HS and PFTN compared with TN (P < 0.08), indicating an effect of intake. Overall, CAPS-SUC supplementation increased pig feed efficiency and may improve immune response.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Insulina/sangue , Intestinos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Suínos
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2743-2747, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279241

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a devastating enteric disease causing economic losses in many countries including the Philippines. To control PED, apart from oral administration of minced intestinal materials, there are still no effective control methods. The ability of porcine epidemic diarrhea vaccine RNA particle platform (PED-RP) to induce antibody in colostrum and milk samples was investigated in two pig herds with a differing PED status in the Philippines. Herd-A was naïve but herd-B was endemically infected with PED. Sera, colostrum, and milk samples were collected prior to and following vaccination, and assayed for the presence of antibody by viral neutralization (VN) and IgG and IgA levels by ELISA spike protein. The results from both herds, compared to the non-vaccinated control group, demonstrated significantly increased VN titers and IgG and IgA levels in colostrum and milk samples of sows at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post parturition. Additionally, piglets from vaccinated sows had VN titers, and IgG and IgA levels are significantly higher than those from non-vaccinated sows. In conclusion, the results of the study demonstrate that PED-RP can be used to induce a satisfactory antibody response in colostrum and milk, as measured by VN titers and IgG and IgA levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leite/química , Filipinas , Gravidez , RNA , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267875

RESUMO

Value chain analysis (VCA) calculated the financial effects on food chain actors of interventions to improve animal health and welfare in the intensive pig sector. Two interventions to reduce production diseases were studied. A generic chain diagram of linkages between stakeholders and value-added dimensions was designed. Data on structure and financial performance were collected for the sector. The production parameters and financial effects of the interventions were then described to illustrate impact on the supply chain. The effects of the interventions were also assessed at market level using economic welfare analysis. The sectors in Finland and the UK are small in farm numbers and few companies produced much of the output in a largely vertically-integrated structure. The most beneficial intervention in financial terms to farmers was improved hygiene in pig fattening (around +50% in gross margin). It was calculated to reduce the consumer price for pig meat by up to 5% when applied at large, whereas for improved management measures, it would reduce consumer price by less than 0.5%. However, the latter added value also through food quality attributes. We show that good hygiene and animal care can add value. However, evaluation of the financial and social viability of the interventions is needed to decide what interventions are adopted. The structure of supply chains influences which policy measures could be applied. Of the two interventions, improved pig hygiene had the largest potential to improve efficiency and reduce costs. The studied interventions can also provide new business opportunities to farms, slaughterhouses and food sector companies. More evidence is needed to support public policies and business decision-making in the sector. For this, evidence on consumer attitudes to production diseases is needed. Nevertheless, the study makes an important contribution by showing how improvements in health and welfare benefit the whole chain.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Animais , Desinfecção , Fazendas/economia , Finlândia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Carne/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Suínos , Reino Unido
18.
Virus Res ; 282: 197955, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247757

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in neonatal piglets, resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry. However, there is currently little information on vaccine studies and commercially available vaccines for PDCoV. Hence, herein, a PDCoV strain, CH/XJYN/2016, was successfully isolated and serially propagated in vitro, and its biological characteristics were determined. Compared to that of previously reported and recently isolated PDCoV strains from China and the United States, the S gene of the CH/XJYN/2016 strain contains novel mutations. Infection studies revealed that CH/XJYN/2016 is pathogenic to suckling piglets and conventional weaned pigs. In addition, the median pig diarrhea dose (PDD50) of PDCoV in conventional weaned pigs was determined (2.0 log10PDD50/3 mL). Furthermore, an inactivated cell-adapted CH/XJYN/2016-based vaccine candidate was developed with different adjuvants. Compared with nonvaccinated pigs, conventional weaned pigs given the inactivated vaccine developed a potent humoral immune response and showed no clinical signs or viral shedding after challenge, indicating a potent protective effect of the vaccine against PDCoV infection. Therefore, the PDCoV vaccine developed in this study is a promising vaccine candidate that can be used for the control of PDCoV infection in pigs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Mutação , Filogenia , Inoculações Seriadas , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1299-1309, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253616

RESUMO

Since late 2010, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have been reported in the swine industry in China. A variant PEDV strain that differs from strain CV777 causes prevalent PEDV infections which commercial vaccines based on CV777 cannot provide complete protection. In this study, we designed a new vaccine based on the epidemic PEDV strain AH2012/12, adjuvanted with flagellin, a mucosal adjuvant that induces mucosal and systemic production of IgA. Three groups of pregnant sows were immunized twice, with a 14-day interval, with PEDV adjuvanted with flagellin, PEDV alone, or PBS before farrowing, and newborn piglets from each group were selected and challenged with PEDV. Immunization with this vaccine elicited high levels of IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies in the serum and colostrum of sows, and newborn piglets were protected against PEDV while suckling. This study should guide the prevention and control strategies for PEDV infection, thereby reducing the losses associated with this virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Flagelina/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Colostro/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Flagelina/imunologia , Imunização , Gravidez , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
20.
J Vet Sci ; 21(2): e25, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233133

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged into Canada in January 2014, primarily affecting sow herds. Subsequent epidemiological analyses suggested contaminated feed was the most likely transmission pathway. The primary objective of this study was to describe general biosecurity and management practices implemented in PEDV-positive sow herds and matched control herds at the time the virus emerged. The secondary objective was to determine if any of these general biosecurity and farm management practices were important in explaining PEDV infection status from January 22, 2014 to March 1, 2014. A case herd was defined as a swine herd with clinical signs and a positive test result for PEDV. A questionnaire was used to a gather 30-day history of herd management practices, animal movements on/off site, feed management practices, semen deliveries and biosecurity practices for case (n = 8) and control (n = 12) herds, primarily located in Ontario. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and random forests (RFs). Case herds were larger in size than control herds. Case herds had more animal movements and non-staff movements onto the site. Also, case herds had higher quantities of pigs delivered, feed deliveries and semen deliveries on-site. The biosecurity practices of case herds were considered more rigorous based on herd management, feed deliveries, transportation and truck driver practices than control herds. The RF model found that the most important variables for predicting herd status were related to herd size and feed management variables. Nonetheless, predictive accuracy of the final RF model was 72%.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterite/virologia , Fazendas , Ontário , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
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