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2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1512-1515, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018278

RESUMO

The patient-clinician relationship is known to significantly affect the pain experience, as empathy, mutual trust and therapeutic alliance can significantly modulate pain perception and influence clinical therapy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to use an EEG hyperscanning setup to identify brain and behavioral mechanisms supporting the patient-clinician relationship while this clinical dyad is engaged in a therapeutic interaction. Our previous study applied fMRI hyperscanning to investigate whether brain concordance is linked with analgesia experienced by a patient while undergoing treatment by the clinician. In this current hyperscanning project we investigated similar outcomes for the patient-clinician dyad exploiting the high temporal resolution of EEG and the possibility to acquire the signals while patients and clinicians were present in the same room and engaged in a face-to-face interaction under an experimentally-controlled therapeutic context. Advanced source localization methods allowed for integration of spatial and spectral information in order to assess brain correlates of therapeutic alliance and pain perception in different clinical interaction contexts. Preliminary results showed that both behavioral and brain responses across the patient-clinician dyad were significantly affected by the interaction style.Clinical Relevance- The context of a clinical intervention can significantly impact the treatment of chronic pain. Effective therapeutic alliance, based on empathy, mutual trust, and warmth can improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. A deeper scientific understanding of the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying an optimal patient-clinician interaction may lead to improved quality of clinical care and physician training, as well as better understanding of the social aspects of the biopsychosocial model mediating analgesia in chronic pain patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Dor Crônica , Manejo da Dor , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Percepção da Dor
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6058-6061, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019352

RESUMO

Chronic pain affects both adolescent and adult Canadians. To study the effect of social rejection on pain management in adolescents with chronic pain, an algometer can be used in conjunction with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in real time. The algometer uses an automated pneumatic control system that follows a customizable pain schedule, controlling the amount of airflow in and out of a pressure cuff wrapped around a human participant's thigh. Plastic components allow compatibility with an fMRI environment. Measurable pain stimuli allow repeatable pressure schedules to be administered with a standard deviation between trials of 300 Pa (2.25 mmHg). A Failure Mode Effects Analysis was used to reduce participant, researcher and facility harm, with multiple safety features incorporated into the design. Through the analysis of medical standards and studies, the algometer is shown to be biologically safe to use on research subjects within the suggested usage parameters of a maximum pressure of 42.6 kPa (320 mmHg) and a pressure application period of up to one hour. This makes it feasible for research studies using fMRI machines.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Coxa da Perna
6.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 529-537, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004164

RESUMO

Although pain treatment has been described as a fundamental human right, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced healthcare systems worldwide to redistribute healthcare resources toward intensive care units and other COVID-19 dedicated sites. As most chronic pain services were subsequently deemed non-urgent, all outpatient and elective interventional procedures have been reduced or interrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce the risk of viral spread. The shutdown of pain services jointly to the home lockdown imposed by governments has affected chronic pain management worldwide with additional impact on patients' psychological health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic pain treatment and to address what types of strategies can be implemented or supported in order to overcome imposed limitations in delivery of chronic pain patient care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos
7.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(10): 480-488, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030369

RESUMO

People with chronic pain faced potential treatment disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore, as the focus of healthcare shifted. A model of rapid integration of a pain centre with community healthcare teams was implemented to care for vulnerable older patients with chronic pain and multiple comorbidities. Telemedicine and home visits by community nurses were used, with risk-mitigation measures, ensuring comprehensive assessment and treatment compliance. Medications from pain physicians were delivered at home through a hospital pharmacy. A secure national electronic health records system used by all teams ensured seamless access and documentation. Potential emergency department visits, admissions and delayed discharges were thus avoided. Integration of community teams with chronic pain management services can be recommended to ensure pandemic preparedness.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus , Visita Domiciliar , Clínicas de Dor , Manejo da Dor , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Singapura , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 909-917, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain affects 2-24% of women worldwide and evidence for medical treatments is scarce. Gabapentin is effective in treating some chronic pain conditions. We aimed to measure the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in women with chronic pelvic pain and no obvious pelvic pathology. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in 39 UK hospital centres. Eligible participants were women with chronic pelvic pain (with or without dysmenorrhoea or dyspareunia) of at least 3 months duration. Inclusion criteria were 18-50 years of age, use or willingness to use contraception to avoid pregnancy, and no obvious pelvic pathology at laparoscopy, which must have taken place at least 2 weeks before consent but less than 36 months previously. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive gabapentin (titrated to a maximum dose of 2700 mg daily) or matching placebo for 16 weeks. The online randomisation system minimised allocations by presence or absence of dysmenorrhoea, psychological distress, current use of hormonal contraceptives, and hospital centre. The appearance, route, and administration of the assigned intervention were identical in both groups. Patients, clinicians, and research staff were unaware of the trial group assignments throughout the trial. Participants were unmasked once they had provided all outcome data at week 16-17, or sooner if a serious adverse event requiring knowledge of the study drug occurred. The dual primary outcome measures were worst and average pain scores assessed separately on a numerical rating scale in weeks 13-16 after randomisation, in the intention-to-treat population. Self-reported adverse events were assessed according to intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISCRTN77451762. FINDINGS: Participants were screened between Nov 30, 2015, and March 6, 2019, and 306 were randomly assigned (153 to gabapentin and 153 to placebo). There were no significant between-group differences in both worst and average numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores at 13-16 weeks after randomisation. The mean worst NRS pain score was 7·1 (standard deviation [SD] 2·6) in the gabapentin group and 7·4 (SD 2·2) in the placebo group. Mean change from baseline was -1·4 (SD 2·3) in the gabapentin group and -1·2 (SD 2·1) in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference -0·20 [97·5% CI -0·81 to 0·42]; p=0·47). The mean average NRS pain score was 4·3 (SD 2·3) in the gabapentin group and 4·5 (SD 2·2) in the placebo group. Mean change from baseline was -1·1 (SD 2·0) in the gabapentin group and -0·9 (SD 1·8) in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference -0·18 [97·5% CI -0·71 to 0·35]; p=0·45). More women had a serious adverse event in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group (10 [7%] of 153 in the gabapentin group compared with 3 [2%] of 153 in the placebo group; p=0·04). Dizziness, drowsiness, and visual disturbances were more common in the gabapentin group. INTERPRETATION: This study was adequately powered, but treatment with gabapentin did not result in significantly lower pain scores in women with chronic pelvic pain, and was associated with higher rates of side-effects than placebo. Given the increasing reports of abuse and evidence of potential harms associated with gabapentin use, it is important that clinicians consider alternative treatment options to off-label gabapentin for the management of chronic pelvic pain and no obvious pelvic pathology. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Uso Off-Label , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common and often disabling musculoskeletal condition. Yoga has been proven to be an effective therapy for chronic low back pain. However, there are still controversies about the effects of yoga at different follow-up periods and compared with other physical therapy exercises. OBJECTIVE: To critically compare the effects of yoga for patients with chronic low back pain on pain, disability, quality of life with non-exercise (e.g. usual care, education), physical therapy exercise. METHODS: This study was registered in PROSPERO, and the registration number was CRD42020159865. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of online databases included PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase which evaluated effects of yoga for patients with chronic low back pain on pain, disability, and quality of life were searched from inception time to November 1, 2019. Studies were eligible if they assessed at least one important outcome, namely pain, back-specific disability, quality of life. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials. The continuous outcomes were analyzed by calculating the mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to whether combining outcomes measured on different scales or not. RESULTS: A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. Yoga could significantly reduce pain at 4 to 8 weeks (MD = -0.83, 95% CI = -1.19 to -0.48, p<0.00001, I2 = 0%), 3 months (MD = -0.43, 95% CI = -0.64 to -0.23, p<0.0001, I2 = 0%), 6 to 7 months (MD = -0.56, 95% CI = -1.02 to -0.11, p = 0.02, I2 = 50%), and was not significant in 12 months (MD = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.64 to 0.59, p = 0.36, I2 = 87%) compared with non-exercise. Yoga was better than non-exercise on disability at 4 to 8 weeks (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.51 to -0.10, p = 0.003, I2 = 0%), 3 months (SMD = -0.31, 95% CI = -0.45 to -0.18, p<0.00001, I2 = 30%), 6 months (SMD = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.53 to -0.23, p<0.00001, I2 = 0%), 12 months (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.12, p = 0.002, I2 = 9%). There was no significant difference on pain, disability compared with physical therapy exercise group. Furthermore, it suggested that there was a non-significant difference on physical and mental quality of life between yoga and any other interventions. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provided evidence from very low to moderate investigating the effectiveness of yoga for chronic low back pain patients at different time points. Yoga might decrease pain from short term to intermediate term and improve functional disability status from short term to long term compared with non-exercise (e.g. usual care, education). Yoga had the same effect on pain and disability as any other exercise or physical therapy. Yoga might not improve the physical and mental quality of life based on the result of a merging.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Ioga , Dor Crônica/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S183-204, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the pain and suffering of chronic pain patients due to stoppage of "elective" interventional pain management and office visits across the United States. The reopening of America and restarting of interventional techniques and elective surgical procedures has started. Unfortunately, with resurgence in some states, restrictions are once again being imposed. In addition, even during the Phase II and III of reopening, chronic pain patients and interventional pain physicians have faced difficulties because of the priority selection of elective surgical procedures.Chronic pain patients require high intensity care, specifically during a pandemic such as COVID-19. Consequently, it has become necessary to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures, or related elective surgery restrictions during a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of these guidelines is to provide education and guidance for physicians, healthcare administrators, the public and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal is to restore the opportunity to receive appropriate care for our patients who may benefit from interventional techniques. METHODS: The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) has created the COVID-19 Task Force in order to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures or related elective surgery restrictions to provide appropriate access to interventional pain management (IPM) procedures in par with other elective surgical procedures. In developing the guidance, trustworthy standards and appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest were applied with a section of a panel of experts from various regions, specialties, types of practices (private practice, community hospital and academic institutes) and groups. The literature pertaining to all aspects of COVID-19, specifically related to epidemiology, risk factors, complications, morbidity and mortality, and literature related to risk mitigation and stratification was reviewed. The evidence -- informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge was utilized, instead of a simplified evidence-based approach. Consequently, these guidelines are considered evidence-informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge. RESULTS: The Task Force defined the medical urgency of a case and developed an IPM acuity scale for elective IPM procedures with 3 tiers. These included urgent, emergency, and elective procedures. Examples of urgent and emergency procedures included new onset or exacerbation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), acute trauma or acute exacerbation of degenerative or neurological disease resulting in impaired mobility and inability to perform activities of daily living. Examples include painful rib fractures affecting oxygenation and post-dural puncture headaches limiting the ability to sit upright, stand and walk. In addition, emergency procedures include procedures to treat any severe or debilitating disease that prevents the patient from carrying out activities of daily living. Elective procedures were considered as any condition that is stable and can be safely managed with alternatives. LIMITATIONS: COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing pandemic. When these recommendations were developed, different stages of reopening based on geographical regulations were in process. The pandemic continues to be dynamic creating every changing evidence-based guidance. Consequently, we provided evidence-informed guidance. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in IPM creating needless suffering for pain patients. Many IPM procedures cannot be indefinitely postponed without adverse consequences. Chronic pain exacerbations are associated with marked functional declines and risks with alternative treatment modalities. They must be treated with the concern that they deserve. Clinicians must assess patients, local healthcare resources, and weigh the risks and benefits of a procedure against the risks of suffering from disabling pain and exposure to the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/classificação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915912

RESUMO

The G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels play important signaling roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, the role of GIRK channel activation in pain signaling remains unknown mainly due to the lack of potent and selective GIRK channel activators until recently. The present study was designed to determine the effects and mechanisms of ML297, a selective GIRK1/2 activator, on nociception in the spinal cord by using behavioral studies and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. Rats were prepared for chronic lumber catheterization and intrathecal administration of ML297. The nociceptive flexion reflex was tested using an analgesy-meter, and the influence on motor performance was assessed using an accelerating rotarod. We also investigated pre- and post-synaptic actions of ML297 in spinal cord preparations by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Intrathecal administration of ML297 increased the mechanical nociceptive threshold without impairing motor function. In voltage-clamp mode of patch-clamp recordings, bath application of ML297 induced outward currents in a dose-dependent manner. The ML297-induced currents demonstrated specific equilibrium potential like other families of potassium channels. At high concentration, ML297 depressed miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) but not their amplitude. The ML297-induced outward currents and suppression of mEPSCs were not inhibited by naloxone, a µ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that intrathecal ML297 showed the antinociceptive effect, which was mediated through direct activation of pre- and post-synaptic GIRK channels. Selective GIRK channel activation is a promising strategy for the development of new agents against chronic pain and opioid tolerance.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Substância Gelatinosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Substância Gelatinosa/citologia , Substância Gelatinosa/fisiologia
14.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(10): 406-407, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972489

RESUMO

Over the past twenty five years, significant changes to the assessment and treatment of pain have occurred. In the 1990s, the identification of "pain as the fifth vital sign" impacted how providers assessed and treated pain. Now, with the opioid epidemic and recommendations from multiple organizations to remove pain as the fifth vital sign, the practice of pain management is changing again. Despite these changes, pain is still a common condition many patients experience. It is estimated about 50% of older adults in the community report daily pain, and there is an increased prevalence of pain in the facility setting, with 45-80% of residents reporting chronic pain impacting their quality of life. With the growing number of older adults in the United States, pharmacists working with geriatric patients need to be familiar with the treatment of pain and new approaches that are being utilized.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(10): 436-438, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972493

RESUMO

While opioids have historically been the initial choice of analgesic for both acute and chronic pain, legislative and deprescribing trends as a result of the opioid epidemic have demonstrated an increase in the use of adjunctive therapies. These adjunctive agents are being utilized with increased frequency, especially in older adult patients, as a mechanism to mitigate any likelihood of dependency and in an effort to provide multimodal pain management. As this patient population can be more challenging because of comorbidities, the presence of polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic changes, it is important to evaluate the risk of any relevant adverse effects for opioids and adjuncts that can lead to higher risk of opioid toxicities. Gabapentin is one of the most commonly added adjunctive medications; however, its safety and efficacy in conjunction with opioids has not been exclusively considered in older adult patients in the perioperative setting. This report will summarize available evidence for gabapentin as an adjunctive therapy to opioids in older adult patients undergoing surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Manejo da Dor
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has influenced pain rehabilitation clinics. To date, little is known about baseline level of physical activity (PA) in patients referred to pain rehabilitation clinics. We aimed to investigate the PA levels of patients referred to pain rehabilitation clinics and to evaluate the effect of excess weight on PA level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation between 2016 and 2017. These data included PA time (everyday PA and physical exercise per week), Body Mass Index (BMI), sociodemographic factors, chronic pain and psychological aspects (e.g., pain intensity, depressive and anxiety symptoms and insomnia problems). Insufficient PA was defined as less than 150 minutes per week. We performed logistic regressions as well as orthogonal partial least square regression to estimate the effects of excess weight on PA. Over one-fourth of the patients were classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2, 871/3110, 25.3%) and nearly one-third of these patients were classified as severely obese (BMI ≥35 kg/m2, 242/871, 27.8%). Time estimations for physical exercise varied among the BMI groups, but patients in the higher BMI category were more likely to spend less time on everyday PA. Compared to normal weight, mild obesity [odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.81] and severe obesity (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.74) were associated with less PA. Mild obese patients had an elevated risk of 65% and severe obese patients had an elevated risk of 96% for insufficient PA. Increased pain intensity was positively related to insufficient PA (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29) among the obese patients. CONCLUSION: Having low PA is very common for patients referred to pain rehabilitation clinics, especially for those with comorbid obesity. As a first step to increase PA, obese patients need to be encouraged to increase the intensity and amount of less painful daily PA.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Clínicas de Dor , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sports Health ; 12(6): 540-546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936058

RESUMO

CONTEXT: With increased use of cannabis-based products by the public for both recreational and medical use, sports medicine clinicians should be informed of historical context, current legal considerations, and existing evidence with regard to efficacy, safety, and risks in the athletic community. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A review of ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE, and CINAHL from 2015 to present was conducted with emphasis on the most recent literature using search terms, cannabis, nabiximols, cannabinoids, pain management, THC, CBD, and marijuana. Bibliographies based on original search were utilized to pursue further literature search. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. RESULTS: At present, limited high-quality studies exist for use of cannabinoids for acute pain, chronic pain, or concussion. None of the trials involving cannabinoids included the athletic population. Thus, results from this clinical review are extrapolated to conditions of the sports medicine population. For acute pain, 2 small-randomized double-blinded crossover trials concluded no immediate effect of cannabinoid therapy. More robust evidence exists for treatment of chronic pain conditions through meta-analysis and systemic reviews. Cannabinoid therapy exhibits moderate efficacy as a treatment for some chronic pain conditions. Investigations included a broad spectrum of chronic pain conditions, including neuropathic, musculoskeletal, inflammatory, and central pain conditions, and reveal reduction in pain and improvement of quality of life with limited adverse effects. For concussion, evidence is based on preclinical in vitro and animal models revealing possible neuroprotective effects as well as 2 clinical studies involving the presence of cannabinoids for concussion (some sports-related), but there are no high-quality trials evaluating efficacy for treatment with cannabinoids at this time. CONCLUSION: Although various biochemical explanations exist on the use of cannabinoid therapy through modulation of the endocannabinoid system for several medical issues affecting athletes, recommendations from clinicians must be extrapolated from a majority of research done in the nonathletic population. Lack of strong-quality clinical evidence, coupled with inconsistent federal and state law as well as purity issues with cannabis-based products, make it difficult for the sports medicine clinician to widely recommend cannabinoid therapeutics at present. Future larger, higher quality clinical research studies with standardized pure extracts will better guide appropriate medical use going forward. At present, evidence for a multitude of therapeutic applications is emerging for cannabinoid treatment approaches. With emphasis placed on patient-centered clinical decisions, cannabinoids hold promise of treatment for athletes with chronic pain conditions. Clinicians who treat the athletic community must consider legal and ethical issues when discussing and recommending the use of cannabinoids, with acknowledgment of inconsistencies in purity of various formulations and concerns of drug testing.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos em Atletas/tratamento farmacológico , Concussão Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
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