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3.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 142-155, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852603

RESUMO

Actions to address different forms of malnutrition are typically managed by separate communities, policies, programmes, governance structures, and funding streams. By contrast, double-duty actions, which aim to simultaneously tackle both undernutrition and problems of overweight, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) have been proposed as a way to effectively address malnutrition in all its forms in a more holisitic way. This Series paper identifies ten double-duty actions that have strong potential to reduce the risk of both undernutrition, obesity, and DR-NCDs. It does so by summarising evidence on common drivers of different forms of malnutrition; documenting examples of unintended harm caused by some undernutrition-focused programmes on obesity and DR-NCDs; and highlighting examples of double-duty actions to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition. We find that undernutrition, obesity, and DR-NCDs are intrinsically linked through early-life nutrition, diet diversity, food environments, and socioeconomic factors. Some evidence shows that programmes focused on undernutrition have raised risks of poor quality diets, obesity, and DR-NCDs, especially in countries undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. This Series paper builds on this evidence to develop a framework to guide the design of double-duty approaches and strategies, and defines the first steps needed to deliver them. With a clear package of double-duty actions now identified, there is an urgent need to move forward with double-duty actions to address malnutrition in all its forms.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Estado Nutricional , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1198-1202, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795574

RESUMO

The unbalanced economic development, the lifestyle changes of the residents, the aging before getting rich and the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases in China have brought great pressure on China's health system. However, the prevention and control mechanism of chronic diseases in China is far from mature, which restricts the development of the prevention and control of chronic diseases in China. Singapore's new concept on chronic disease management and the the 3-level theoretical framework are good experience in the world and deserve to be learned by China. This article introduced the Healthy Living Master Plan in health promotion practice in Singapore, and made suggestions on construction of health management system to cope with the disease burden in China.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Singapura
5.
Global Health ; 15(1): 82, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recurring discussion in the literature relates to the possible contradictions among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The focus has been on economic goals, such as economic growth and goals related to climate change. We explore the possible contradictions that may arise between economic goals and health goals, specifically, the goal on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) - SDG3.4. As a way to achieve SDG3.4, countries have been urged to introduce sin taxes, such as those on sugar. Yet others have argued that such taxes may affect employment (SDG 8.5), economic growth (SDG 8.1), and increase poverty (SDG1). However, there is limited or no reliable evidence, using actual experience, on the effect of sugar tax on health and economic outcomes. This makes it hard to assess the possible contradictions in SDGs that sugar taxes may generate. MAIN BODY: Using a conceptual framework on SDGs that views relationships among SDGs as either contradictory, reinforcing, or neutral, we carefully consider whether there are contradictions between SDG 3.4 on one hand and SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 on the other hand. We illustrate this using Zambia which recently introduced an equivalent 3% tax on non-alcoholic beverages, implicitly targeted at sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), given the stated goal of reducing NCDs. Concerns are that such a tax would be detrimental to the Zambia sugar value chain which contributes about 6% to GDP, in which case the achievement of SDG 3.4 (health) would be at odds with, or contradict, SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 (poverty eradication, economic growth, and creation of employment). We discuss that the existence of contradictions depend on a number of contextual factors, which allows us to make two conclusions about sugar taxation in Zambia. First, the current tax rate of 3% is likely neutral (no contradictions or reinforcing relationships) because it is too low to have any health or employment effects. However, the revenue raised can be reinvested to improve livelihoods. Secondly, the tax rate should be increased but care has to be exercised to ensure that the rate is not too high to generate contradictions. There will be need to carefully assess important parameters such as elasticities and explore alternative economic livelihoods. CONCLUSION: Without paying due consideration to important contextual factors, Zambia and many LMIC risk experiencing contradictions among SDGs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emprego , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Impostos , Humanos , Zâmbia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 693, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, itself a cardiovascular condition, is a significant risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is recognized as a major public health challenge in Ghana. Beginning in 2014, a collaborative team launched the community-based hypertension improvement program (ComHIP) in one health district in Ghana. The ComHIP project, a public-private partnership, tests a community-based model that engages the private sector and utilizes information and communication technology (ICT) to control hypertension. This paper, focuses on the various challenges associated with managing hypertension in Ghana, as reported by ComHIP stakeholders. METHODS: A total of 55 informants - comprising patients, health care professionals, licensed chemical sellers (LCS), national and sub-national policymakers - were purposively selected for interview and focus group discussions (FGDs). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Where applicable, transcriptions were translated directly from local language to English. The data were then analysed using two-step thematic analysis. The protocol was approved by the two ethics review committees based in Ghana and the third, based in the United Kingdom. All participants were interviewed after giving informed consent. RESULTS: Our data have implications for the on-going implementation of ComHIP, especially the importance of policy maker buy-in, and the benefits, as well as drawbacks, of the program to different stakeholders. While our data show that the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers - increasing providers' knowledge on hypertension and patients' awareness of same- there were implementation challenges identified by both patients and providers. Policy level challenges relate to task-sharing bottlenecks, which precluded nurses from prescribing or dispensing antihypertensives, and LCS from stocking same. Medication adherence and the phenomenon of medical pluralism in Ghana were identified challenges. The perspectives from the national level stakeholders enable elucidation of whole of health system challenges to ComHIP and similarly designed programmes. CONCLUSIONS: This paper sheds important light on the patient/individual, and system level challenges to hypertension and related non-communicable disease prevention and treatment in Ghana. The data show that although the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers, policy level task-sharing bottlenecks preclude optimal implementation of ComHIP.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pessoal Administrativo , Adulto , Conscientização , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Programas Governamentais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública , Setor Público , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1031-1034, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594140

RESUMO

2018 witnessed the 40(th) anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration. On October 25, 2018, the World Health Organization issued a new Astana Declaration, which reiterates and further develops the concept and core elements of primary health care. It is also proposes that the implementation of the primary health care concept will facilitate to cope with the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in different countries. Based on the analysis on the policies and practices of the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in China, this paper points out that the "government-leading, multi-sectoral collaboration, social mobilization and participation by all people" which we have always emphasized is just the application of this primary health care concept, and the Astana Declaration also brings a new and important inspiration to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in China.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
10.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1192-1204, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571602

RESUMO

In 2009, China launched a major health-care reform and pledged to provide all citizens with equal access to basic health care with reasonable quality and financial risk protection. The government has since quadrupled its funding for health. The reform's first phase (2009-11) emphasised expanding social health insurance coverage for all and strengthening infrastructure. The second phase (2012 onwards) prioritised reforming its health-care delivery system through: (1) systemic reform of public hospitals by removing mark-up for drug sales, adjusting fee schedules, and reforming provider payment and governance structures; and (2) overhaul of its hospital-centric and treatment-based delivery system. In the past 10 years, China has made substantial progress in improving equal access to care and enhancing financial protection, especially for people of a lower socioeconomic status. However, gaps remain in quality of care, control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), efficiency in delivery, control of health expenditures, and public satisfaction. To meet the needs of China's ageing population that is facing an increased NCD burden, we recommend leveraging strategic purchasing, information technology, and local pilots to build a primary health-care (PHC)-based integrated delivery system by aligning the incentives and governance of hospitals and PHC systems, improving the quality of PHC providers, and educating the public on the value of prevention and health maintenance.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , China , Educação em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012573, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro-environments where people may select or consume these products - including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools - are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non-alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with between-participants (parallel group) or within-participants (cross-over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used a novel semi-automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between-participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high-income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less-healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD -1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.90 to -0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD -0.55 (95% CI -1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD -0.65 (95% CI -1.29 to -0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD -0.60 (95% CI -0.84 to -0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta-regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real-world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods - as well as alcohol and tobacco products - and over sustained time periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1084, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399029

RESUMO

The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among people with low socioeconomic status (SES) has heightened awareness of the need for primary prevention programs in low-SES neighborhoods. Social inequity in health is apparent in mental, social and physical aspects of health among people living in low-SES neighborhoods. Viewing this problem from a life course perspective and adopting a vulnerable population approach points to the importance of inducing sustainable health behavior changes in children and young people living in low-SES neighborhoods. One important factor in lowering the risk of many NCDs while improving mental health is the promotion of physical activity (PA). In this paper, we argue that lowering the risk of many NCDs and improving mental health is best achieved through setting-based programs that facilitate long-term PA behavior changes in children and adolescents living in marginalized neighborhoods. Empirical evidence indicates that extrinsic motives for participating in physical activities, such as improving health, are insufficient when long-term participation is the goal. Therefore, we argue that interventions with the aim of affecting long-term PA in low-SES neighborhoods and thereby reducing social inequities in health should include activities that aim to create more intrinsic and autonomous motivations by building on more broad and positive understandings of health and participation. Here, we advocate that sports-based recreation (SR) holds several advantages. If implemented well, SR has the potential to be a health-promoting activity that is meaningful and motivating in itself and that involves physiological health-promoting aspects (e.g., PA), a social aspect (e.g., positive relations with others), and a psychological aspect (e.g., positive experiences of oneself). Further, we suggest four practicalities that should be considered when conducting interventions: the cost of participating, the location, the facilities required, and the suitability of the SR activities.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Áreas de Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370229

RESUMO

Transnational restaurant chains sell food and beverage products in 75 to 139 countries worldwide linked to obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study examined whether transnational restaurant chains reformulated products and standardized portions aligned with healthy dietary guidelines and criteria. Firstly, we describe the transnational restaurant industry structure and eating trends. Secondly, we summarize results from a scoping review of healthy dietary guidelines for restaurants. Thirdly, we describe a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2018) to identify studies on nutrient profile and portion size changes made by transnational restaurants over 18 years. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, identified 179 records, and included 50 studies conducted in 30 countries across six regions. The scoping review found a few expert-recommended targets for restaurants to improve offerings, but no internationally accepted standard for portions or serving sizes. The systematic review results showed no standardized assessment methods or metrics to evaluate transnational chain restaurants' practices to improve menu offerings. There was wide variation within and across countries, regions, firms, and chains to reduce energy, saturated and trans fats, sodium, and standardized portions. These results may inform future research and encourage transnational chain restaurants to offer healthy product profiles and standardized portions to reduce obesity and NCD risks worldwide.


Assuntos
/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Porção/normas , Restaurantes/normas , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012573, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro-environments where people may select or consume these products - including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools - are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non-alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with between-participants (parallel group) or within-participants (cross-over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used a novel semi-automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between-participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high-income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less-healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD -1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.90 to -0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD -0.55 (95% CI -1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD -0.65 (95% CI -1.29 to -0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD -0.60 (95% CI -0.84 to -0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta-regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real-world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods - as well as alcohol and tobacco products - and over sustained time periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1150, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1976, the U.S. Sugar Association (SA), a globally networked trade organization representing the cane and beet sugar industry, won the Public Relations Society of America's (PRSA) Silver Anvil Award for a crisis communication campaign. Their campaign successfully limited the diffusion of sugar restriction policies to control obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and dental caries, and marked the beginning of the modern-day SA. The sugar industry continues to resist measures to reduce sugar consumption, therefore understanding and addressing industry opposition is crucial to achieving global targets to reduce non-communicable disease. METHODS: We critically analyze common crisis management rhetorical strategies used by SA to defend itself from perceived wrongdoing, and sugar from perceptions of harm using a thematic content analysis based on Hearit's Corporate Apologia theory. Data sources were internal SA documents related to the 1976 Silver Anvil Award in 1) PRSA records, 2) Great Western Sugar Company records, and 3) William Jefferson Darby Papers. RESULTS: SA, using prototypical apologia stances (counterattack, differentiation, apology, and corrective action) and rhetorical dissociation strategies (appearance/reality, opinion/knowledge, and act/essence) constructed a persuasive narrative to successfully defend sugar from a product safety crisis, and the sugar industry from a social legitimacy crisis. SA's overarching narrative was that restricting sugar, which it claimed was a valuable food that makes healthy foods more palatable, would cause harm and that claims to the contrary were made by opportunists, pseudoscientists, food-faddists, lay nutritionists or those who had been misled by them. SA's apologia does not meet criteria for truthfulness or sincerity. CONCLUSION: Corporate apologia theory provides an accessible way of understanding sugar industry crisis communication strategies. It enables public health actors to recognize and predict industry corporate apologia in response to ongoing product safety and social legitimacy challenges. Industry counterarguments can be examined for truthfulness and sincerity (or the lack thereof), and explained to policymakers considering sugar restriction policies, and to the public, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of illegitimate industry communication efforts to oppose regulation and legislation.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Açúcares da Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Relações Públicas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Comunicação Persuasiva , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392647

RESUMO

Non communicable diseases (NCDs) become symptomatic in adulthood, but they mainly origin from early life. As NCDs are the major cause of mortality both in developed and developing countries, global actions are necessary for their life course prevention and control. The main preventable risk factors of NCDs include tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. These risk factors track from childhood to adulthood; it is well documented that healthy lifestyles play an important role for primordial and primary prevention of NCDs. Sedentary lifestyle, especially prolonged screen time, is a main underlying factor for NCDs. Regarding dietary intake, lower consumption of fruits, vegetables and fibers, as well as higher consumption of fatty and salty foods (fast foods, junk food), and carbonated soft drinks are of most usual habits correlated with increased risk of NCDs.Strategic action areas for the prevention and control of NCDs are health promotion, risk reduction, health systems strengthening for early detection and management of NCD risk factors. Low-cost solutions for reduction the common modifiable risk factors including unhealthy life-cycle are important for guiding policy and priorities of governments and for decreasing the prevalence of NCDs.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 61-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392653

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is one of the major public health problems. Childhood obesity mostly remains in adulthood and lead to non communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Therefore, childhood obesity prevention needs high priority. Several risk factors including genetic factor, unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity related to childhood obesity.Providing suitable strategies and novel interventions should be considered by the entire health care system for prevention and management of obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387226

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean Diet (MD) principles is associated with numerous health benefits [...].


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
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