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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 97, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397978

RESUMO

Globally, soybean is a major protein and oil crop. Enhancing our understanding of the soybean domestication and improvement process helps boost genomics-assisted breeding efforts. Here we present a genome-wide variation map of 10.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.4 million indels for 781 soybean individuals which includes 418 domesticated (Glycine max), 345 wild (Glycine soja), and 18 natural hybrid (G. max/G. soja) accessions. We describe the enhanced detection of 183 domestication-selective sweeps and the patterns of putative deleterious mutations during domestication and improvement. This predominantly selfing species shows 7.1% reduction of overall deleterious mutations in domesticated soybean relative to wild soybean and a further 1.4% reduction from landrace to improved accessions. The detected domestication-selective sweeps also show reduced levels of deleterious alleles. Importantly, genotype imputation with this resource increases the mapping resolution of genome-wide association studies for seed protein and oil traits in a soybean diversity panel.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Mutação/genética , Soja/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 702, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514713

RESUMO

Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), one of the five domesticated Phaseolus bean crops, shows a wide range of ecological adaptations along its distribution range from Mexico to Argentina. These adaptations make it a promising crop for improving food security under predicted scenarios of climate change in Latin America and elsewhere. In this work, we combine long and short read sequencing technologies with a dense genetic map from a biparental population to obtain the chromosome-level genome assembly for Lima bean. Annotation of 28,326 gene models show high diversity among 1917 genes with conserved domains related to disease resistance. Structural comparison across 22,180 orthologs with common bean reveals high genome synteny and five large intrachromosomal rearrangements. Population genomic analyses show that wild Lima bean is organized into six clusters with mostly non-overlapping distributions and that Mesomerican landraces can be further subdivided into three subclusters. RNA-seq data reveal 4275 differentially expressed genes, which can be related to pod dehiscence and seed development. We expect the resources presented here to serve as a solid basis to achieve a comprehensive view of the degree of convergent evolution of Phaseolus species under domestication and provide tools and information for breeding for climate change resiliency.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Argentina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Mudança Climática , Domesticação , Genes de Plantas/genética , México , Dispersão Vegetal , RNA-Seq , Sementes , Sintenia
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 128111, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152888

RESUMO

Licorice is known as a botanical source in medicine and a sweetening agent in food products. Commercial licorice is from the source of wild and cultivated G. uralensis. It was recognized that the material basis of wild and cultivated licorice is different. This study systematically investigated the difference between them by multidimensional analysis technology. The results showed that the content of starch grain, total dietary fibre (TDF), and 11 secondary metabolite components was significantly different in wild and cultivated licorice. principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square (OPLS-DA) analyses showed that the wild and cultivated licorice samples could be clearly separated based on the acquired data of microscopic, macromolecular substance and secondary metabolite analysis. The main markers were starch grain, isoliquiritin apioside, liquirtin apioside and TDF. Additionally, NIR spectroscpy combined with PLS-DA has demonstrated a suitable, fast and nondestructive methodology for authentication of wild and cultivated licorice.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Domesticação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos/análise
4.
Am J Bot ; 107(12): 1617-1621, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325038
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5817, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199703

RESUMO

Solanum pimpinellifolium (SP) is the wild progenitor of cultivated tomato. Because of its remarkable stress tolerance and intense flavor, SP has been used as an important germplasm donor in modern tomato breeding. Here, we present a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence of SP LA2093. Genome comparison identifies more than 92,000 structural variants (SVs) between LA2093 and the modern cultivar, Heinz 1706. Genotyping these SVs in ~600 representative tomato accessions identifies alleles under selection during tomato domestication, improvement and modern breeding, and discovers numerous SVs overlapping genes known to regulate important breeding traits such as fruit weight and lycopene content. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis detects hotspots harboring master regulators controlling important fruit quality traits, including cuticular wax accumulation and flavonoid biosynthesis, and SVs contributing to these complex regulatory networks. The LA2093 genome sequence and the identified SVs provide rich resources for future research and biodiversity-based breeding.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Solanum/genética , Domesticação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Licopeno/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5539, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139747

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a ubiquitous chromatin feature, present in 25% of cytosines in the maize genome, but variation and evolution of the methylation landscape during maize domestication remain largely unknown. Here, we leverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data on populations of modern maize, landrace, and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) to estimate epimutation rates and selection coefficients. We find weak evidence for direct selection on DNA methylation in any context, but thousands of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are identified population-wide that are correlated with recent selection. For two trait-associated DMRs, vgt1-DMR and tb1-DMR, HiChIP data indicate that the interactive loops between DMRs and respective downstream genes are present in B73, a modern maize line, but absent in teosinte. Our results enable a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on patterns of DNA methylation and suggest a role of methylation variation in adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Grão Comestível/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Epigênese Genética , Genoma de Planta , México , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
7.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 137, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the roof ridge of the world, the yak is a precious cattle species that has been indispensable to the human beings living in this high-altitude area. However, the origin of domestication, dispersal route, and the divergence of domestic yaks from different areas are poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we resequenced the genome of 91 domestic yak individuals from 31 populations and 1 wild yaks throughout China. Using a population genomics approach, we observed considerable genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the earliest domestications of yak occurred in the south-eastern QTP, followed by dispersal to the west QTP and northeast to SiChuang, Gansu, and Qinghai by two routes. Interestingly, we also found potential associations between the distribution of some breeds and historical trade routes such as the Silk Road and Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. Selective analysis identified 11 genes showing differentiation between domesticated and wild yaks and the potentially positively selected genes in each group were identified and compared among domesticated groups. We also detected an unbalanced pattern of introgression among domestic yak, wild yak, and Tibetan cattle. CONCLUSIONS: Our research revealed population genetic evidence for three groups of domestic yaks. In addition to providing genomic evidence for the domestication history of yaks, we identified potential selected genes and introgression, which provide a theoretical basis and resources for the selective breeding of superior characters and high-quality yak.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , China , Domesticação , Genoma , Genômica , Tibet
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5085, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033250

RESUMO

Tibetan wheat is grown under environmental constraints at high-altitude conditions, but its underlying adaptation mechanism remains unknown. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of a Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) accession Zang1817 and re-sequence 245 wheat accessions, including world-wide wheat landraces, cultivars as well as Tibetan landraces. We demonstrate that high-altitude environments can trigger extensive reshaping of wheat genomes, and also uncover that Tibetan wheat accessions accumulate high-altitude adapted haplotypes of related genes in response to harsh environmental constraints. Moreover, we find that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is a feral form of Tibetan landrace, and identify two associated loci, including a 0.8-Mb deletion region containing Brt1/2 homologs and a genomic region with TaQ-5A gene, responsible for rachis brittleness during the de-domestication episode. Our study provides confident evidence to support the hypothesis that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is de-domesticated from local landraces, in response to high-altitude extremes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Triticum/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Domesticação , Ecótipo , Genoma de Planta , Geografia , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Tibet , Triticum/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5176, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056985

RESUMO

Structural variants (SVs) are a major source of genetic and phenotypic variation, but remain challenging to accurately type and are hence poorly characterized in most species. We present an approach for reliable SV discovery in non-model species using whole genome sequencing and report 15,483 high-confidence SVs in 492 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sampled from a broad phylogeographic distribution. These SVs recover population genetic structure with high resolution, include an active DNA transposon, widely affect functional features, and overlap more duplicated genes retained from an ancestral salmonid autotetraploidization event than expected. Changes in SV allele frequency between wild and farmed fish indicate polygenic selection on behavioural traits during domestication, targeting brain-expressed synaptic networks linked to neurological disorders in humans. This study offers novel insights into the role of SVs in genome evolution and the genetic architecture of domestication traits, along with resources supporting reliable SV discovery in non-model species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Domesticação , Genoma , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Salmo salar/genética , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Pesqueiros , Duplicação Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogeografia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Fluxo de Trabalho
10.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20010, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016633

RESUMO

The primary domestication of olive (Olea europaea L.) in the Levant dates back to the Neolithic period, around 6,000-5,500 BC, as some archeological remains attest. Cultivated olive trees are reproduced clonally, with sexual crosses being the sporadic events that drive the development of new varieties. In order to determine the genomic changes which have occurred in a modern olive cultivar, the genome of the Picual cultivar, one of the most popular olive varieties, was sequenced. Additional 40 cultivated and 10 wild accessions were re-sequenced to elucidate the evolution of the olive genome during the domestication process. It was found that the genome of the 'Picual' cultivar contains 79,667 gene models, of which 78,079 were protein-coding genes and 1,588 were tRNA. Population analyses support two independent events in olive domestication, including an early possible genetic bottleneck. Despite genetic bottlenecks, cultivated accessions showed a high genetic diversity driven by the activation of transposable elements (TE). A high TE gene expression was observed in presently cultivated olives, which suggests a current activity of TEs in domesticated olives. Several TEs families were expanded in the last 5,000 or 6,000 years and produced insertions near genes that may have been involved in selected traits during domestication as reproduction, photosynthesis, seed development, and oil production. Therefore, a great genetic variability has been found in cultivated olive as a result of a significant activation of TEs during the domestication process.


Assuntos
Olea , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Olea/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4488, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901040

RESUMO

Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we establish high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Fonio diversity is shaped by climatic, geographic, and ethnolinguistic factors. Two genes associated with seed size and shattering showed signatures of selection. Most known domestication genes from other cereal models however have not experienced strong selection in fonio, providing direct targets to rapidly improve this crop for agriculture in hot and dry environments.


Assuntos
Digitaria/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , África , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Digitaria/classificação , Domesticação , Grão Comestível/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4447, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895382

RESUMO

Tea is an economically important plant characterized by a large genome, high heterozygosity, and high species diversity. In this study, we assemble a 3.26-Gb high-quality chromosome-scale genome for the 'Longjing 43' cultivar of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. Genomic resequencing of 139 tea accessions from around the world is used to investigate the evolution and phylogenetic relationships of tea accessions. We find that hybridization has increased the heterozygosity and wide-ranging gene flow among tea populations with the spread of tea cultivation. Population genetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal that during domestication, selection for disease resistance and flavor in C. sinensis var. sinensis populations has been stronger than that in C. sinensis var. assamica populations. This study provides resources for marker-assisted breeding of tea and sets the foundation for further research on tea genetics and evolution.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Domesticação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000818, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960897

RESUMO

Humans profoundly impact landscapes, ecosystems, and animal behavior. In many cases, animals living near humans become tolerant of them and reduce antipredator responses. Yet, we still lack an understanding of the underlying evolutionary dynamics behind these shifts in traits that affect animal survival. Here, we used a phylogenetic meta-analysis to determine how the mean and variability in antipredator responses change as a function of the number of generations spent in contact with humans under 3 different contexts: urbanization, captivity, and domestication. We found that any contact with humans leads to a rapid reduction in mean antipredator responses as expected. Notably, the variance among individuals over time observed a short-term increase followed by a gradual decrease, significant for domesticated animals. This implies that intense human contact immediately releases animals from predation pressure and then imposes strong anthropogenic selection on traits. In addition, our results reveal that the loss of antipredator traits due to urbanization is similar to that of domestication but occurs 3 times more slowly. Furthermore, the rapid disappearance of antipredator traits was associated with 2 main life-history traits: foraging guild and whether the species was solitary or gregarious (i.e., group-living). For domesticated animals, this decrease in antipredator behavior was stronger for herbivores than for omnivores or carnivores and for solitary than for gregarious species. By contrast, the decrease in antipredator traits was stronger for gregarious, urbanized species, although this result is based mostly on birds. Our study offers 2 major insights on evolution in the Anthropocene: (1) changes in traits occur rapidly even under unintentional human "interventions" (i.e., urbanization) and (2) there are similarities between the selection pressures exerted by domestication and by urbanization. In all, such changes could affect animal survival in a predator-rich world, but through understanding evolutionary dynamics, we can better predict when and how exposure to humans modify these fitness-related traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Carnívoros/fisiologia , Atividades Humanas , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Carnívoros/classificação , Domesticação , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Traços de História de Vida , Fenótipo , Urbanização/tendências
16.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1111-1121, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989321

RESUMO

Wild tomato species represent a rich gene pool for numerous desirable traits lost during domestication. Here, we exploited an introgression population representing wild desert-adapted species and a domesticated cultivar to establish the genetic basis of gene expression and chemical variation accompanying the transfer of wild-species-associated fruit traits. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of 580 lines coupled to pathogen sensitivity assays resulted in the identification of genomic loci associated with levels of hundreds of transcripts and metabolites. These associations occurred in hotspots representing coordinated perturbation of metabolic pathways and ripening-related processes. Here, we identify components of the Solanum alkaloid pathway, as well as genes and metabolites involved in pathogen defense and linking fungal resistance with changes in the fruit ripening regulatory network. Our results outline a framework for understanding metabolism and pathogen resistance during tomato fruit ripening and provide insights into key fruit quality traits.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Alcaloides/genética , Domesticação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/parasitologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum/genética , Solanum/microbiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4739, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958756

RESUMO

More people globally depend on the water buffalo than any other domesticated species, and as the most closely related domesticated species to cattle they can provide important insights into the shared evolutionary basis of domestication. Here, we sequence the genomes of 79 water buffalo across seven breeds and compare patterns of between breed selective sweeps with those seen for 294 cattle genomes representing 13 global breeds. The genomic regions under selection between cattle breeds significantly overlap regions linked to stature in human genetic studies, with a disproportionate number of these loci also shown to be under selection between water buffalo breeds. Investigation of potential functional variants in the water buffalo genome identifies a rare example of convergent domestication down to the same mutation having independently occurred and been selected for across domesticated species. Cross-species comparisons of recent selective sweeps can consequently help identify and refine important loci linked to domestication.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Genoma/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Búfalos/classificação , Bovinos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Filogeografia , Seleção Genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4572, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917907

RESUMO

Undomesticated wild species, crop wild relatives, and landraces represent sources of variation for wheat improvement to address challenges from climate change and the growing human population. Here, we study 56,342 domesticated hexaploid, 18,946 domesticated tetraploid and 3,903 crop wild relatives in a massive-scale genotyping and diversity analysis. Using DArTseqTM technology, we identify more than 300,000 high-quality SNPs and SilicoDArT markers and align them to three reference maps: the IWGSC RefSeq v1.0 genome assembly, the durum wheat genome assembly (cv. Svevo), and the DArT genetic map. On average, 72% of the markers are uniquely placed on these maps and 50% are linked to genes. The analysis reveals landraces with unexplored diversity and genetic footprints defined by regions under selection. This provides fertile ground to develop wheat varieties of the future by exploring specific gene or chromosome regions and identifying germplasm conserving allelic diversity missing in current breeding programs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Domesticação , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tetraploidia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603332

RESUMO

Conservation efforts are increasingly being challenged by a rapidly changing environment, and for some aquatic species the use of captive rearing or selective breeding is an attractive option. However, captivity itself can impose unintended artificial selection known as domestication selection (adaptation to culture conditions) and is relatively understudied for most marine species. To test for domestication selection in marine bivalves, we focused on a fitness-related trait (larval starvation resistance) that could be altered under artificial selection. Using larvae produced from a wild population of Crassostrea virginica and a selectively bred, disease-resistant line we measured growth and survival during starvation versus standard algal diet conditions. Larvae from both lineages showed a remarkable resilience to food limitation, possibly mediated by an ability to utilize dissolved organic matter for somatic maintenance. Water chemistry analysis showed dissolved organic carbon in filtered tank water to be at concentrations similar to natural river water. We observed that survival in larvae produced from the aquaculture line was significantly lower compared to larvae produced from wild broodstock (8 ± 3% and 21 ± 2%, respectively) near the end of a 10-day period with no food (phytoplankton). All larval cohorts had arrested growth and depressed respiration during the starvation period and took at least two days to recover once food was reintroduced before resuming growth. Respiration rate recovered rapidly and final shell length was similar between the two treatments Phenotypic differences between the wild and aquaculture lines suggest potential differences in the capacity to sustain extended food limitation, but this work requires replication with multiple selection lines and wild populations to make more general inferences about domestication selection. With this contribution we explore the potential for domestication selection in bivalves, discuss the physiological and fitness implications of reduced starvation tolerance, and aim to inspire further research on the topic.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/fisiologia , Domesticação , Larva/fisiologia , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Respiração , Inanição/metabolismo
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 81-95, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621166

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide identification of WD40-like genes reveals a duplication of COP1-like genes, one of the key players involved in regulation of flowering time and photomorphogenesis, with strong functional diversification in Rosaceae. WD40 proteins play crucial roles in a broad spectrum of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we conducted a systematic characterization of this family of genes in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' (OB), a founder genotype for modern rose domestication. We identified 187 rose WD40 genes and classified them into 5 clusters and 15 subfamilies with 11 of RcWD40s presumably generated via tandem duplication. We found RcWD40 genes were expressed differentially following stages of vegetative and reproductive development. We detected a duplication of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-like genes in rose (RcCOP1 and RcCOP1L) and other Rosaceae plants. Featuring a distinct expression pattern and a different profile of cis-regulatory-elements in the transcriptional regulatory regions, RcCOP1 seemed being evolutionarily conserved while RcCOP1L did not dimerize with RcHY5 and RcSPA4. Our data thus reveals a functional diversification of COP1-like genes in Rosacaeae plants, and provides a valuable resource to explore the potential function and evolution of WD40-like genes in Rosaceae plants.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosaceae/genética , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rosa/genética , Rosa/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
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