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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 507-516, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleft repair requires multiple operations from infancy through adolescence, with repeated exposure to opioids and their associated risks. The authors implemented a quality improvement project to reduce perioperative opioid exposure in their cleft lip/palate population. METHODS: After identifying key drivers of perioperative opioid administration, quality improvement interventions were developed to address these key drivers and reduce postoperative opioid administration from 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents to 0.20 mg/kg of morphine equivalents. Data were retrospectively collected from January 1, 2015, until initiation of the quality improvement project (May 1, 2017), tracked over the 6-month quality improvement study period, and the subsequent 14 months. Metrics included morphine equivalents of opioids received during admission, administration of intraoperative nerve blocks, adherence to revised electronic medical record order sets, length of stay, and pain scores. RESULTS: The final sample included 624 patients. Before implementation (n =354), children received an average of 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively. After implementation (n = 270), children received an average of 0.14 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively (p < 0.001) without increased length of stay (28.3 versus 28.7 hours; p = 0.719) or pain at less than 6 hours (1.78 versus 1.74; p = 0.626) or more than 6 hours postoperatively (1.50 versus 1.49; p = 0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative opioid administration after cleft repair can be reduced in a relatively short period by identifying key drivers and addressing perioperative education, standardization of intraoperative pain control, and postoperative prioritization of nonopioid medications and nonpharmacologic pain control. The authors' quality improvement framework has promise for adaptation in future efforts to reduce opioid use in other surgical patient populations. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Derivados da Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Anestesia por Condução/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 28-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery programmes are established as an essential part of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Optimal pain management is central to the success of an enhanced recovery programme and is acknowledged to be an important patient reported outcome measure. A variety of analgesia strategies are employed in elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery ranging from patient-controlled analgesia to local anaesthetic wound infiltration catheters. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal analgesia strategy in this cohort of patients. The LapCoGesic study aimed to explore differences in analgesia strategies employed for patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery and to assess whether this variation in practice has an impact on patient-reported and clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection was undertaken over a two-month period. The primary outcome measure was postoperative pain scores at 24 hours. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery were included in the study. Thoracic epidural was used in 4 (3.9%) patients, spinal diamorphine in 56 (54.4%) patients and patient-controlled analgesia in 77 (74.8%) patients. The use of thoracic epidural and spinal diamorphine were associated with lower pain scores on day 1 postoperatively (P < 0.05). The use of patient-controlled analgesia was associated with significantly higher postoperative pain scores and pain severity. DISCUSSION: Postoperative pain is managed in a variable manner in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery, which has an impact on patient reported outcomes of pain scores and pain severity.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Idoso , Analgesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 47(12): 1861-1867, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812311

RESUMO

Pharyngeal packing is believed to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequency, but has the disadvantage of causing throat pain. The present study aimed to investigate whether applying pharyngeal packs soaked with a combination of chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and benzydamine hydrochloride 0.15% (CGBH) were effective in preventing postoperative throat pain and PONV in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A total of 101 patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: those with CGBH-soaked packing, and those with saline-soaked pharyngeal packing. PONV was recorded using a 5-point Likert scale (0: no PONV to 4: severe PONV) immediately after the surgery at 5, 10, and 30 min, and at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. The severity of throat pain was assessed via two methods: visual analogue scale (VAS, 0: no pain, 10: severe pain) and 6-point Likert scale (0: no pain, 5: strongly severe pain) score at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Mean VAS scores of throat pain were significantly lower in patients receiving CGBH-soaked pharyngeal packs compared to patients receiving saline-soaked pharyngeal packs, at all measured time points. There was a tendency towards less PONV in patients receiving a CGBH-soaked pharyngeal pack compared to those receiving a saline-soaked pharyngeal pack; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The results of this study suggest that the usage of CGBH-soaked pharyngeal packs reduce postoperative throat pain in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Our results support the implementation of CGBH-soaked pharyngeal packing in orthognathic surgery practice, as a measure to improve patient comfort.


Assuntos
Benzidamina/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Faringite/prevenção & controle , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Tampões Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Benzidamina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringite/epidemiologia , Faringite/etiologia , Faringe , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6751-6757, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our original hypothesis was that the rectus sheath block (RSB) analgesia could enhance patient satisfaction and decrease pain following midline laparotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Initially, 56 patients were randomized into four groups; control group (n=12), single-dose (n=16), repeated-dose (n=12) and continuous infusion (n=16) RSB analgesia groups. The BPI (Brief Pain Inventory) survey was conducted preoperatively and at one and four weeks and 12 months postoperatively. The patients pain 24 h postoperatively and satisfaction 48 h postoperatively was filled on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS). RESULTS: The repeated-dose group had lower BPI severity score (p=0.045) and BPI interference score (p=0.043) mean values postoperatively compared to the three other groups separately. Also, the time effect on the linear mixed model in BPI interference score mean values was statistically significant (p=0.008), which means that in the repeated dose group preoperative BPI severity score [2.7 (3.9)] and interference score [4.3 (4.2)] mean (SD) values were significantly higher than the BPI severity score [1.3 (0.8)] and interference score [1.5 (1.8)] mean (SD) values following surgery. CONCLUSION: The higher elevation in BPI severity score and decrease in interference score values in the repeated dose group and also the time effect in a linear mixed model in BPI interference score were statistically significant.


Assuntos
Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Laparotomia/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Reto do Abdome/inervação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Orv Hetil ; 160(52): 2054-2060, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868008

RESUMO

Introduction: Due to the increasing number of arthroplasties, the number of post-operative hospital days was reduced and the rate of rehabilitation accelerated. For this, proper postoperative analgesia is essential and the multimodal pain relief is an excellent tool. Aim: The aim of our study was to compare postoperative functional results, postoperative pain levels, and opioid analgesic needs of patients who received conventional and novel analgesic treatments. Method: In our prospective study, 81 patients were enrolled who underwent primary hip prosthesis surgery in our institution between February 2017 and January 2018. Of the randomized patients, 38 were in the control group and 43 in the multimodal pain group. We have tested their analgesic needs and the subjective pain levels of patients with the help of the visual analog scale (VAS). Results: Patients receiving multimodal pain relief had significantly lower opioid analgesic requirements and significantly lower VAS values assessed at 6 hours, and 3 and 4 days postoperatively. In addition, the patients in this group stayed in the hospital for a significantly shorter time after surgery. Conclusions: Based on our experience, multimodal pain relief in one-sided primary hip joint arthroplasty significantly reduced the patients' postoperative subjective pain sensation and pain killer consumptions. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(52): 2054-2060.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(5): 389-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Characterize changes in intraoperative opioid and non-opioid administration over time and to evaluate self-reported pain scores in the immediate postoperative period. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: All patients presenting for surgery between 2011 and 2017 in both an inpatient and outpatient setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Determine total intraoperative opioid administration using intravenous oral morphine equivalents standardized to weight and intraoperative non-opioid use. Furthermore, postoperative self-reported pain scores within 2 hours of completion of surgery are reported. RESULTS: A total of 112,167 individual cases were identified from March 2011 to June 2017. There was a sustained and significant reduction in intraoperative mean and median opioid administration [2011: 0.16 ± 0.15 mg/kg and 0.13 (0-4.92) mg/kg vs 2017: 0.09 ± 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 (0-4.17) mg/kg]. These effects are seen in emergent vs elective surgery, ambulatory vs inpatient, preoperative opioid use vs no preoperative opioid use, and those with and without intraoperative loco-regional procedures. Although median number of intraoperative non-opioid analgesic agents was unchanged over time, average difference in the number of intraoperative non-opioids increased over time. Finally, pain scores decreased over time [2011: mean (standard deviation) and median (range): 5.1 ± 2.62 and 5.4 (0-10) vs 2017: 3.29 ± 3.27 and 3 (0-10)]. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that intraoperative opioid use has decreased over time with increased utilization of non-opioid analgesic adjuncts and a commensurate decrease in immediate postoperative pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Analgésicos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(8): 606-608, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 12-mm AirSeal® port is widely used in robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy due to its ability to maintain stable pneumoperitoneal pressures and smoke evacuation. However, it creates a potential risk of port site hernia. We have traditionally used EndoClose™ to perform full thickness closure of this port, but noted that patients experienced increased pain related to this procedure, which sometimes persisted for several months. Using the Da Vinci Si we performed peritoneal closure with 2-0 vicryl by switching the fourth arm to the right master controller. The external oblique sheath was closed outside with 1 Ethibond. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed this closure in 20 consecutive patients (group 1). Postoperative day 1, 2 and post-discharge telephone consultation pain scores (1-10) were recorded and compared with the previous 20 consecutive patients who had the EndoClose closure (group 2). RESULTS: We recorded an instructional video to enable reproduction of the new technique. The mean length of stay was 1.5 days for patients in group 1 and 1.9 days for those in group 2 (P = 0.04). There was no difference in operating time or average day 1 pain scores. Post-discharge follow-up call revealed 1 of 20 patients who had AirSeal port site pain in group 1 and 5 of 17 in group 2 (P = 0.04). Pain scores also tended to be higher for group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary analysis of this novel technique to close the AirSeal port in two separate layers improves postoperative pain related to this port site.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Idoso , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/efeitos adversos
10.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(5): 588-595, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of triclosan-coated suture for the reduction of infection in saphenectomy wounds of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: A total of 508 patients who underwent saphenectomy in CABG surgery were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial from February/2011 to June/2014. Patients were randomized into the triclosan-coated suture group (n= 251) and the conventional non-antibiotic suture group (n=257). Demographic (gender and age), clinical (body mass index, diabetes, and use of analgesics), and intraoperative (cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times) variables and those related to the saphenectomy wound (pain, dehiscence, erythema, infection, necrosis, and hyperthermia) were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 508 patients who underwent saphenectomy, 69.9% were males and 40.2% were diabetic. Thirty-three (6.5%) patients presented infection: 13 (5.3%) with triclosan and 20 (7.9%) with conventional suture (P=0.281). Among diabetic patients (n=204), triclosan suture was used in 45.1% with four cases of infection; conventional suture was used in 54.9% of them, with 11 cases of infection. Most patients (94.3%) underwent on-pump CABG. Wound pain was observed in 9.9% of patients with triclosan-coated suture and in 17.9% with conventional suture (P=0.011). Wound hyperthermia was found in 1.6% of patients with triclosan-coated suture and in 5.4% of those with conventional suture (P=0.028). CONCLUSION: Triclosan-coated suture shows lower infection rate in saphenectomy of patients undergoing CABG, although the differences were not statistically significant. Pain and wound hyperthermia were less frequent in patients with triclosan-coated sutures compared with conventional sutures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Poliglactina 910/uso terapêutico , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Sutura , Triclosan/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Diabetes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(4): 333-341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of opioid analgesics in the United States has increased nearly fourfold since 1999 resulting in a similar increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. Although the Centers for Disease Control published guidelines for prescribing chronic opioids, there is a lack of guidance for prescribing postoperative opioids. OBJECTIVE: To offer an evidence-based approach to prescribing opioids for post-operative pain management in the orthopedic setting. METHODS: A narrative review was performed of studies evaluating and quantifying opioid use in orthopedic patients in the postoperative setting, as well as studies analyzing patient satisfaction and perception with regards to opioid use. RESULTS: Studies show that postoperative pain may not be the largest contributing factor to developing an opioid use disorder, but rather patient factors such as tobacco and substance use disorder, mental health disorders, anxiety, mood disorders, pre-existing chronic pain, and recent opioid use may play a role. The review also found that most patients do not utilize significant portions of prescribed opioids and most do not require a refill. This trend leaves patients with thousands of unused pills, which are either retained, shared, or diverted. Although there is no guideline for prescribing opioids postoperatively, data suggest that clinicians can prescribe smaller dosages and fewer quantities of opioids initially. There are also non-opioid strategies that can be employed to reduce opioid consumption. CONCLUSION: There is a need for more high quality research to be conducted to standardize postoperative opioid prescribing patterns and create best practice guidelines to guide clinicians. Orthopedic practices should consider creating institutional guidelines to reduce the amount of opioids prescribed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
12.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1807-1815, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three perioperative factors impair host defence against recurrence during cancer surgery: the surgical stress response, use of volatile anaesthetic, and opioids for analgesia. All factors are ameliorated by regional anaesthesia-analgesia. We tested the primary hypothesis that breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery is lower with regional anaesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral blocks and the anaesthetic propofol than with general anaesthesia with the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. A second hypothesis was that regional anaesthesia-analgesia reduces persistent incisional pain. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at 13 hospitals in Argentina, Austria, China, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, and the USA. Women (age <85 years) having potentially curative primary breast cancer resections were randomised by computer to either regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral blocks and propofol) or general anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was local or metastatic breast cancer recurrence. The secondary outcome was incisional pain at 6 months and 12 months. Primary analyses were done under intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00418457. The study was stopped after a preplanned futility boundary was crossed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2007, and Jan 18, 2018, 2132 women were enrolled to the study, of whom 24 were excluded before surgery. 1043 were assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 1065 were allocated to general anaesthesia. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study groups. Median follow-up was 36 (IQR 24-49) months. Among women assigned regional anaesthesia-analgesia, 102 (10%) recurrences were reported, compared with 111 (10%) recurrences among those allocated general anaesthesia (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·74-1·28; p=0·84). Incisional pain was reported by 442 (52%) of 856 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 456 (52%) of 872 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 239 (28%) of 854 patients and 232 (27%) of 852 patients, respectively, at 12 months (overall interim-adjusted odds ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·85-1·17; p=0·99). Neuropathic breast pain did not differ by anaesthetic technique and was reported by 87 (10%) of 859 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 89 (10%) of 870 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 57 (7%) of 857 patients and 57 (7%) of 854 patients, respectively, at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In our study population, regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral block and propofol) did not reduce breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery compared with volatile anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioids. The frequency and severity of persistent incisional breast pain was unaffected by anaesthetic technique. Clinicians can use regional or general anaesthesia with respect to breast cancer recurrence and persistent incisional pain. FUNDING: Sisk Healthcare Foundation (Ireland), Eccles Breast Cancer Research Fund, British Journal of Anaesthesia International, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Science Fund for Junior Faculty 2016, Central Bank of Austria, and National Healthcare Group.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(4): 991-999, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568318

RESUMO

With the growing opioid epidemic, plastic surgeons are being encouraged to transition away from reliance on postoperative opioids. However, many plastic surgeons hesitate to use nonopioid analgesics such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local anesthetic blocks because of concerns about their safety, particularly bleeding. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the validity of risks associated with nonopioid analgesic alternatives. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted regarding the safety of opioid alternatives in plastic surgery. Inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 34 relevant articles. A systematic review was performed because of the variation between study indications, interventions, and complications. Thirty-four articles were reviewed that analyzed the safety of ibuprofen, ketorolac, celecoxib, intravenous acetaminophen, ketamine, gabapentin, liposomal bupivacaine, and local and continuous nerve blocks after plastic surgery procedures. There were no articles that showed statistically significant bleeding associated with ibuprofen, celecoxib, or ketorolac. Similarly, acetaminophen administered intravenously, ketamine, gabapentin, and liposomal bupivacaine did not have any significant increased risk of adverse events. Nerve and infusion blocks have a low risk of pneumothorax. Limitations of this study include small sample sizes, different dosing and control groups, and more than one medication being studied. Larger studies of nonopioid analgesics would therefore be valuable and may strengthen the conclusions of this review. As a preliminary investigation, this review showed that several opioid alternatives have a potential role in postoperative analgesia. Plastic surgeons have the responsibility to lead the reduction of postoperative opioid use by further developing multimodal analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medição de Risco
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17520, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that dry CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic colorectal surgery results in greater structural injury to the peritoneum and longer hospital stay than the use of warm, humidified CO2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that warm, humidified CO2 insufflation could reduce postoperative pain and improve recovery in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. METHODS: One hundred fifty elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery under general anesthesia from May 2017 to October 2018 were randomly divided into 3 groups. The primary outcomes were resting pain, cough pain, and consumption of sufentanil at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Quality of visual image, hemodynamic changes, esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, recovery time, days to first flatus and solid food intake, shivering, incidence of postoperative ileus, length of hospital stay, surgical site infections, patients and surgeon satisfaction scores, adverse events, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time were recorded. RESULTS: Group CE patients were associated with significantly higher early postoperative cough pain and sufentanil consumption than the other 2 groups (P < .05). Compared with group CE, patients in both groups WH and CF had significantly reduced intraoperative hypothermia, recovery time of PACU, days to first flatus and solid food intake, and length of hospital stay, while the satisfaction scores of both patients and surgeon were significantly higher (P < .05). Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time were significantly higher in group CE from 60 minutes after pneumoperitoneum to the end of pneumoperitoneum than the other 2 groups (P < .05). The number of patients with a shivering grade of 0 was significantly lower and grade of 3 was significantly higher in group CE than in the other 2 groups (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Use of either warm, humidified CO2 insufflations or 20°C, 0% relative humidity CO2 combined with forced-air warmer set to 38°C during insufflations can both reduce intraoperative hypothermia, dysfunction of coagulation, early postoperative cough pain, sufentanil consumption, days to first flatus, solid food intake, and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Peritônio/lesões , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Colorretal/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia/etiologia , Insuflação/métodos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/fisiologia , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico
15.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e605, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531572

RESUMO

OJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the ability of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade to control pain and to reduce the side effects of general anesthesia in patients submitted to thyroidectomy. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The simple random patient sample was divided into two groups: 50 patients received general anesthesia alone (group 1 [G1]), and 50 patients received general anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade (group 2 [G2]). Statistical analyses were performed, and a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 12% lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients 60 minutes after surgery (101 mmHg for G1 vs. 92.3 mmHg for G2; p<0.001). G2 patients reported less pain than G1 patients, and opioid consumption was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients, not upon postanesthesia care unit arrival, but at 30 minutes (2% vs. 34%; p<0.001, respectively), 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively), and 4 hours postoperatively (6% vs. 20%; p=0.037, respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients from 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively) to 8 hours postoperatively (0% vs. 14%; p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade with general anesthesia for thyroidectomy is feasible, safe, and effective for achieving pain control and improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio do Plexo Cervical/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(10): 1248-1255, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia is important for postoperative recovery in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Multiple randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of transversus abdominis plane local anesthetic infiltration as a method of decreasing postoperative pain and opioid consumption, with variable results. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the overall effect of transversus abdominis plane block in postoperative pain, opioid use, and speed of recovery in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was done with PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were selected for review. INTERVENTIONS: Transversus abdominis plane local anesthetic infiltration versus no intervention, saline, or other techniques in laparoscopic colorectal surgeries was investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was postoperative pain on day 1, at rest or with activity. The secondary outcomes measured were postoperative pain beyond day 1, consumptions of opioid, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Eight clinical trials including 649 patients between 2013 and 2018 were included. Resting pain scores within 2 hours (standardized mean difference, -0.53; p = 0.01), 4 hours (standardized mean difference, -0.42; p = 0.004), and 6 hours (standardized mean difference, -0.47; p = 0.03) showed statistically significant reduction. Six studies including 413 patients demonstrated lower cumulative opioid consumption within 24 hours after surgery (standardized mean difference, -0.82; p = 0.01). Five studies including 357 patients did not show a significant difference in length of stay (standardized mean difference, -0.04; p = 0.82). LIMITATIONS: Local anesthetic used in block varied in type and quantity across different studies. There were heterogeneities in pain score measurements and opioid consumption. Patient populations may be different among studies. CONCLUSIONS: Transversus abdominis block can lead to a lower pain score at rest within the first 6 hours and reduce opioid consumption within the first 24 hours. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A997.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Anestesia Local/métodos , Colectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 627-636, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive opioid prescribing after surgery has been recognised as a contributor to the current crisis of opioid addiction and overdose. Clinicians may potentially tackle this crisis by using opioid-free postoperative analgesia; however, the scientific literature addressing this approach is sparse and heterogeneous, thereby limiting robust conclusions. A scoping review was conducted to systematically map the extent, range, and nature of the literature addressing postoperative opioid-free analgesia. METHODS: Eight bibliographic databases were searched for studies addressing opioid-free analgesia after a major surgery. We extracted the study characteristics, including design, country, year, surgical procedure(s), and interventions. Results were organised thematically according to surgical specialty and targeted phase of recovery: in hospital (early recovery, ≤24 h after operation; intermediate recovery, >24 h) and post-discharge (late recovery). Reporting was according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement for scoping reviews. RESULTS: We identified 424 studies addressing postoperative opioid-free analgesia. The number of studies conducted in countries where the opioid crisis is primarily focused was remarkably low (USA, n=11 [3%]; Canada, n=5 [1%]). Many RCTs compared opioid-free vs opioid analgesia during hospital stay (n=117), but few targeted analgesia post-discharge (n=8). Studies were predominantly focused on procedures in orthopaedic, general, and gynaecological/obstetric surgery. Limited attention has been directed towards non-pharmacological pain interventions. We did not identify knowledge synthesis studies (i.e. systematic reviews and meta-analyses) focused on the comparative effectiveness of opioid-free vs opioid analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Opioids remain a mainstay analgesic for managing pain after surgery, but alternative analgesia strategies should not be overlooked. This scoping review indicates numerous opportunities for future research targeting opioid-free postoperative analgesia. REVIEW REGISTRATION: http://www.researchregistry.com; ID: reviewregistry576.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos
18.
Int J Surg ; 70: 93-101, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, there is no ideal treatment for postoperative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) in improving postoperative POI. METHODS: We systematically screened randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from multiple databases and included 15 high quality RCTs. Two investigators independently conducted data extraction, risk of bias assessment and statistical analysis. Meta-analysis was performed by a random- (REM) or fixed-effect (FIXED) model. RESULTS: A total of 15 trials involving 965 participates were included. Meta-analysis results favored EA/TEA treatment for POI by analysis of time to first flatus [mean difference (MD) -11.60 h, I2 = 94%, REM)], time to first defecation (MD -12.94 h, I2 = 90%, REM), time to bowel sound recovery (MD -7.25 h, I2 = 85%, REM), time to first oral feeding (MD -15.76 h, I2 = 47%, REM) and length of hospital stay (MD -1.19 d, I2 = 44%, REM). Subgroup analysis of laparoscopic surgery patients also favored EA/TEA by analysis of time to first flatus (MD -2.46 h, I2 = 0%, FIXED), time to first oral feeding (MD -10.73 h, I2 = 0%, FIXED) and length of hospital stay (MD -1.30 d, I2 = 32%, REM). ST36 (Zusanli), ST37 (Shangjuxu) and ST39 (Xiajuxu) are preferred EA/TEA acupoints for treating POI. There was no significant difference in postoperative analgesic consumption between EA and control groups (P = 0.39). No severe adverse events associated with EA/TEA were reported. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that EA/TEA is a safe, effective treatment for POI after abdominal surgeries including laparoscopic surgery, and that EA/TEA does not relieve postoperative pain after abdominal surgery. There is significant heterogeneity of research on this subject, thus, a professional consensus is needed to establish a standard protocol for use of this technique.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Íleus/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16763, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is reported that both adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) are commonly used methods for postoperative analgesia in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Currently, no record has compared the efficacy of postoperative pain relief and the influence to quadriceps strength between them. This study aims to provide a protocol to compare the efficacy and safety between ACB and FNB for the postoperative analgesia of ACL reconstruction. METHODS: This study will be performed in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols. Online databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang database, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database will be systematically searched from their inception up May 31, 2019. All randomized controlled trials will be included in present meta-analysis. The quality of enrolled literatures will be evaluated by using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of bias Tool. Statistical analysis will be calculated by the Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: This review will investigate the efficacy and safety of ACB compared with FNB in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. The primary outcomes are visual analog scale, cumulative opioid consumption during 24 hours after surgery, numerical rating scale, and the time to first straight-leg raise. The secondary outcomes include maximal voluntary isometric contraction, stretching torque at 3, 6 months' follow-up, and adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis will summarize the current evidence in postoperative analgesia for ACL reconstruction and also provide implications for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Nervo Femoral , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(9): e687-e693, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids are the mainstay of therapy for pain relief following posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery. Various adjunctive medications are being used to augment analgesia and to reduce opioid-related side effects. At our institution, we have sequentially added 2 adjuncts to a standard morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) regimen. The goal of our study was to evaluate pain control and the benefit of gabapentin and the combination of gabapentin and clonidine, whereas morphine PCA was in use in children following PSF surgery. METHODS: Following Institutional Review Board approval, data were collected retrospectively from the charts of 127 patients who underwent PSF for idiopathic scoliosis. Children were divided into the 3 following groups: group P, morphine PCA only (42 patients), group G, morphine PCA+gabapentin (45 patients), and group C, morphine PCA+gabapentin+clonidine (40 patients). RESULTS: Addition of gabapentin to our regimen improved the outcome, but the addition of transdermal clonidine and gabapentin together were found to be significantly better in some aspects. Children in group G and C used less morphine on postoperative day 1 following surgery, had more PCA demand-free hours, were able to take orals, were able to ambulate sooner, and had a shorter hospital stay than group P. There were no differences in side effects or sedation between the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, additions of postoperative transdermal clonidine and perioperative oral gabapentin together were found to improve functional outcomes following PSF surgery. Group G and C had reduced opioid use and shorter hospital stay than group P. Addition of these adjuncts together was found to be better since group C patients made fewer PCA attempts to obtain morphine over the first 10-hour period postoperatively and were able to ambulate sooner than group G. The PCA pump usage pattern provides useful information about patient comfort and efficacy of adjunctive medications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-retrospective study.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/uso terapêutico , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Morfina , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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