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J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663


The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.

Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
Genome Med ; 10(1): 70, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261899


BACKGROUND: Mutation of the IL2RG gene results in a form of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID-X1), which has been treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. SCID-X1 gene therapy results in reconstitution of the previously lacking T cell compartment, allowing analysis of the roles of T cell immunity in humans by comparing before and after gene correction. METHODS: Here we interrogate T cell reconstitution using four forms of high throughput analysis. (1) Estimation of the numbers of transduced progenitor cells by monitoring unique positions of integration of the therapeutic gene transfer vector. (2) Estimation of T cell population structure by sequencing of the recombined T cell receptor (TCR) beta locus. (3) Metagenomic analysis of microbial populations in oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and gut samples. (4) Metagenomic analysis of viral populations in gut samples. RESULTS: Comparison of progenitor and mature T cell populations allowed estimation of a minimum number of cell divisions needed to generate the observed populations. Analysis of microbial populations showed the effects of immune reconstitution, including normalization of gut microbiota and clearance of viral infections. Metagenomic analysis revealed enrichment of genes for antibiotic resistance in gene-corrected subjects relative to healthy controls, likely a result of higher healthcare exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omic approach enables the characterization of multiple effects of SCID-X1 gene therapy, including T cell repertoire reconstitution, estimation of numbers of cell divisions between progenitors and daughter T cells, normalization of the microbiome, clearance of microbial pathogens, and modulations in antibiotic resistance gene levels. Together, these results quantify several aspects of the long-term efficacy of gene therapy for SCID-X1. This study includes data from numbers NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.

Terapia Genética , Microbiota , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Divisão Celular , Pré-Escolar , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/microbiologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(9): 1400-1406, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012933


Polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect a wide range of animals and provoke wasting diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed hosts. Recently, a novel Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2) has been identified in a colony of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) rats in the United States. Here, we describe the first report of the RatPyV2 infection in an X-SCID rat colony in Japan. The affected rats exhibited adult-onset wasting. Histologically, we observed large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies within the hyperplastic or dysplastic epithelial cells in the salivary glands, Harderian glands, extraorbital lacrimal glands, and in respiratory and reproductive tissues. Among these organs, the parotid salivary, Harderian, and extraorbital lacrimal glands were most obviously affected. In particular, the parotid salivary glands were the most severely and diffusely affected and atrophic lesions were prominent even at 1 month of age, which suggested that the parotid salivary glands would be highly susceptible to RatPyV2 in X-SCID rats. RatPyV2 inclusion bodies were also detected in the tail of the epididymis and deferent duct. Such reproductive lesions developed significantly in the later stage of breeding age, and therefore may be associated with the reduced fecundity observed in the infected X-SCID rats. We also established a simple, rapid, and non-invasive diagnostic method based on the Amp-FTA method, using buccal swabs for the detection of RatPyV2 in immunodeficient rats. Our findings contribute to the early detection and diagnosis of RatPyV2 infections.

Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Glândulas Salivares , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/diagnóstico , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
Retrovirology ; 5: 79, 2008 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18786256


A novel intrinsic HIV-1 antisense gene was previously described with RNA initiating from the region of an HIV-1 antisense initiator promoter element (HIVaINR). The antisense RNA is exactly complementary to HIV-1 sense RNA and capable of forming approximately 400 base-pair (bp) duplex RNA in the region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) spanning the beginning portion of TAR in the repeat (R) region and extending through the U3 region. Duplex or double-stranded RNA of several hundred nucleotides in length is a key initiating element of RNA interference (RNAi) in several species. This HIVaINR antisense RNA is also capable of forming multiple stem-loop or hairpin-like secondary structures by M-fold analysis, with at least one that perfectly fits the criteria for a microRNA (miRNA) precursor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact in a sequence-specific manner with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to induce either cleavage of the message or impede translation. Human mRNA targets of the predicted HIVaINR antisense RNA (HAA) microRNAs include mRNA for the human interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2RG), also called the common gamma (gammac) receptor chain, because it is an integral part of 6 receptors mediating interleukin signalling (IL-2R, IL-4R, IL-7R, IL-9R, IL-15R and IL-21R). Other potential human mRNA targets include interleukin-15 (IL-15) mRNA, the fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP) mRNA, and the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) mRNA, amongst others. Thus the proposed intrinsic HIVaINR antisense RNA microRNAs (HAAmiRNAs) of the human immunodeficiency virus form complementary targets with mRNAs of a key human gene in adaptive immunity, the IL-2Rgammac, in which genetic defects are known to cause an X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (X-SCID), as well as mRNAs of genes important in innate immunity. A new model of intrinsic RNA silencing induced by the HIVaINR antisense RNA in the absence of Tat is proposed, with elements suggestive of both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and miRNA.

HIV/genética , Interferência de RNA , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia , Proliferação de Células , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , HIV/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-15/genética , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Antissenso/química , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/etiologia