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2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 257-262, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1047911

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos usuários atendidos em ação de saúde na Baixada Litorânea do Rio de Janeiro. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, exploratório de natureza quantitativa que utilizou como delineamento a pesquisa documental por meio da análise de dados secundários. Resultados: foram avaliados 746 registros, com prevalência do sexo feminino (69,7%), idade entre 20 e 29 anos (41,6%), ensino superior incompleto (63,9%) e estado civil solteiro (69,4%). O sexo masculino apresentou uma média mais elevada de níveis pressóricos quando comparado com as mulheres. Evidenciou-se que com o avançar da idade e baixa escolaridade, maiores são os níveis de pressão arterial e glicêmicos. Conclusão: estudos que ampliam o conhecimento sobre o perfil epidemiológico de uma população representam uma ferramenta importante para subsidiar o cuidado em saúde


Objective: to reveal the epidemiological profile of the users met in health action in the Coastal Lowlands of Rio de Janeiro. Method: this is a descriptive study, retrospective, exploratory quantitative in nature used as documentary research design through the analysis of secondary data. Results: 746 records were evaluated, with female prevalence (69.7%), age between 20 and 29 years (41.6%), incomplete higher education (63.9%) and marital status single (69.4%). Males showed an average blood pressure higher when compared with the female. It was evidenced that with advancing age and lower educational level, the greater the blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Conclusion: it is considered that studies about the knowledge of the epidemiological profile of a population becomes an important tool to support health actions


Objetivo: identificar el perfil epidemiológico de los usuarios se reunieron en la acción sanitaria en las tierras bajas costeras de Río de Janeiro. Método: se trata de un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, utilizado cuantitativo en naturaleza exploratoria como diseño de investigación documental a través del análisis de datos secundarios. Resultados: se evaluaron registros de 746, con predominio femenino (69.7%), edad entre 20 y 29 años (41.6%), educación superior incompleta (63.9%) y el estado civil solo (69,4%). Los varones mostraron mayor los niveles de presión arterial media en comparación con las mujeres. Se evidenció que con el avance de edad y menor nivel educativo, mayor será los niveles de glucosa en sangre y presión arterial. Conclusión: estudios que amplían el conocimiento sobre el perfil epidemiológico de una población representan una herramienta importante para apoyar la atención de la salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perfil de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1198-1202, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795574

RESUMO

The unbalanced economic development, the lifestyle changes of the residents, the aging before getting rich and the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases in China have brought great pressure on China's health system. However, the prevention and control mechanism of chronic diseases in China is far from mature, which restricts the development of the prevention and control of chronic diseases in China. Singapore's new concept on chronic disease management and the the 3-level theoretical framework are good experience in the world and deserve to be learned by China. This article introduced the Healthy Living Master Plan in health promotion practice in Singapore, and made suggestions on construction of health management system to cope with the disease burden in China.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Singapura
4.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(280): 157-161, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760400

RESUMO

People are more and more often taking up shift work, which in the long run may have harmful health effects. Whether a person working in a shift system gets sick is influenced by many external factors (rotation and type of changes and work performed, socio-psychological factors) and endogenous (sex, age, health and physiological status, individual, internal biological clock - chronotype, physiological tolerance work at night). Many authors in their work prove that work in a rotational rotation system affects the occurrence of various types of cancer, hormone production, occurrence of metabolic disorders and civilization diseases (type II diabetes, insulin resistance, overweight and obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease), microflora differentiation intestinal and contributes to increased stress of the body. In addition, the time in which a person works has a direct impact on the consumption and quality of meals. Shift workers often do not have time to eat regular, properly balanced meals that would satisfy their energy and nutritional needs. For this reason, most often reach for ready-to-eat foods that are characterized by low nutritional value at a relatively high energy value. Shift work also carries a risk of circadian rhythm disturbances and sleep disorders. Many studies indicate that there is an increased risk of some types of cancer and civilization diseases, but there is no clear evidence as to whether this is only the fault of rotary night work.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Ritmo Circadiano , Civilização , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade
5.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 433-441, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent a major public health problem worldwide. Giving their impact on the morbidity and mortality burden, understanding their chronological trends over time is a priority for epidemiological surveillance. We aimed to determine the epidemiological specificities of NCDs and to study their chronological trends over the period 2010-2015. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of hospitalized patients from the regional registry of morbidity and mortality in the Southern University Hospital of Tunisia during the period 2010-2015. RESULTS: We included 18,081 patients with NCDs aged ≥ 25 years. The distribution of NCDs was characterized by the predominance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (10,346 cases, 57.2%). Chronological trends analysis of NCDs showed that NCDs remained globally stable between 2010 and 2015. The same result applied to the group of cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, CVD increased significantly between 2010 and 2015 (ρ = 0.84; p = 0.036). The proportion of CVD increased significantly among men (ρ = 0.87; p = 0.019) and elderly (ρ = 0.88; p = 0.019). The hospital mortality rate of NCDs increased significantly (ρ = 0.85; p = 0.031), notably for CVDs (ρ = 0.94; p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Chronological trends analysis revealed a significant rise in the morbidity and mortality burden of CVDs during the period 2010-2015. It is imperative, therefore, to strengthen health care for these patients and to introduce the concept of integrated NCDs prevention as an essential component of the health system.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
6.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020405, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656604

RESUMO

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests the impact of maternal nutrition plays a role in determining offspring's risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including heart disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We conducted a systematic review to investigate this relationship. Methods: We systematically searched CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science Core Collection and Global Health for papers published before May 2016 (PROSPERO: CRD42016039244, CRD42016039247). Included studies examined the impact of maternal nutrition (diet, vitamin status and weight) on adult offspring's NCD outcomes. Results: Of 23 501 identified citations, 20 met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of papers required narrative synthesis. Included studies involved 1 939 786 participants. CVD: Four papers examined maternal exposure to famine during gestation, 3 identified a resulting increased risk of CVD in offspring. Five identified an increased risk of offspring CVD with increasing maternal weight. T2DM: Six studies investigated maternal exposure to famine during gestation; three identified an increase in offspring's T2DM risk. Three found no increased risk; two of these were in circumstances where famine states persisted beyond pregnancy. Three papers found an increased risk of T2DM in offspring with increasing maternal BMI. CANCER: Four papers investigated maternal famine exposure during pregnancy - two identified a reduced risk of cancer in male offspring, and two an increased risk in female offspring. COPD: One study found low maternal vitamin D status was associated with reduced use of asthma medication. Conclusions: While there are indications that exposure to both famine (particularly when coupled with exposure to nutritional excess after birth) and maternal overweight during pregnancy is associated with offspring's risk of CVD, T2DM and cancer, currently there is a lack of evidence to confirm this relationship. Despite the lack of conclusive evidence, these finding hold important research and policy implications for a lifecycle approach to the prevention of NCDs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Risco
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190012.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) indicators, including laboratory tests, in the population of Brazilian women of reproductive age, according to whether or not they receive the Bolsa Família (BF) benefit. METHODS: A total of 3,131 women aged 18 to 49 years old who participated in the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde ) laboratory examination sub-sample were considered. We compared indicators among women of reproductive age (18 to 49 years old) who reported receiving BF or not, and calculated prevalence and confidence intervals, using Pearson's χ2. RESULTS: Women of reproductive age who were beneficiaries of BF had worse health outcomes, such as a greater occurrence of being overweight (33.5%) and obese (26.9%) (p < 0.001), having hypertension (13.4% versus 4.4%, p < 0.001), used more tobacco (11.2% versus 8.2%, p = 0.029), and perceived their health as worse (6.2% versus 2.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Several NCD indicators were worse among women of childbearing age who were beneficiaries of BF. It should be emphasized that this is not a causal relationship, with BF being a marker of inequalities among women. The benefit has been directed to the population with greater health needs, and seeks to reduce inequities.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546803

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and disability are both common, and increasing in magnitude, as a result of population ageing and a shift in disease burden towards chronic conditions. Moreover, disability and NCDs are strongly linked in a two-way association. People living with NCDs may develop impairments, which can cause activity limitations and participation restriction in the absence of supportive personal and environmental factors. In other words, NCDs may lead to disabilities. At the same time, people with disabilities are more vulnerable to NCDs, because of their underlying health condition, and vulnerability to poverty and exclusion from healthcare services. NCD programmes must expand their focus beyond prevention and treatment to incorporate rehabilitation for people living with NCDs, in order to maximize their functioning and well-being. Additionally, access to healthcare needs to be improved for people with disabilities so that they can secure their right to preventive, curative and rehabilitation services. These changes may require new innovations to overcome existing gaps in healthcare capacity, such as an increasing role for mobile technology and task-sharing. This perspective paper discusses these issues, using a particular focus on stroke and dementia in order to clarify these relationships.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pobreza
9.
Public Health ; 175: 54-59, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study to determine whether body mass index (BMI) in different genders and age groups need different thresholds when predicting chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs). STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009. Sequential sample cluster analysis was used to group age according to BMI. Propensity score matching was used to eliminate the influence of age. Receiver operating characteristic curve based on gender and age group was used to evaluate the cut-off values and efficiency of BMI in each group. RESULTS: A total of 8469 individuals were enrolled in this study. Results of sequential sample cluster analyses showed age was divided into three groups: 18-39, 40-59 and 60-99 years. There were significant differences in the distribution of BMI among the three groups for both males and females (P < 0.001). Statistical differences were observed in the distribution of BMI between genders in the 18-39- and 60-99-year-old age groups (P < 0.001). For men, the cut-off values of BMI were ≥25 kg/m2, ≥24 kg/m2 and ≥23 kg/m2 in the 18-39, 40-59 and 60-99 years old groups, respectively; for women, the corresponding cut-off points were ≥25 kg/m2, ≥23 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2 in groups. CONCLUSIONS: The thresholds for BMI might be different between gender and age group. In addition, it might not be suitable to determine cut-off values of BMI to predict CNCDs for people aged ≥60 years.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 85, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though migraine and other primary headache disorders are common and debilitating, major health surveys in Brazil have not included them. We repair this omission by combining data on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) 2013 with epidemiological data on migraine prevalence and severity in Brazil. The purpose is to rank migraine and its impact on public healthh among NCDs in order to support public-health policy toward better care for migraine in Brazil. METHODS: Data from PNS, a cross-sectional population-based study, were merged with estimates made by the Brazilian Headache Epidemiology Study (BHES) of migraine prevalence (numbers of people affected and of candidates for migraine preventative therapy) and migraine-attributed disability. RESULTS: Migraine ranked second in prevalence among the NCDs, and as the highest cause of disability among adults in Brazil. Probable migraine accounted for substantial additional disability. An estimated total of 5.5 million people in Brazil (or 9.5 million with probable migraine included) were in need of preventative therapy. CONCLUSION: On this evidence, migraine should be included in the next health surveys in Brazil. Public-health policy should recognize the burden of migraine expressed in public ill health, and promote health services offering better diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020409, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448113

RESUMO

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause a large and growing burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective cohort studies are key to study multiple risk factors and chronic diseases and are crucial to our understanding of the burden, aetiology and prognosis of NCDs in SSA. We aimed to identify the level of research output on NCDs and their risk factors collected by cohorts in SSA. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to map the extent of current NCDs research in SSA by identifying studies published after the year 2000 using prospectively collected cohort data on any of the six NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory diseases, and cancers), ≥1 major risk factor (other than age and sex), set only within SSA, enrolled ≥500 participants, and ≥12 months of follow-up with ≥2 data collection points (or with plans to). We performed a systematic search of databases, a manual search of references lists from included articles and the INDEPTH network website, and study investigators from SSA were contacted for further articles. Results: We identified 30 cohort studies from the 101 included articles. Eighteen countries distributed in West, Central, East and Southern Africa, were represented. The majority (27%) set in South Africa. There were three studies including children, twenty with adults, and seven with both. 53% of cohorts were sampled in general populations, 47% in clinical populations, and 1 occupational cohort study. Hypertension (n = 23) was most commonly reported, followed by obesity (n = 16), diabetes (n = 15), CKD (n = 6), COPD (n = 2), cervical cancer (n = 3), and breast cancer (n = 1). The majority (n = 22) reported data on at least one demographic/environmental, lifestyle, or physiological risk factor but these data varied greatly. Conclusions: Most studies collected data on a combination of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity and few studies collected data on respiratory diseases and cancer. Although most collected data on different risk factors the methodologies varied greatly. Several methodological limitations were found including low recruitment rate, low retention rate, and lack of validated and standardized data collection. Our results could guide potential collaborations and maximize impact to improve our global understanding of NCDs (and their risk factors) in SSA and also to inform future research, as well as policies.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448114

RESUMO

Background: Past studies have demonstrated how single non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affect health care utilisation and quality of life (QoL), but not how different NCD combinations interact to affect these. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of NCD dyad and triad combinations, and the implications of different NCD dyad combinations on health care utilisation and QoL. Methods: Our study utilised cross-sectional data from the WHO SAGE study to examine the most prevalent NCD combinations in six large middle-income countries (MICs). Subjects were mostly aged 50 years and above, with a smaller proportion aged 18 to 49 years. Multivariable linear regression was applied to investigate which NCD dyads increased or decreased health care utilisation and QoL, compared with subjects with only one NCD. Results: The study included 41 557 subjects. Most prevalent NCD combinations differed by subgroups, including age, gender, income, and residence (urban vs rural). Diabetes, stroke, and depression had the largest effect on increasing mean number of outpatient visits, increasing mean number of hospitalisation days, and decreasing mean QoL scores, respectively. Out of the 36 NCD dyads in our study, thirteen, four, and five dyad combinations were associated with higher or lower mean number of outpatient visits, mean number of hospitalisations, or mean QoL scores, respectively, compared with treating separate patients with one NCD each. Dyads of depression were associated with fewer mean outpatient visits, more hospitalisations, and lower mean QoL scores, compared to patients with one NCD. Dyads of hypertension and diabetes were also associated with a reduced mean number of outpatient visits. Conclusions: Certain NCD combinations increase or decrease health care utilisation and QoL substantially more than treating separate patients with one NCD each. Health systems should consider the needs of patients with different multimorbidity patterns to effectively respond to the demands on health care utilisation and to mitigate adverse effects on QoL.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Multimorbidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1150, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1976, the U.S. Sugar Association (SA), a globally networked trade organization representing the cane and beet sugar industry, won the Public Relations Society of America's (PRSA) Silver Anvil Award for a crisis communication campaign. Their campaign successfully limited the diffusion of sugar restriction policies to control obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and dental caries, and marked the beginning of the modern-day SA. The sugar industry continues to resist measures to reduce sugar consumption, therefore understanding and addressing industry opposition is crucial to achieving global targets to reduce non-communicable disease. METHODS: We critically analyze common crisis management rhetorical strategies used by SA to defend itself from perceived wrongdoing, and sugar from perceptions of harm using a thematic content analysis based on Hearit's Corporate Apologia theory. Data sources were internal SA documents related to the 1976 Silver Anvil Award in 1) PRSA records, 2) Great Western Sugar Company records, and 3) William Jefferson Darby Papers. RESULTS: SA, using prototypical apologia stances (counterattack, differentiation, apology, and corrective action) and rhetorical dissociation strategies (appearance/reality, opinion/knowledge, and act/essence) constructed a persuasive narrative to successfully defend sugar from a product safety crisis, and the sugar industry from a social legitimacy crisis. SA's overarching narrative was that restricting sugar, which it claimed was a valuable food that makes healthy foods more palatable, would cause harm and that claims to the contrary were made by opportunists, pseudoscientists, food-faddists, lay nutritionists or those who had been misled by them. SA's apologia does not meet criteria for truthfulness or sincerity. CONCLUSION: Corporate apologia theory provides an accessible way of understanding sugar industry crisis communication strategies. It enables public health actors to recognize and predict industry corporate apologia in response to ongoing product safety and social legitimacy challenges. Industry counterarguments can be examined for truthfulness and sincerity (or the lack thereof), and explained to policymakers considering sugar restriction policies, and to the public, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of illegitimate industry communication efforts to oppose regulation and legislation.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Açúcares da Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Relações Públicas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Comunicação Persuasiva , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1151, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Samoa is suffering from alarming rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To address this epidemic, tackling health literacy is important. A qualitative study was conducted with the aim to explore health literacy in Samoa in relation to NCDs. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted, with a total sample size of 73 participants aged over 18 years. The semi-structured interview guide was based on the conceptual model of the European Health Literacy project (HLS-EU). Data was translated, transcribed, coded, and categorized as part of the qualitative analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one overarching category and seven sub-categories based on 19 themes. It revealed that health literacy in Samoa is strongly influenced by the culture. Personal responsibility is lacking. The family circle is central to health in a community where support is provided through the church and local groupings. Basic knowledge of NCDs was present in the population, but a deeper understanding of chronic disease implications was lacking. Difficulties with regards to medication adherence for chronic diseases arose as a topic, and traditional healers are still strongly embedded in the local society. Finally, the health system's performance, especially primary care services at the local level, is suffering from the high burden of NCDs and has been challenged to respond to the needs of the community it serves. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show how health literacy in Samoa is influenced by culture and suggest employing participatory, culture-sensitive, public health interventions which address the family as a whole, building on health literacy to address major public health problems like NCDs and remove barriers in the health system.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Samoa/epidemiologia
15.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 251-259, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408434

RESUMO

The increased incidence of non-communicable human diseases may be attributed, at least partially, to exposures to toxic chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), air pollutants and heavy metals. Given the high mortality and morbidity of pollutant exposure associated diseases, a better understanding of the related mechanisms of toxicity and impacts on the endogenous host metabolism are needed. The metabolome represents the collection of the intermediates and end products of cellular processes, and is the most proximal reporter of the body's response to environmental exposures and pathological processes. Metabolomics is a powerful tool for studying how organisms interact with their environment and how these interactions shape diseases related to pollutant exposure. This mini review discusses potential biological mechanisms that link pollutant exposure to metabolic disturbances and chronic human diseases, with a focus on recent studies that demonstrate the application of metabolomics as a tool to elucidate biochemical modes of actions of various environmental pollutants. In addition, classes of metabolites that have been shown to be modulated by multiple environmental pollutants will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as potential early biomarkers of disease risks. Taken together, metabolomics is a useful and versatile tool for characterizing the disease risks and mechanisms associated with various environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1641043, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362599

RESUMO

There have been many debates in recent years as to whether the communicable disease versus non-communicable disease (NCD) division is a meaningful one in disease classification. Several critiques have been raised about the framing of NCDs, regarding not only the prominent role that infections play in the aetiology of NCDs, but also the communicability of many social determinants of NCDs and the individualistic, 'lifestyle' framing of NCDs that tends to focus on health behaviours to the neglect of socio-political, environmental, and structural determinants of health. In this paper, we give a historical overview of the usage of the NCD terminology and analyse some of the recent debates regarding the naming and framing of NCDs. We argue that a lack of reflection on the assumptions underlying the naming and framing of NCDs may lead to the collection of insufficient epidemiological data, the development of inappropriate interventions and the provision of inadequate care. Work in social epidemiology, health promotion, medical anthropology, demography, and other fields may provide insights into the ways in which efforts targeting NCDs may be reframed to improve impact and efficacy. In addition, concepts such as multimorbidity and syndemics, frameworks such as ecosocial theory and approaches based in the social sciences may provide a way forward in the conceptualization of disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Neurology ; 93(14): e1385-e1396, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of noncommunicable diseases between adults with and without cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cox models, stratified by matched set and adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to compare the risk of any noncommunicable disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory disease between adults with and without CP. RESULTS: The analysis included 1,705 adults with CP and 5,115 age-, sex-, and general practice-matched adults without CP. There was evidence from adjusted analyses that adults with CP had 75% increased risk of developing any noncommunicable disease compared to adults without CP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-1.94). Specifically, they had increased risk of cardiovascular disease (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.48-2.11) and respiratory disease (HR 2.61, 95% CI 2.14-3.19). There was no evidence of increased risk of cancer or type 2 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with CP had increased risk of noncommunicable disease, specifically cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings highlight the need for clinical vigilance regarding identification of noncommunicable disease in people with CP and further research into the etiology and management of noncommunicable disease in this population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Transtornos Respiratórios/terapia , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1060, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The debate on socioeconomic inequalities in health dominates the research and policy agenda of many countries. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is on the rise in recent years in Botswana. As a prevention and policy effort, the study provided an empirical evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in NCD risk factors in Botswana. METHODS: Data used in this study was derived from a cross sectional survey on chronic non communicable diseases in Botswana conducted in 2016. The survey adopted a multistage sampling design and a sample of 1178 participants (males and females) aged 15 years and above was selected in both urban and rural areas of Botswana. The inequality analysis was conducted employing decomposition analysis using ADePT software version 6. Logistic regression models were used to show the association between NCD risk factors and socioeconomic status using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: Concentration indices showed that poor physical activity (CI = 0.0546), alcohol consumption (CI = 0.1859) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.038) were more concentrated among the non-poor while daily smoking (CI = - 0.0308) and poor fruit/vegetable consumption (CI = - 0.1909) were more concentrated among the poor. Wealth status was observed to be the leading contributor to socioeconomic inequality for daily smoking, poor fruit/vegetable consumption, overweight/obesity and poor physical activity. Education was the leading contributor to socioeconomic inequality for alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this study indicate the need for concerted differential efforts to address the needs of the poor and non-poor in order to reduce NCD risk factor inequalities.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387226

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean Diet (MD) principles is associated with numerous health benefits [...].


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
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