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2.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(1): 27-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We describe compliance with the 'IOC Needle Policy' at two Winter Olympic Games (Sochi and PyeongChang) and compare these findings to those of the Summer Olympic Games of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: All needle-use declaration(s) (NUD) received during the course of the 2014 and 2018 Olympic Games were reviewed. We recorded socio-demographic data, the nature and purpose of needle use, product(s) injected, and route of administration. Data were analysed descriptively. RESULTS: In total, doctors from 22 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) submitted 122 NUD involving 82 athletes in Sochi; in PyeongChang, doctors from 19 NOCs submitted 82 NUD involving 61 athletes. This represented approximately 2% of all athletes at both Games, and 25% and 20% of all NOCs participating in Sochi and PyeongChang, respectively. No marked differences in the NUD distribution patterns were apparent when comparing the two Winter Olympic Games. The most commonly administered substances were as follows: local anaesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and glucocorticoids. Physicians submitted multiple NUD for 24% of all athletes who required a NUD. CONCLUSION: A limited number of NOCs submitted NUD suggesting a low incidence of needle use or limited compliance (approximately 2%). A key challenge for the future is to increase the rate of compliance in submitting NUD. More effective education of NOCs, team physicians and athletes regarding the NUD policy, its purpose, and the necessity for NUD submissions, in association with the enforcement of the appropriate sanctions following non-compliance are needed.


Assuntos
Injeções/estatística & dados numéricos , Notificação de Abuso , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , China , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
6.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33(20): 1578-1588, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240795

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Retroactive analysis of previously tested urine samples has become an important sports anti-doping tool. Retroactive reprocessing of old data files acquired from a generic screening procedure can reveal detection of initially unknown substances, like illegal drugs and newly identified metabolites. METHODS: To be able to efficiently search through hundreds to thousands of liquid chromatography high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap mass spectrometry data files of anti-doping samples, a combination of MetAlign and HR_MS_Search software has been developed. MetAlign reduced the data size ca 100-fold making possible local storage of a massive volume of data. RESULTS: The newly developed HR_MS_Search module can search through the reduced data files for new compounds (mass or isotope pattern) defined by mass windows and retention time windows. A search for 33 analytes in 940 reduced data files lasted 10 s. The output of the automatic search was compared to the standard manual routine evaluation. The results of searching were evaluated in terms of false negatives and false positives. The newly banned b2-agonist higenamine and its metabolite coclaurine were successfully searched in reduced data files originating from a testing period for which these substances were not banned, as an example of retroactive analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The freeware MetAlign software and its automatic searching module HR_MS_Search facilitated the retroactive reprocessing of reduced full-scan high-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening data files and created a new tool in anti-doping laboratories' network.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/urina , Alcaloides/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/urina , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/urina , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Urinálise
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1601: 205-213, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060786

RESUMO

Saliva is increasingly being targeted for metabolic studies due to its non-invasive collection methods. Tracing levels of certain metabolites within biofluids can provide indications for a myriad of physiological conditions. This study was performed on a panel of eight analytes found in saliva that have shown associations with physiological conditions of human performance, such as stress, inflammation, and circadian rhythm. This dual polarity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LCMS/MS) method was developed to accommodate a diverse group of analytes including steroids, alkaloids, and neurotransmitters. Samples collected during field exercises from soldiers were compared to those of civilians and baseline levels of each of these compounds was determined in saliva. Although most analytes showed no significant differences between the two populations, relative cortisol levels were higher for soldiers than for civilians. This developed dual polarity LCMS/MS method can be applied to very diverse groups of salivary analytes simultaneously.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Testes de Química Clínica/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/análise , Saliva/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Alcaloides/análise , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/análise , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/metabolismo , Esteroides/análise
8.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 18(5): 178-182, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082891

RESUMO

The presence of performance-enhancing drugs in dietary supplements poses serious anti-doping and health risks to athletes and military service members. A positive drug test, suboptimal health, or adverse event can ruin a career in either setting. These populations need to be certain in advance that a product is of high quality and free from performance-enhancing drugs and other banned substances. However, no regulatory authority conducts or mandates a quality review before dietary supplements are sold. Under the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Food and Drug Administration does not have a role in the premarket safety review of dietary supplements. Due to the increasing demand for high-quality, properly labeled dietary supplements, multiple companies have stepped into this void by offering testing and quality review programs for dietary supplements. Each of these third-party programs has its own quality assurance program with varying testing components. It is difficult for consumers in the sport and military settings to assess whether a particular certification program reduces the risks enough so that they can use a product with confidence. This article puts forward the consensus of the authors on current best practices for third-party certification programs for dietary supplements consumed by athletes and military service members. Also discussed are important ways that third-party programs can develop in the future to improve access to safe, high-quality dietary supplements for these populations.


Assuntos
Certificação/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/normas , Atletas , Consenso , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Militares , Estados Unidos
9.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(17): 1105-1110, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy services at large multisport events support safe and effective medication use. Our aim is to describe the contribution of pharmacists and to share the pharmacy experiences at the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic and Paralympic Games. METHODS: The data collected included the accreditation details of patients and prescribers indicating: sport, country, athlete or non-athlete status, and prescription details including: medication, strength, frequency, length of treatment, for the period of the Olympic Games (1-26 February 2018) and the Paralympic Games (5-20 March 2018). The numbers of prescriptions dispensed were analysed by medication category, sports and country of the patient. RESULTS: A total of 5313 medication items were dispensed over the course of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (athletes: 670; non-athletes: 4615; unknown: 28), for a total of 2360 patients. 72 of 82 countries (87.8%) had fewer than 20 patient visits. The first high peak (Olympic: 5.0%; Paralympic: 7.3%) of daily volume of prescriptions were dispensed in the 2 days prior to the Olympic and the 1 day prior to Paralympic opening ceremonies. Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) and International Olympic Committee NeedlePolicy were well managed and compliant with the regulations. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy services at major multisport games include dispensing over 5000 prescriptions, supporting the TUE and IOC Needle Policy processes and providing clinical information to athletes and prescribers on drugs in sports and the World Anti-Doping Agency regulations of drugs prohibited in sport. During the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games, pharmacists played a crucial role in delivering safe and effective pharmacy service based on their expert knowledge in antidoping and the clinical use of drugs in sport.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , República da Coreia
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(4): 615-622, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636331

RESUMO

This article questions organizations' (clubs, teams, etc) responsibility in doping use from the case of anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs) sanctioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale in professional cycling. We built a database with 271 caught riders among 10 551 professional riders employed from 2005 to 2016 in the three first world divisions. We developed a time-discrete event history model with a multilevel perspective to consider if the ADRV is related to the characteristic of a rider's career path (level 1) and/or the team by which the rider is employed (level 2). Our results confirm two hypotheses: Beginning a career before 2005 or after the age of 22 increased the risk of being caught. Each additional year in the pack increased the risk, despite the fact that a sanctioned rider's career duration average is 7.8 years (3.9 for the others). These caught riders have experienced a more tumultuous career with team changes and an interrupted path. A 2.45 Median Odds Ratio led us to assert a team effect on ADRV. By a team residual effect calculation, we identify 17 teams with a significant effect within the 129 that experienced an ADRV. Our results allow us to emphasize that to understand doping we must take into account work and employment condition, as well as team's organization. This approach completes the dominant "methodological individualism" perspective that considers athletes as analytical units and provides guidelines to the anti-doping bodies that focus their action on individuals.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/normas , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 8-26, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488582

RESUMO

A number of high profile revelations concerning anti-doping rule violations over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of tackling prevailing challenges and reducing the limitations of the current anti-doping system. At this time, the necessity to enhance, expand, and improve analytical test methods in response to the substances outlined in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List represents an increasingly crucial task for modern sports drug testing programs. The ability to improve analytical testing methods often relies on the expedient application of novel information regarding superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, and alternative sample matrices, together with recent advances in instrumental developments. This annual banned-substance review evaluates literature published between October 2017 and September 2018 offering an in-depth evaluation of developments in these arenas and their potential application to substances reported in WADA's 2018 Prohibited List.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Anabolizantes/análise , Ansiolíticos/efeitos adversos , Ansiolíticos/análise , Doping nos Esportes/tendências , Eritropoetina/efeitos adversos , Eritropoetina/análise , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Esportes/normas , Esportes/tendências , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/tendências
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(3): 906-914, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295816

RESUMO

Context: Clomiphene is a performance-enhancing drug commonly abused by males in sport, but the extent to which testosterone increases in healthy males following its use is unknown. In addition, evidence suggests that clomiphene, a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers zuclomiphene and enclomiphene, is detectable in urine for months following use; the isomer-specific urinary detection window has yet to be characterized in a controlled study. Objective: To determine the effect of once-daily, 30-day clomiphene treatment on serum testosterone and gonadotropin levels in the subject population studied and the urinary clearance and detection window of clomiphene isomers following administration for antidoping purposes. Participants and Design: Twelve healthy males aged 25 to 38 years, representing a recreational athlete population, participated in this open-label, single-arm study. Intervention: Oral clomiphene citrate (50 mg) was self-administered once daily for 30 days. Serum and urine samples were collected at baseline and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 44, 51, and 58; urine collections continued periodically up to day 261. Results: Mean testosterone, LH, and FSH levels increased 146% (SEM, ±23%), 177% (±34%), and 170% (±33%), respectively, during treatment compared with baseline. Serum drug concentrations and urinary excretion were nonuniform among individuals as isomeric concentrations varied. The zuclomiphene urinary detection window ranged from 121 to >261 days. Conclusions: Clomiphene significantly raised serum testosterone and gonadotropin levels in healthy men and thus can be abused as a performance-enhancing drug. Such abuse is detectable in urine for ≥4 months following short-term use.


Assuntos
Clomifeno/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Clomifeno/urina , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Gonadotropinas/sangue , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/urina , Autoadministração , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 86-94, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975460

RESUMO

Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali, Simaroubaceae) is a medicinal plant endemic to South-East Asia. For centuries, different parts of the plant have been used as a natural remedy to treat fever, hypertension, or sexual insufficiency. Today, Eurycoma longifolia preparations are commercially available and advertised to enhance athletic performance and muscle strength. Several studies have demonstrated a testosterone-boosting effect that might be caused by the release of free testosterone from the sex-hormone-binding globulin. To date, many phytochemical constituents of Eurycoma longifolia root extracts have been identified and physiological effects have been examined, while studies on their biotransformation and monitoring are still lacking. Within this study, eurycomalide C, eurycomalactone, 5,6-dehydro-eurycomalactone, longilactone, 14,15ß-dihydroklaieanone, 11-dehydroklaieanone, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one, and 9-methoxycanthin-6-one isolated from E. longifolia root were incubated with liver microsomes. Respective metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem (high-resolution) mass spectrometry. The compounds were chosen based on their potential androgenic effects (estimated by in vitro assays), their concentrations in plant extracts, and presumptive metabolic pathways. Hydroxylated phase I metabolites were only observed for 5,6-dehydro-eurycomalactone, 11-dehydroklaieanone, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one, and 9-methoxycanthin-6-one. Moreover, an O-demethylated metabolite of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was found. Besides, the glucuronide of 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one was detected after in vitro glucuronidation using liver microsomes. The in vitro generated metabolites were comparable to that detected in urine and serum after a single ingestion of either 9-methoxycanthin-6-one or an Eurycoma longifolia root extract. Hence, 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, its glucuronide, and the glucuronide of its O-demethylated biotransformation product are proposed to be the most suitable targets for detection of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one or Tongkat Ali application in urine and serum.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Eurycoma , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/urina , Raízes de Plantas , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/sangue , Compostos Fitoquímicos/urina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 95-101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040250

RESUMO

Clostebol is a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid, with potential use as a performance-enhancing drug if taken for long periods in order to produce the desired effect. Recently, the use of medications containing clostebol acetate has led to the suspension of several athletes in various sports. Previous studies have shown that urine can result positive in case of single intake of a banned substance, including unintentional consumption of steroids. In this context, a hair test can contribute to exculpation of athletes by demonstrating alternative administration or contamination. The development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to detect clostebol and clostebol acetate in hair is hereby presented. Some real cases of athletes sanctioned for clostebol use, in which we analyzed hair samples to follow up investigations of doping control laboratories and obtain useful elements to understand the origin of clostebol intakes, and two forensic cases of anabolic drugs abuse, are also presented and discussed. In real head- and body-hair samples, clostebol acetate could be detected in the low pg/mg range. As is typical of hair analysis, the interpretation of the quantitative findings may be challenging, and even more in sports owing to the lack of systematic studies. However, the results can be used to produce evidence contrary to any ruling issued against the athletes by the appropriate sports body, and possibly obtain a diminished sanction. Because the sports authorities do not make a distinction among circumstances or means of administration of anabolic compounds, athletes should be warned not to use clostebol-containing medications.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/análise , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Cabelo/química , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Anabolizantes/metabolismo , Atletas , Feminino , Ciências Forenses/normas , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo
17.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 168-172, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091846

RESUMO

Iso-electric focusing (IEF) was the first method established to discriminate endogenous and recombinant erythropoietins (rEPOs). It is still approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as an initial testing procedure to detect erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) in doping control samples. However EPO-Fc, one of the prohibited rEPOs designated by WADA, is not detectable with the actual IEF conditions. Other newly developed ESAs - luspatercept and sotatercept, both activin receptor type II-Fc fusion proteins (ActRII-Fc) - are also now prohibited and could be used in combination with rEPOs. Methods of identification of ActRII-Fc in blood by SAR/SDS-PAGE have been described, but not by IEF. Here we detail improvements in blood sample preparation and IEF analysis: A combined immuno-purification of EPOs and ActRII-Fc proteins in a single procedure, an appropriate isoforms separation for all proteins using new pre-loading and gel conditions, and a single detection of all rEPOs and ActRII-Fc proteins after successive incubation with anti-EPO and anti-ActRII antibodies. With these changes, distinctive profiles for all the ESAs were obtained by IEF. Therefore, IEF could be used as a screening method to detect a wide spectrum of prohibited ESAs in blood samples prior to specific confirmation for the identified rEPO or ActRII-Fc.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/análise , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Eritropoetina/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/imunologia , Eritropoetina/imunologia , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Focalização Isoelétrica/normas , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas
18.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 162-167, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051972

RESUMO

Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic peptides with the ability to stimulate human growth hormone (hGH) secretion. Several GHRPs have been developed as drug candidates; however, only one of them, GHRP-2 (Pralmorelin), has received a clinical approval. Nevertheless, they are distributed on the black market and misused by cheating athletes, due to their performance-enhancing effects. Hence, GHRPs have been included in the World-Anti-Doping-Agency's Prohibited List as forbidden substances in sport. Predominantly, analytical methods for detection and unequivocal identification of doping substances are based on mass spectrometry. Therefore, in the present work, a qualitative analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer was performed to identify a new heptapeptide (MW = 874.02 Da) - a glycine analogue of GHRP-2. Structure determination using de novo sequencing is described here in detail. The results of this study may indicate a new approach to circumvent a detection of doping practices.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/normas , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
19.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(2): 257-266, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129998

RESUMO

Two human metabolites of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009, identified by researchers with an interest in sports doping control, have been synthesized and assessed for purity. The synthesis employed was a modification of published procedures for the parent SR9009, careful attention to the purification of intermediates and the final product ensuring materials of the highest purity were available for certification. For each candidate material impurities of related structure were identified and quantified as a relative mass fraction using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy. The quantification of water, occluded solvent, and inorganic residue was assessed using Karl Fischer, 1 H NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis, thereby completing the assessment of all impurities typically characterized by the mass balance approach. Summation and subtraction from 1000 mg/g afforded the mass fraction of the main component, the associated uncertainty ensuring certified reference material status can be applied to the resulting pure substance calibration standards. The availability of these standards to the sports doping control community will facilitate delivery of metrological traceability to the SI unit for mass (kg) to routine testing results and aid method development for the detection and quantification of SR9009 abuse.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Pirrolidinas/análise , Padrões de Referência , Tiofenos/análise , Humanos
20.
Adicciones ; 31(3): 201-211, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059594

RESUMO

The use of banned substances to increase athletes' performance has been a scourge in international sport. In this sense, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA-AMA) has implemented a series of standards that harmonize the fight against doping. In particular, accredited WADA-AMA laboratories play an important role in the eradication of sports doping. This report shows the data obtained in the National Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Doping (LNPCD-CONADE) according to the incidence of Adverse Analytical Findings (AAF) in the 2009-2015 interval, which were obtained from the analysis of a total of 18,085 biological doping-control samples. The distribution of samples was analyzed as a function of gender, type of sport either in competition or out of competition, as well as the prevalence of AAF during the period of time analyzed and the relation regarding group of doping substance and type of sport. The data presented here were compared with those reported worldwide by the WADA-AMA and it was observed that in the cases of substances of the S1 group, the percentage reported by the LNPCD-CONADE is higher than the one reported worldwide. The opposite was observed for AAF presented by some substance from Groups S6 and S8. Likewise, a higher prevalence in the use of doping substances by male athletes (75%) is observed compared to that observed in female athletes (25%). The sports with the highest number of AAF detected in the laboratory were baseball, cycling, and athletics.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Estudos Retrospectivos
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