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1.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4270, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012885

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 disease pandemic is a health emergency. Older people and those with chronic noncommunicable diseases are more likely to develop serious illnesses, require ventilatory support, and die from complications. Objective: To establish deaths from respiratory infections and some chronic non-communicable diseases that occurred in Cali, before the SARS-CoV-2 disease pandemic. Methods: During the 2003-2019 period, 207,261 deaths were registered according to the general mortality database of the Municipal Secretary of Health of Cali. Deaths were coded with the International Classification of Diseases and causes of death were grouped according to WHO guidelines. Rates were standardized by age and are expressed per 100,000 people-year. Results: A direct relationship was observed between aging and mortality from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases. Age-specific mortality rates were highest in those older than 80 years for all diseases evaluated. Seasonal variation was evident in respiratory diseases in the elderly. Comments: Estimates of mortality rates from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases in Cali provide the baseline that will serve as a comparison to estimate the excess mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health authorities and decision makers should be guided by reliable estimates of mortality and of the proportion of infected people who die from SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
2.
Documento Oficial;361
Monografia em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52904

RESUMO

A los Estados Miembros: De conformidad con la Constitución de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, tengo el honor de presentar el informe anual correspondiente al 2020 sobre la labor de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para las Américas. En este informe se pone de relieve la cooperación técnica proporcionada por la Oficina durante el período de julio del 2019 a junio del 2020, en el marco del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2014-2019, definido por los Cuerpos Directivos y modificado por la 29.a Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana en el 2017, y del Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud 2020-2025, definido y aprobado por los Cuerpos Directivos. Este informe se complementa con el Informe Financiero del Director e Informe del Auditor Externo correspondientes al 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Directora, Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Cooperação Técnica , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Prioridades em Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Política Informada por Evidências , Cobertura Universal de Saúde
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-16.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52852

RESUMO

To the Member States: In accordance with the Constitution of the Pan American Health Organization, I have the honor to present the 2020 annual report on the work of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. This report highlights the technical cooperation undertaken by the Bureau during the period July 2019 through June 2020, within the framework of the 2014–2019 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined by its Governing Bodies and amended by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2017, and the 2020–2025 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined and approved by the Governing Bodies. This report is complemented by the Financial Report of the Director and the Report of the External Auditor for the year 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Director, Pan American Health Organization.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Cooperação Internacional , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Transmissíveis , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Emergências , Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Política Informada por Evidências , Uso da Informação Científica na Tomada de Decisões em Saúde , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , América
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02. (OPS/NMH/RF/20-0031).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52795

RESUMO

La OPS organizó el taller con el fin de ayudar a los países a determinar los elementos clave que deben incluirse en las políticas destinadas a eliminar los ácidos grasos trans de producción industrial (AGT-PI). Los objetivos específicos del taller fueron presentar la gama de vías regulatorias existentes para eliminar los AGT-PI y tratar su eficacia, analizar las opciones en cuanto a política de eliminación y elaborar hojas de ruta para guiar la formulación de políticas. En la reunión participaron funcionarios gubernamentales de Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Jamaica, México, Paraguay y Perú. Además, asistieron representantes de la Asociación Brasileña de Nutrición (ASBRAN), la Organización Regional de CARICOM para Normas y Calidad (CROSQ), el Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá (INCAP), la Global Health Advocacy Incubator (GHAI), la Alianza de las ENT, las oficinas subregionales de la OPS, Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL, una iniciativa de Vital Strategies) y Salud Justa-México, además del autor de la Ley N.º 30021 de Perú sobre la eliminación de AGT-PI del país.


Assuntos
Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Fatores de Risco , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Indústria de Óleos e Graxas , Ácidos Graxos Trans
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02. (OPS/NMH/RF/20-0027).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52794

RESUMO

La regulación de la mercadotecnia es una de las medidas más costoefectivas para reducir la demanda de productos insalubres, incluidos los productos ultraprocesados. No obstante, en la mayoría de los países del mundo y de la Región de las Américas, tales políticas están ausentes o carecen de una implementación, monitoreo y cumplimiento rigurosos. Durante el 56.º Consejo Directivo de la Organización Panamericana de la salud, se presentó el examen de mitad de período del Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia, en el que se destacó que se han logrado avances en la ejecución del plan. Sin embargo, la aplicación de medidas regulatorias para restringir la promoción y publicidad de bebidas azucaradas, comidas rápidas y otros productos alimentarios insalubres ha sido adoptada por solo cuatro países de la Región, muy por debajo de la meta que establecieron los Estados Miembros de la Organización. Si bien bien la mayoría de los países todavía carece de leyes y reglamentos específicos para restringir la promoción y publicidad de productos alimentarios, muchos cuentan con un marco regulatorio para proteger la niñez y la adolescencia, asegurar los derechos de los consumidores e impedir prácticas mercadológicas desleales. Estos marcos pueden contribuir a que muchos países restrinjan la promoción y publicidad de productos insalubres, incluyendo los productos alimentarios, y establezcan y fortalezcan leyes y regulaciones específicas necesarias para eliminar efectivamente la publicidad y promoción de productos alimentarios insalubres. Este informe recoge las experiencias de países de la Región en relación con la toma de acción en este campo y los caminos que se podrían trazar para fortalecer los marcos regulatorios existentes y elaborar los que resulten necesarios.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Ácidos Graxos Trans , Fatores de Risco , Indústria de Óleos e Graxas
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52793

RESUMO

Este conjunto de herramientas se preparó a partir del módulo 4 de capacitación de la OMS sobre el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud para tratar la dependencia del tabaco a nivel de la atención primaria. La publicación está dirigida a los prestadores de atención primaria, y su objetivo es servir de guía de referencia rápida para ayudarles a suministrar intervenciones breves contra el consumo de tabaco como parte de su práctica habitual. El contenido de esta caja de herramientas se divide de la siguiente manera: 1. El consumo de tabaco: Una dependencia letal 2. Papel protagónico del personal de salud en el control del tabaco 3. Aspectos básicos del consumo y la dependencia del tabaco 4. Modelo de las 5A para ayudar a las personas que están listas para dejar de fumar 5. Modelo de las 5R para aumentar la motivación para dejar de fumar 6. Uso de las 5A para evitar la exposición al humo de tabaco


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Tabaco , Violência , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-01.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52784

RESUMO

[Resumen]. En este manual práctico sobre se aborda la planificación e implantación de servicios de cuidados paliativos, integrados en los servicios de atención de salud existentes, a nivel nacional o subnacional. Está dirigido principalmente a los directores de programa de salud de los niveles nacional, provincial o distrital, responsables de programas relacionados con enfermedades no transmisibles, enfermedades infecciosas, servicios de salud u otras áreas técnicas en las que los cuidados paliativos son importantes. En él se procura describir una gama de opciones y puntos de partida para establecer y fortalecer servicios de cuidados paliativos. En cada apartado, y en la medida de lo posible, se esboza un enfoque progresivo, con énfasis en abordajes factibles para entornos de ingresos bajos y medianos. Este documento debe contribuir al acceso equitativo a buenos cuidados paliativos en el contexto de la cobertura universal de salud y debe ayudar a los países a fortalecer los programas de cuidados paliativos, especialmente en el nivel de la atención primaria de salud y para todos los grupos de enfermedades. El enfoque se basa en estrategias centradas en la persona y busca abordar las necesidades y expectativas de los pacientes.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Neoplasias , Serviços de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Sistemas de Saúde
8.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-01.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52790

RESUMO

Aborda os riscos enfrentados por pessoas com hipertensão no contexto do COVID-19 e os passos que podem tomar para reduzi-los. O documento faz parte de uma série de notas descritivas que tratam de diferentes doenças não transmissíveis em relação ao COVID-19 por meio de perguntas e respostas. Eles visam um público em geral e, em particular, pessoas com doenças não transmissíveis, com o objetivo de fornecer informações e mensagens claras sobre os riscos associados ao COVID-19 e a gestão da situação de saúde.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipertensão , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fatores de Risco
12.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 918-934, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891217

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4 is to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by a third by 2030 relative to 2015 levels, and to promote mental health and wellbeing. We used data on cause-specific mortality to characterise the risk and trends in NCD mortality in each country and evaluate combinations of reductions in NCD causes of death that can achieve SDG target 3.4. Among NCDs, ischaemic heart disease is responsible for the highest risk of premature death in more than half of all countries for women, and more than three-quarters for men. However, stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers are associated with a similar risk, and in many countries, a higher risk of premature death than ischaemic heart disease. Although premature mortality from NCDs is declining in most countries, for most the pace of change is too slow to achieve SDG target 3.4. To investigate the options available to each country for achieving SDG target 3.4, we considered different scenarios, each representing a combination of fast (annual rate achieved by the tenth best performing percentile of all countries) and average (median of all countries) declines in risk of premature death from NCDs. Pathways analysis shows that every country has options for achieving SDG target 3.4. No country could achieve the target by addressing a single disease. In at least half the countries, achieving the target requires improvements in the rate of decline in at least five causes for women and in at least seven causes for men to the same rate achieved by the tenth best performing percentile of all countries. Tobacco and alcohol control and effective health-system interventions-including hypertension and diabetes treatment; primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk individuals; low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; treatment of acute cardiovascular diseases, diabetes complications, and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and effective cancer screening and treatment-will reduce NCD causes of death necessary to achieve SDG target 3.4 in most countries.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevenção Primária , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1763-1766, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969614

RESUMO

The care of vulnerable people with non-communicable diseases faces numerous barriers including difficulties in identifying affected people, lack of time, resources, tools and skills to address these issues, poor intersectoral work between health-care and social work. We plea for a systematic public policy which allows to implement intersectoral collaborations at all levels.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1364, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis adds a significant burden in current health systems in developing countries including Nepal. The main objective of this study was to explore cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with Tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among patients with tuberculosis in 12 tuberculosis treatment centers from eight districts of Nepal between May and July 2017. Interviews with participants were conducted using a structured questionnaire and were supplemented by anthropometric measurements and on-site blood glucose tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Among 221 study participants, 138 (62.4%) had new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 (10.9%) had new smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and 34 (15.4%) had new extra- pulmonary tuberculosis. Overall, 43.1% of the patients with tuberculosis had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. The prevalence of at least one cardiometabolic risk factor was more in male than female (47.8% versus 33.8%). Prevalence of tobacco (18.9% versus 4.8%), and alcohol (12.6% versus 6.5%) use was proportionately higher in male compared to female. The prevalence of hypertension (17% vs. 21%) and obesity (11.9% vs. 12.9%) was lower in male compared to females. Female (AOR = 0.47; CI: 0.23-0.94), those from Gandaki Province (AOR = 0.32; CI: 0.13-0.79) and literate (AOR = 0.49; CI: 0.25-0.96) had reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of gender and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis. The findings from this study can guide medical practitioners and policy makers to consider clinical suspicion, diagnosis and treatment. National treatment guideline can benefit by integrating the management of non-communicable diseases in Tuberculosis treatment centers.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 91, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary characteristics of participants in the NutriNet Brasil cohort immediately before and during the covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Our data stem from an adult cohort created to prospectively investigate the relationship between diet and morbidity and mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil. For this study, we selected the first participants (n = 10,116) who answered twice to a simplified questionnaire on their diet the day before, the first time when entering the study, between January 26 and February 15, 2020, and the second between May 10 and 19, 2020. The questionnaire inquiries about the consumption of healthy (vegetables, fruits and legumes) and unhealthy (ultra-processed foods) eating markers. Comparisons of indicators based on the consumption of these markers before and during the pandemic are presented for the study population and according to gender, age group, macro-region of residence and schooling. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, adopting p < 0.05 to identify significant differences. RESULTS: For all participants, we found a modest but statistically significant increase in the consumption of healthy eating markers and stability in the consumption of unhealthy food markers. This favorable pattern of dietary changes during the pandemic occurred in most sociodemographic strata. We observed a less favorable changing pattern, with a tendency to increasing consumption of healthy and unhealthy food markers, in the Northeast and North macro-regions and among people with less schooling, suggesting social inequalities in the response to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed, the trend of increased consumption of ultra-processed foods in underdeveloped regions and by people with less schooling is concerning, as eating these foods increases the risk of obesity, hypertension and diabetes, whose presence increases the severity and lethality of covid-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Morbidade , Pandemias
19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-25. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0033).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52740

RESUMO

High blood pressure, high fasting blood sugar levels (measured as fasting plasma glucose), and overweight/obesity are the top three risk factors for mortality in the Americas. Unhealthy eating is closely linked to these top three risk factors in the Americas, driven largely by excess intake of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. The excess intake of these nutrients has been driven largely by the widespread availability, affordability, and promotion of processed and ultra-processed food products that are excessive in sugars, fats, and sodium. As such, an essential part of the solution requires the use of laws and regulations to reduce the demand for and offer of products that contain excessive amounts of critical nutrients. One of the key policy tools to regulate such products to prevent them from unbalancing diets is the use of front-of-package labeling (FOPL) to indicate to consumers which products contain excessive amounts of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. To support populations in the Americas in their efforts to meet the World Health Organization recommendations and protect them from the top risk factors harming their health and development, the regulatory objective of a FOPL system should aim at allowing consumers to correctly, quickly, and easily identify products that contain excessive amount of sugars, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. This technical brief summarizes the evidence on the performance of FOPL systems in meeting this purpose and provides a list of frequently asked questions about the nutrition warning system.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco , Açúcares da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Doença Crônica , Doenças não Transmissíveis , América
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-21.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52705

RESUMO

This report is designed to complement the WHO’s 2018 Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health by providing greater detail on the current status on alcohol consumption, harms, barriers, and breakthroughs in the Region of the Americas in relation to alcohol’s impact on health and the associated burden of disease. This is the third regional report dedicated to alcohol and health in the Americas. The information provided is based on country responses to the WHO Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, undertaken in 2016, which informed the WHO Global Report of 2018. Data were reviewed and accepted by each country before the publication of the global report and the information used for the regional report largely relies on the global information system on alcohol and health (GISAH) of the WHO. The report provides an update on alcohol consumption in the region and each Member State, trends in consumption over time, alcohol-related harms, and current alcohol policies being implemented in each Member State and to what extent they are in line with the WHO global alcohol strategy and regional plan of action. It provides examples of studies done in the Region that were not reported in the WHO Global Status Report. The report discusses gaps and challenges in reducing the harmful use of alcohol and how countries can reverse current trends in a cost-effective and expedited way, particularly if the WHO SAFER technical package is implemented at the national level.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Doença Crônica , Gênero e Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Origem Étnica e Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência , América
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