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1.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
2.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101871, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557629

RESUMO

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) that can improve endurance and athletic performance, reduce body fat and stimulate muscle growth. The use of steroids has been studied in the medical and psychological literature, in the sociology of sport, health and masculinity, and relatively recently in criminology. Whilst there is significant medical and psychological evidence on the short term and longer side effects of AAS, there is surprisingly very little evidence based on the users' perception of the negative aspects of AAS use. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in a locale in the Northeast of England and additional interviews with 24 AAS users, the article offers an account of the negatives aspects of AAS as put forwards by users (acne, abscess, and mood alterations), and highlights the 'code of silence' that exists around AAS use. This 'code' makes AAS users a 'hard-to-reach' group for medical professionals. By listening to the participants' perspectives, forensic and medical professionals can be better informed towards monitoring and reducing harms from AAS.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino
3.
J Sports Sci ; 37(24): 2835-2843, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522612

RESUMO

Research has shown that athletes' attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances are reliable predictors of their intentions to use these substances, which in turn can be relevant predictors of their actual doping behaviours. Despite the important role played by attitudes and intentions in doping, research analysing how to change those attitudes and intentions is relatively scarce. The present study examined how individual differences in Need for Cognition (NC, Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) influenced doping-related attitude change and subsequent behavioural intentions. Participants were randomly assigned to read a persuasive message either against or in favour of legalising the use of several banned substances, including anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and Erythropoietin (EPO). In addition, participants completed the NC scale, and finally reported their attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding the legalisation proposal. As hypothesised, results showed that participants who received an anti-legalisation message had significantly more unfavourable attitudes towards the proposal than participants who received a pro-legalisation message, regardless of NC. However, as predicted, NC moderated the relationship between individuals' attitudes and their intentions. That is, high-NC participants showed greater attitude-intention correspondence than low-NC participants.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Atitude , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sports Sci ; 37(21): 2483-2491, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362583

RESUMO

The present study investigated athletes' and coaches' beliefs about the role of athletes' entourage in deterring or promoting doping. Competitive athletes and coaches in Greece and Australia took part in semi-structured interviews. Our analysis of the interviews produced five main themes: coach influence, peer influence, doping stance, doping stigma, and entourage's culture. Overall, coaches and peers having a close and trusty relationship with the athletes were considered most influential with respect to doping-related decisions. The majority of the athletes held a strong anti-doping stance but could not articulate why they held this position. This inability could be ascribed to the stigmatization of doping which led to lack of knowledge and anti-doping education. Finally, an anti-doping culture in the athletes' environment was considered central to an anti-doping stance. The study findings provide valuable information towards a comprehensive understanding of the role athletes' entourage can play in shaping athletes' attitudes and decision for doping.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Apoio Social , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Cultura Organizacional , Grupo Associado , Estigma Social
5.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(10): 1647-1654, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested a conceptually grounded model linking athlete perceptions of strength and conditioning and technical coach doping confrontation efficacy (DCE) with athletes' doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), doping moral disengagement (MD), and susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, correlational. METHODS: Participants were high-level athletes (nmale  = 532; nfemale  = 290) recruited in Australia (n = 261), the UK (n = 300), and the USA (n = 261). All participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables alongside a variant of the randomized response technique to estimate the prevalence of doping. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of intentional doping in the sample was 13.9%. Structural equation modeling established: (a) perceptions of technical and strength and conditioning coaches' DCE positively predicted doping SRE; (b) doping SRE negatively predicted doping MD; (c) doping MD positively predicted susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping; and (d) the predictive effects of coach perceptions on susceptibility to doping were mediated by doping SRE and doping MD. Multisample analyses demonstrated these predictive effects were invariant between males and females and across the three countries represented. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show the conceptually grounded model to offer extended understanding of how multiple individuals within the athlete support personnel network may influence athlete doping.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Mentores , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(9): 981-986, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study and compare attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about doping of footballers, from elite to under-18 categories. DESIGN: The descriptive exploratory design used an instrument combining a validated questionnaire (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale: PEAS) with qualitative open-ended questions. METHODS: A total of 1324 Spanish football players (average age 22.56 ± 5.62 years) from 88 football teams that ranged from elite to under-18 categories: Elite (ELI, n = 304), non-elite Professional (PRO, n = 308), top Amateur (AMA, n = 330), elite Under-18 (U18, n = 334) and elite Female (FEM, n = 48) composed the sample. RESULTS: PEAS overall scores (range 17-102, with higher scores representing more permissive attitudes) was 34.02 ± 11.08. The overall scores for all groups analysed were: FEM: 33.75 ± 14.73; ELI: 30.61 ± 9.91; PRO: 34.23 ± 11.13; AMA: 35.05 ± 10.35; and U18: 35.93 ± 11.50. Significant differences were observed between ELI and PRO (p < 0.001), ELI and AMA (p < 0.001), and ELI and U18 (p < 0.001). 95% of participants did not know the meaning of WADA; 97.4% did not know the Prohibited List; 5% admitted having used banned substances and 23.7% knew dopers. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed different an important lack of knowledge about doping and an high levels of supplement use in this sample of footballers assessed. It which clearly reinforces the idea of implementing a wide educational doping prevention programme in football environment.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Futebol , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1734-1740, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860956

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine: 1) whether sport supplement use is related to doping and 2) whether sport supplement beliefs mediated this relationship. In Study 1, athletes (N = 598), completed measures of sport supplement use, sport supplement beliefs, and doping attitudes. In Study 2, athletes (N = 475) completed measures of sport supplement use, sport supplement beliefs, and doping likelihood. In both studies, sport supplement use predicted doping outcomes indirectly via sport supplement beliefs. Our findings provide novel evidence to suggest that sport supplement users, who strongly believe that sport supplements are effective, are more likely to dope. For anti-doping organisations wishing to prevent doping, targeting an athlete's beliefs about sport supplements may improve the effectiveness of anti-doping prevention programmes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(1): 50-52, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184496

RESUMO

Se presenta un estudio de caso de un deportista de elite que desarrolló una psicopatología sobrevenida, que interfería en su carrera atlética. Tras ganar dos medallas en una competición internacional, entró en un estado de ansiedad, depresión, nerviosismo y apatía y dejó de entrenar durante cinco meses. Durante este tiempo no atendió al sistema ADAMS, y fue citado por el Control Antidopaje de la WADA para que se defendiera. Fue diagnosticado de un Trastorno Depresivo Mayor Recidivante (269.3x, DSM-IV-TR, 2002) con un GAP entre 45 y 50, y un Síndrome de Burnout. La intervención duró cinco meses con una sesión semanal basada en Psicoterapia Psicodinámica Breve, Enseñanza de estrategias adaptativas de afrontamiento y Apoyo social. Tras oír las alegaciones del psicólogo, por consenso, le permitieron volver a competir


This paper presents a case study in which an elite athlete developed a sports-associated psychopathology, interfering with his athletic career. After receiving medals in a top competition, the subject entered into an unusual state of anxiety, depression, nervousness, and apathy and he completely stopped his training for five months. During this time, he neglected ADAMS system controls, and was quoted by WADA to make legal arguments in his defense. He was diagnosed, with Relapsing Serious Depressive Disorder (269.3x, DSM-IV-TR, 2002) and a GAF between 45 and 50, and a Burnout Syndrome. An intervention was implemented over a five month period in the form of weekly sessions. It was based on Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP); Teaching effective use of well-adapted coping strategies and Social support. After hearing Sport Psychologist allegations by consensus, allowing him to compete


Apresenta-se um estudo de caso de um atleta de elite que desenvolveu uma psicopatologia que interferia com a sua carreira desportiva. Depois de ganhar duas medalhas numa competição internacional, entrou num estado de ansiedade, depressão e apatia, interrompendo os treinos durante cinco meses. Ao longo desse tempo não compareceu ao sistema ADAMS e foi convocado pelo Controle Anti-Doping da WADA para alegações de defesa. Foi-lhe diagnosticado um transtorno depressivo recorrente major (269,3x, DSM-IV-TR, 2002) com um GAP entre 45 e 50 e um Síndrome de Burnout. A intervenção durou cinco meses com uma sessão semanal baseada na psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve, ensino de estratégias de coping e suporte social. Na sequência das alegações do psicólogo, por consenso, foi-lhe permitido que voltasse a competir


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Adaptação Psicológica , Apoio Social , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia
9.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67 Suppl 1: S5-S11, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642641

RESUMO

The text sets out to examine so-called "interdisciplinary" research practices when researchers work on health issues. The article specifies the author's approach, which departs from both a normative posture and a purely epistemological approach, instead opting to study an interdisciplinary act in progress. Based on an ANR report led by Trabal, Collinet and Terral (2014), the research presented mobilizes the latest developments in socio-informatics to examine forms of interdisciplinarity in two areas - doping and obesity. It appears that the research on doping is marked by strong asymmetries between disciplines, and that "true" interdisciplinarity is often postponed when it does not seem to lend itself to a simple mode of coordination. In the case of obesity, we observe that practices are marked by staging and display work; the demand for interdisciplinarity is combined with a desire to structure a professional identity. In all cases, we were able to identify some trails that have been blazed to enable researchers to respond jointly to disciplinary and interdisciplinary injunctions. The promise is an interesting figure that relies on a postponement of proof, made possible by weak codification of interdisciplinarity.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares/normas , Estudos Interdisciplinares/tendências , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/tendências
11.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 13(1): 44, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the anti-doping (AD) education, doping control experience, and AD knowledge according to the World Anti-doping Code (Code) of Japanese university athletes. METHODS: We collected data from 514 male athletes (Mage = 19.53 years, SD = 1.13) and 629 female athletes (Mage = 20.99 years, SD = 1.07). We asked them about their experience undergoing doping control and the AD education they had received. Then, we assessed their AD knowledge using the World Anti-Doping Agency's Athlete Learning Program about Health and AD (ALPHA) test. RESULTS: The results showed that 2.54% of the participants had undergone doping control. Further, 30.10% received AD education at least once, and 20.82% received AD education more than once. When comparing the ALPHA scores of athletes with/without doping test experience, we observed no significant difference. However, the ALPHA scores of athletes with/without AD education were significantly different; specifically, athletes who received AD education more than once had significantly higher ALPHA scores than non-educated athletes. CONCLUSION: These results revealed that doping control experience was not related to AD knowledge and that AD education was associated with AD knowledge, suggesting that athletes who receive AD education more than once have more accurate AD knowledge than less educated athletes on this topic. The importance of AD education in promoting understanding of AD according to the Code in sports is highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205222, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although performance-enhancing drugs appear to be prevalent in adolescent sports, relatively little attention has been paid to why adolescent athletes decide to use these drugs. In this study, we examine doping among adolescents from a motivational perspective and explore how motivational variables, such as achievement goal orientations and the perceived self-determination of sports activities, may be related to moral attitudes, doping intentions and doping behavior in adolescents who participate in competitive sports. METHODOLOGY: The study included 1035 adolescents participating in competitive sports from all regions of the Czech Republic (mean age = 16.3 years). The respondents completed a battery of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations (task, ego), sports motivation at various levels of self-determination (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, amotivation), moral attitudes toward sport competition (acceptance of cheating, keeping winning in proportion, attitudes toward doping), doping intentions and doping behavior. A structural equation model was used to test the relations among motivational variables, attitudes, intentions and doping behavior. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: Our analyses indicated a good fit with the proposed model, which explained 59% of the variance in doping intentions and 17.6% of the variance in doping behavior. Within the model, task orientation was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation, whereas ego orientation was positively associated with extrinsic regulation and amotivation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation was positively associated with keeping winning in proportion and negatively associated with acceptance of cheating and attitudes toward doping; the less self-determined forms of motivation showed opposite relationships. However, only the acceptance of cheating and attitudes toward doping were related to doping intention, which subsequently predicted doping behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide further evidence that sports motivation represents a psychological variable that should be considered in anti-doping policies, programs, and interventions aimed at the adolescent population because motivation was linked to the doping-related attitudinal variables and also partially mediated the effect of achievement goal orientations in this regard. On the basis of these results, we may argue that the focus on intrinsic enjoyment, self-referenced criteria of success and self-improvement may be related to more negative attitudes toward doping and cheating, lower doping intentions and less frequent doping behavior, whereas the emphasis on competition, comparison with others and external motivation appear to be related to the opposite outcomes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Int J Drug Policy ; 60: 47-55, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099331

RESUMO

The use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs in the past seventy years or so has sparked a number of responses, including heated public debates, the creation of dedicated organisations and drug policies, as well as the emergence of communities of practice and belief in support of or in opposition to the phenomenon. Drug-free, known in the field as 'natural', bodybuilding has been developing since the 1970 s as a response to a dominant bodybuilding culture where the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs has become normalised. Recent years have seen a multiplication of national and international governing bodies, competitions, and participants in drug-free bodybuilding in different parts of the globe. As the field grows, the questions of what constitutes natural bodybuilding and who can authentically represent it become central. Adopting a multi-method, qualitative approach, this article explores the ways organisations and their key figures define and defend their versions of drug-free bodybuilding. The discussion focus is on the policies, meanings and identities embedded in these different versions, and how their production and negotiation makes sense in light of antagonisms between players in the field of natural bodybuilding as well as their relation to drug-enhanced bodybuilding and the wider world of sport. In examining this previously uncharted body culture, the article explores how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs provokes responses and processes of contestation and differentiation. In the process, what becomes apparent is the designation and negotiation of drug-free, natural bodies as an ongoing, dynamic, social process.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adulto , Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Levantamento de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103461

RESUMO

Background: Doping behavior, including the misuse of performance-enhancing drugs, is currently a serious problem in sports, and the efficacy of preventive efforts directly depends on information regarding the associations among different precipitating factors (PF) and doping behavior. This study aimed to establish the PF of potential doping behavior (PDB) in competitive swimmers. Methods: The study included 301 swimmers from Slovenia (153 females, 16.4 ± 2.4 years), tested during the 2017 National Championship. Variables were collected by previously validated questionnaires, which included questions on sociodemographics, sports-related factors, consumption of dietary supplements, knowledge of doping, factors of hesitation, and doping-related factors (i.e., number of doping tests, opinion about the presence of doping in sport). The PDB (positive, neutral, or negative intention toward doping) was observed as a criterion, while other variables were included as predictors in multinomial regression analyses (with "negative" as reference value), which additionally controlled for gender and age category (cadet-, junior-, and senior-level) as confounders. Results: The results confirmed higher susceptibility to doping in males (positive: odds ratio (OR): 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27⁻6.04), those swimmers who reported higher alcohol consumption (neutral: OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.06⁻4.16, positive: OR: 2.14, 95%CI: 1.05⁻4.37), and those regularly used dietary supplements (positive: OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.25⁻10.52). Competitive achievement in Olympic- (neutral: OR: 0.57, 95%CI: 0.41⁻0.81, positive: OR: 0.59, 95%CI: 0.39⁻0.88), and non-Olympic disciplines (positive: OR: 0.54, 95%CI: 0.35⁻0.83) was protective against PDB. Swimmers who were more concerned about the negative social consequences of doping behavior (i.e., condemnation by family and friends) were less likely to declare a positive intention toward the PDB (family condemnation: OR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.56⁻0.86, friends' condemnation: OR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.52⁻0.80). Conclusions: The results of the study provide more precise insight into the specific factors associated with PDB in swimming. The established precipitating factors should be incorporated into targeted anti-doping campaigns in this sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Intenção , Natação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Doping nos Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Esporte , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 56: 40-45, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated athlete knowledge of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited Substances List and the effects of four well-known performance enhancing substances (PES). METHODS: A sample of 1925 elite and sub-elite athletes (mean age 20.6 years) completed a questionnaire about the banned status of 30 substances/methods and their knowledge of the effects of amphetamines, anabolic steroids, growth hormone and erythropoietin. RESULTS: Athletes showed limited understanding of the WADA Prohibited Substances List, scoring 32.2% correct, 36.3% incorrect, and 31.4% indicated they did not know the status of 30 substances. Responses of >50% correct were given for only eight substances/method: anabolic steroids, amphetamines, blood doping, erythropoietin, caffeine, vitamins/minerals, protein powders and iron. Athletes demonstrated moderate knowledge of the desired effects of the four PES (49% correct), but poor knowledge of their adverse effects (29% correct). Age, sex, ethnicity, professional/amateur status, and current competition level were significant predictors of the number of correct responses (r2 = 0.16, p < 0.05). Athletes most likely to provide correct responses were male, 19-22 year-olds, Caucasian, professional and international representatives. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive study of anti-doping demonstrated that Australian athletes had limited knowledge of a wide range of substances and PES. Better targeted drug education towards younger and non-professional athletes and evaluation of current anti-doping programs are warranted.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Atletas/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 51(2): 149-151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305652

RESUMO

The number of old persons who participate in sports and can even achieve peak performances is increasing steadily. Normal aging, however, is associated with decreased muscle strength and a decline in cardiovascular endurance even in those persons who regularly participate in sports. Thus, it seems obvious to impact on muscle mass and muscle strength by using anabolic substances. The number of older persons who illegally use doping substances is currently unknown. Besides classical anabolic drugs, other proteins and amino acids are used to impact on muscle mass or strength. This article provides some insights into clinical trials of classical anabolic drugs in older persons and gives an overview on more recent studies examining the potential effects of taurine, creatine and whey protein in older persons.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Suíça , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 36(15): 1757-1762, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235936

RESUMO

Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Ego , Motivação , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Drug Policy ; 51: 128-136, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619395

RESUMO

The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes. This article reviews the current anti-doping system, including the recent amateur policies, then considers of the results of one such program in amateur cycling. We then shift to consider the possible implications for amateurs of criminal doping laws and the recent debates about allowing medical exemptions for therapeutic use of banned substances. We show that drug use in sport can be understood as a new front in the war on drugs, with some extreme measures and many negative unintended consequences. To remedy this, we argue that amateur athletes require a separate anti-doping policy focused on minimising harms of use.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/métodos , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/organização & administração , Humanos
19.
J Sports Sci ; 36(5): 578-584, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481691

RESUMO

Given the concern over doping in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role played by self-regulatory processes in the decision whether to use banned performance-enhancing substances. Grounded on Bandura's (1991) theory of moral thought and action, this study examined the role of self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and anticipated guilt on the likelihood to use a banned substance among college athletes. Doping self-regulatory efficacy was associated with doping likelihood both directly (b = -.16, P < .001) and indirectly (b = -.29, P < .001) through doping moral disengagement. Moral disengagement also contributed directly to higher doping likelihood and lower anticipated guilt about doping, which was associated with higher doping likelihood. Overall, the present findings provide evidence to support a model of doping based on Bandura's social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, in which self-regulatory efficacy influences the likelihood to use banned performance-enhancing substances both directly and indirectly via moral disengagement.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 58(6): 880-888, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are said to be frequently used by both professional and amateur athletes. In addition to having a negative impact on health, steroids defy the concept of fair play. The aim of the study was to evaluate the scale of the problem related to using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by gym athletes and to analyze possible causes. METHODS: The study involved 435 participants aged between 18-66 (mean age 27.49±7.48). Out of them, 61.4% were male and 38.6% were female. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included 154 (35.4%) amateur and recreational athletes and group B included 281 (64.6%) professional athletes concerned with fitness, bodybuilding and powerlifting. A survey prepared by the authors was conducted in the study, and it consisted of 23 closed questions about AAS use, body confidence, and exercise dependence. In addition, a stadiometer and a body composition analyzer were utilized to take necessary measurements. RESULTS: Between 1-23% of group A participants admitted to using AAS. For group B, it was between 7-30%. Males were reported to use AAS more frequently than females in both groups. With regard to group A, differences in body confidence and exercise dependence were found between males using and not using AAS. Exercise dependence was reported to be different between group A and group B participants. This was true for both males and females. Also, it was shown that group A and group B females differed in terms of metabolic age, body mass and body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, muscle mass, and total body water). CONCLUSIONS: Most gym athletes do not use AAS. Amateur athletes tend to use AAS more frequently than professional athletes. Factors that contribute to AAS use are: male gender, low body confidence, young age, and long training.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Doping nos Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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