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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511876

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate differences in psychological characteristics between people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) from Japan and Australia. Sixty-two adults from Japan and 168 adults from Australia aged over 50 years with knee pain were included. Japanese data were collected from patients with knee OA diagnosed by medical doctors. Australian data were baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Participants were not exercising regularly or receiving physiotherapy at the time. Psychological characteristics evaluated were depressive symptoms, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. These psychological characteristics were compared between the Japanese and Australian cohorts by calculating 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for difference of the mean. To test for equivalence, an equivalence margin was set at 0.5 standard deviations (SD) of the mean, where these SDs were based on the Australian data. When the 95%CI for the difference of the mean value lay entirely within the range of equivalence margin (i.e. between -0.5 and 0.5 times the Australian SD), the outcome was considered equivalent. There were no differences between the groups from Japan and Australia for depressive symptoms and the two groups were considered equivalent. There was no difference between groups for fear of movement, however the criteria for equivalence was not met. People from Japan with knee OA had higher scores for pain catastrophizing than people from Australia. The findings should be confirmed in other samples of people with knee OA from Japan and Australia due to the limitations of the participant recruitment strategy in this study. However, our findings suggest there may be a greater need to consider pain catastrophizing and build pain self-efficacy when managing Japanese people with knee OA. Implementation of international clinical practice guidelines for OA management may require different strategies in different countries due to different psychological profiles.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Dor/psicologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457550

RESUMO

A better understanding of the connection between factors associated with pain sensitivity and related disability in people with fibromyalgia syndrome may assist therapists in optimizing therapeutic programs. The current study applied mathematical modeling to analyze relationships between pain-related, psychological, psychophysical, health-related, and cognitive variables with sensitization symptom and related disability by using Bayesian Linear Regressions (BLR) in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The novelty of the present work was to transfer a mathematical background to a complex pain condition with widespread symptoms. Demographic, clinical, psychological, psychophysical, health-related, cognitive, sensory-related, and related-disability variables were collected in 126 women with FMS. The first BLR model revealed that age, pain intensity at rest (mean-worst pain), years with pain (history of pain), and anxiety levels have significant correlations with the presence of sensitization-associated symptoms. The second BLR showed that lower health-related quality of life and higher pain intensity at rest (mean-worst pain) and pain intensity with daily activities were significantly correlated with related disability. These results support an application of mathematical modeling for identifying different interactions between a sensory (i.e., Central Sensitization Score) and a functional (i.e., Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire) aspect in women with FMS.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(5): 985e-994e, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conventional way of treating burn victims with mainstream pain control modalities is costly and has many negative side effects. In this study, the authors aim to present the findings from the major clinical trials on three nonpharmacologic interventions-hypnosis, virtual/augmented reality, and yoga-as supplements to conventional pain regimens for burn management. METHODS: A computerized literature search was conducted of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases in April of 2020. The online screening process was performed by two independent reviewers with the Covidence tool. The protocol was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses, and it was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews of the National Institute for Health Research. RESULTS: The search yielded 254 articles from 1955 to 2020. Fifty-eight studies met the authors' inclusion criteria. Yoga reduced cognitive and somatic anxiety in burn survivors, and improved body image. Virtual reality is effective in pain reduction in both the pediatric and the adult burn population, and in faster burn wound reepithelialization. Hypnosis has similar results regarding reducing pain quality and anxiety in burn patients undergoing burn wound care and dressing changes but was not found to significantly accelerate the healing process. CONCLUSIONS: Nonpharmacologic interventions are not a substitute for conventional analgesics; however, they could help patients have better control over their pain, greater self-esteem, and less postburn traumatic experiences. Burn care centers should consider nonpharmacologic interventions to improve patient satisfaction and their participation in the treatment and rehabilitation process.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Dor , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Queimaduras/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Dor/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
Work ; 71(4): 1043-1050, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fear of pain, which is defined as verbal, physiological, and behavioral responses against potentially painful situations, refers to extreme fear of pain, painful sensation, and anything that may cause this sensation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the pain fear levels of students and factors affecting fear of pain. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 544 students. To measure the students' pain fear levels, a 12-item questionnaire, developed by the researchers, and 30-item Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III (FPQ-III) was used. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: Students the severity of pain subscale, 31.9±8.9; mild pain subscale, 23.8±7.5; medical pain subscale, 27.5±9.0; and average total FPQ score, 83.1±22.0 was foud as. Of the students participating in the study, 80% reported that they had previously experienced pain. Of those who experienced pain, 32.9% reported dysmenorrhea, 18.2% reported headache, and 16.6% reported posttraumatic pain. Moreover, 61.0% of the students attempted to relieve their pain by their own means (medicine, herbal medicine, hot-cold application, etc.), while 70.6% stated that they do not frequently use painkillers. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to develop multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches in the management of fear of pain, which has biological, psychological, social, cultural, economic aspects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Medo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
5.
J Vis Exp ; (180)2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253785

RESUMO

Pain comprises of both sensory (nociceptive) and affective (unpleasant) dimensions. In preclinical models, pain has traditionally been assessed using reflexive tests that allow inferences regarding pain's nociceptive component but provide little information about the affective or motivational component of pain. Developing tests that capture these components of pain are therefore translationally important. Hence, researchers need to use non-reflexive behavioral assays to study pain perception at that level. Mechanical conflict-avoidance (MCA) is an established voluntary non-reflexive behavior assay, for studying motivational responses to a noxious mechanical stimulus in a 3 chamber paradigm. A change in a mouse's location preference, when faced with competing noxious stimuli, is used to infer the perceived unpleasantness of bright light versus tactile stimulation of the paws. This protocol outlines a modified version of the MCA assay which pain researchers can use to understand affective-motivational responses in a variety of mouse pain models. Though not specifically described here, our example MCA data use the intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), spared nerve injury (SNI), and a fracture/casting model as pain models to illustrate the MCA procedure.


Assuntos
Hiperalgesia , Dor , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Adjuvante de Freund , Camundongos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos
6.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 31(3): e13575, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children with leukaemia experience special difficulties adapting to stressful medical procedures and to the adverse effects of chemotherapy, though they can implement their coping strategies. The aims of the study were to assess whether the coping-with-pain strategies could be influenced by a child's personal and illness factors and to render possible comparisons between children with leukaemia and healthy peers. Another aim was to compare parents' and children's reports on coping strategies. METHODS: A total of 125 patients (average age = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40) with acute leukaemia (lymphocytic leukaemia 90.4% and myeloid leukaemia 9.6%) and age-matched healthy children with their parents were enrolled in the study. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Waldon-Varni Pediatric Pain Coping Inventory, parent and self-report versions, were administered 1 month after diagnosis. Data regarding the therapy's side effects were recorded. RESULTS: The comparison between proxy-reports of the two groups of parents found significant differences in terms of social support, self-cognitive instructions and catastrophising strategies. Children aged 6-10 years relied more heavily on distraction than children of other ages, using more problem-solving and self-cognitive instructions. The results indicated moderate parent-child agreement. CONCLUSION: Health professionals could help paediatric leukaemic patients in adopting more efficiently pain coping strategies applicable for different ages.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Leucemia , Criança , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 55(7): 1840-1858, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266226

RESUMO

Placebo analgesia (PA) is defined as a psychobiological phenomenon triggered by the information surrounding an analgesic drug instead of its inherent pharmacological properties. PA is hypothesized to be formed through either verbal suggestions or conditioning. The present study aims at disentangling the neural correlates of expectations effects with or without conditioning through prior experience using the model of PA. We addressed this question by recruiting two groups of individuals holding comparable verbally-induced expectations regarding morphine analgesia but either (i) with or (ii) without prior experience with opioids. We then contrasted the two groups' neurocognitive response to acute heat-pain induction following the injection of sham morphine using electroencephalography (EEG). Topographic ERP analyses of the N2 and P2 pain evoked potential components allowed to test the hypothesis that PA involves distinct neural networks when induced by expectations with or without prior experience. First, we confirmed that the two groups showed corresponding expectations of morphine analgesia (Hedges' gs < .4 positive control criteria, gs = .37 observed difference), and that our intervention induced a medium-sized PA (Hedges' gav ≥ .5 positive control, gav = .6 observed PA). We then tested our hypothesis on the recruitment of different PA-associated brain networks in individuals with versus without prior experience with opioids and found no evidence for a topographic N2 and P2 ERP components difference between the two groups. Our results thus suggest that in the presence of verbally-induced expectations, modifications in the PA-associated brain activity by conditioning are either absent or very small.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Analgésicos Opioides , Analgesia/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo , Humanos , Morfina/farmacologia , Motivação , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/psicologia , Efeito Placebo
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143124

RESUMO

Objective: Psychological pain is a transdiagnostic factor in mental health and a key clinical dimension to understand suicide in patients with mood disorders. However, less is known about the clinical characteristics that predict high psychological pain. The aim of this study was to fill this gap in a sample of patients with mood disorders.Methods: Inpatients admitted for a major depressive episode, according to DSM-IV criteria, from 2010 to 2017 were divided into 3 groups: 178 recent suicide attempters (within the last 7 days), 101 past suicide attempters (lifetime history of suicide attempt), and 93 nonattempters (no lifetime history of suicidal act). At inclusion, current psychopathology, medication, personality traits (impulsivity, anxiety, hopelessness), and childhood trauma were assessed. At inclusion and at 1-year follow-up, depressive symptomatology and current and maximal (within the 15 last days) psychological and physical pain were assessed.Results: At baseline, maximal psychological pain was higher in recent than in past suicide attempters (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18 [1.04-1.35]) and nonattempters (OR = 1.32 [1.16-1.50]). In the multivariate model, depression severity (OR = 1.11 [1.08-1.16]) and worst physical pain (OR = 2.53 [1.28-5.02]) predicted high psychological pain, whereas bipolar disorder (OR = 0.54 [0.29-0.98]) predicted low psychological pain. During the follow-up, the change in maximal psychological pain was predicted by changes in depressive symptomatology (ß = 0.46, P < .001) and maximal physical pain (ß = 0.42, P < .003). Finally, among depressive symptoms, guilt, lack of initiative, and loss of appetite better explained maximal psychological pain, both at inclusion and at 1 year (all P < .050).Conclusions: Psychological pain is associated with a recent suicidal act and depressive severity. Due to the strong link between psychological pain and physical pain, future studies should investigate whether psychotropic drugs with analgesic effects protect from psychological pain and therefore from suicide.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Escala Visual Analógica
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263609, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171933

RESUMO

Nurse educators and nurse preceptors play a fundamental role in facilitating nursing students' acquisition and utilization of professional competencies. Previous studies about key elements for teaching and learning about pain in nursing education programs include students' personal characteristics and previous experiences; educators' knowledge, skills, and beliefs; learners' exposure to leaders in pain education; and curricular pain content and delivery approaches. These studies were mainly carried out in developed countries, with a context of educational and health care systems different from those of developing countries. The current study explores academics', clinical nurse preceptors', and nursing students' perceptions about factors influencing the facilitation of nursing students' competency for paediatric pain management in Rwanda. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was used in this study that utilized in-depth interviews with six nurse educators and eight nurse preceptors, and focus group discussions with nineteen senior year nursing students. The study setting included five sites: two academic institutions and three clinical settings. Narratives from participants were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis yielded six themes describing factors that affected the facilitation of students' learning about paediatric pain management. The themes included student motivation, facilitators' attributes, collaboration between academics and clinicians, nurses' limited autonomy for decision-making regarding PPM practices, shortage of human and material resources, and educational qualification. Knowing these factors is essential as it provides an opportunity to design targeted interventions aimed to enhance the capacity of nurse educators and clinical nurse preceptors involved in teaching nursing students about paediatric pain management.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Educação em Enfermagem/normas , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(3): 195-206, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093193

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment represents a form of trauma capable of altering fundamental neurobiological properties and negatively impacting neurodevelopmental processes. An outcome of childhood maltreatment is the emergence of psychopathology, which might become evident during childhood or adolescence, but might also project into adulthood. In this Review, we propose a biobehavioural framework in which childhood maltreatment and the associated aberrant neurobiological mechanisms and behavioural processes additionally lead to the onset of altered pain processing and, ultimately, the existence of pain syndromes. Considering that subpopulations of maltreated children show preserved function and minimal psychiatric or pain symptoms, compensatory mechanisms-perhaps instilled by robust psychosocial support systems-are also discussed. We present validated tools and experimental methods that could facilitate better comprehension of the interactions between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and pain. Such tools and approaches can in parallel be implemented to monitor abnormal pain-related processes and potentially guide early intervention strategies in cases of childhood maltreatment.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/psicologia , Adolescente , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Psicopatologia
11.
Brain Behav ; 12(2): e2493, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist which causes severe symptoms. However, psychological aspects can affect patients' perception of this pain and can cause similar pain in some instances. This study aims to determine the association between symptoms severity, functional status, and nerve conduction studies (NCS) of adult patients with CTS and their anger, anxiety, and depression status. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted in clinics in Damascus, Syria. Controls were frequency matched by gender and age from a general clinic. Interviews based on questionnaires were used that included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ-A), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale-5 (DAR-5), and NCS. RESULTS: Overall, 242 patients (121 cases) were included in this study. Cases with CTS had significantly higher anxiety and depression when compared to controls, but not higher anger. Cases with higher anxiety, depression, and anger had significantly more CTS symptoms and less functional status. Anxiety was also higher in cases with normal NCS in the case group. When using regression, anxiety and depression remained significantly associated with having CTS. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are more prominent with CTS. Furthermore, having anxiety and depression were associated with more CTS symptoms in the hand. Having anger was also associated with more CTS symptoms among cases. These findings emphasize the importance of psychological aspects when having hand pain or CTS symptoms as these patients might have these symptoms despite having normal NCS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Nervo Mediano , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Síria
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1395, 2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082351

RESUMO

Research on placebo analgesia usually shows that people experienced a reduction in pain after using a placebo analgesic. An emerging line of research argues that, under some circumstances, merely possessing (but not using) a placebo analgesic could induce placebo analgesia. The current study investigates how temporary expectation of pain reduction associated with different forms of possessing a placebo analgesic affects pain outcomes. Healthy participants (n = 90) were presented with a vial of olive oil (placebo), described as a blended essential oil that blocks pain sensations upon nasal inhalation, and were asked to anticipate the benefits of such analgesic oil to the self (such as anticipating the analgesic oil to reduce their pain). Participants were randomized into one of three different possession conditions: physical-possession condition (participants possessed a tangible placebo analgesic oil, inducing an expectation to acquire analgesic benefit early upon the experience of pain), psychological-possession condition (participants possessed a coupon, which can be redeemed for a placebo analgesic oil, inducing an expectation to acquire analgesic benefit later upon the experience of pain), or no-possession condition. Participants did a cold pressor test (CPT) to experience experimentally-induced pain on their non-dominant hand. Their objective physical pain responses (pain-threshold and pain-tolerance), and subjective psychological pain perception (pain intensity, severity, quality, and unpleasantness) were measured. Results revealed that participants in the physical-possession condition reported greater pain-threshold, F(2, 85) = 6.65, p = 0.002, and longer pain-tolerance, F(2, 85) = 7.19, p = 0.001 than participants in the psychological-possession and no-possession conditions. No significant group difference was found in subjective pain perception. The results of this study can advance knowledge about pain mechanisms and novel pain management.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Percepção da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/psicologia , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Placebo , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1414, 2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082352

RESUMO

Flat foot pain is a common complaint that requires therapeutic intervention. Currently, myofascial release techniques are often used in the therapy of musculoskeletal disorders. A group of 60 people suffering from flat feet with associated pain. Patients were assigned to four groups (15 people each): MF-myofascial release, E-the exercise program, MFE-myofascial release and the exercise program, C-no intervention. The rehabilitation program lasted 4 weeks. The NRS scale was used to examine pain intensity and FreeMed ground reaction force platform was used to examine selected static and dynamic foot indicators. Statistically significant pain reduction was obtained in all research. A static test of foot load distribution produced statistically significant changes only for selected indicators. In the dynamic test, statistically significant changes were observed for selected indicators, only in the groups subjected to therapeutic intervention. Most such changes were observed in the MF group. In the dynamic test which assessed the support phase of the foot, statistically significant changes were observed only for selected subphases. Most such changes were observed in the MFE group. Both exercise and exercise combined with myofascial release techniques, and especially myofascial release techniques alone, significantly reduce pain in a flat foot. This study shows a limited influence of both exercises and myofascial release techniques on selected static and dynamic indicators of a flat foot.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pé Chato/terapia , Medição da Dor/psicologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Pé Chato/diagnóstico , Pé Chato/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 435-439, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Among the most investigated theories explaining suicidal behavior there are the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) by Thomas E. Joiner and the one focused on the construct of psychological pain (or psychache, or mental pain). OBJECTIVE: Since it remains unclear whether these two different theories correlate with each other in the explanation of suicidal risk, we used a network analysis approach to investigate the complex interplay between both IPTS and psychological pain theories and history of suicidal planning and/or suicide attempt (SP/SA). METHODS: A sample of 1,586 university students from various Italian universities was recruited between April 24th, 2020 and February 23rd, 2021, hence during the COVID-19 pandemic. To be included subjects should have been university students and aged between 18 and 35 years old. RESULTS: Within a network that included the core factors from both models (IPTS and psychological pain), higher fearlessness about death (Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale-Fearlessness About Death, ACSS-FAD) and higher psychological pain (Psychache Scale) were the variables most strongly associated with history of SP/SA. CONCLUSIONS: Considering a large number of variables, history of SP/SA was explained in particular by fearlessness about death and psychological pain in university students. Hence these aspects should be targeted in the treatment for suicide prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Dor/psicologia , Pandemias , Teoria Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Pharmacol ; 33(1): 23-31, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007233

RESUMO

The monoiodoacetate-induced rat model of osteoarthritis knee pain is widely used. However, there are between-study differences in the pain behavioural endpoints assessed and in the dose of intraarticular monoiodoacetate administered. This study evaluated the robustness of gait analysis as a pain behavioural endpoint in the chronic phase of this model, in comparison with mechanical hyperalgesia in the injected (ipsilateral) joint and development of mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hind paws. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraarticular injection of monoiodoacetate at 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 mg or vehicle (saline) into the left (ipsilateral) knee joint. An additional group of rats were not injected (naïve group). The pain behavioural methods used were gait analysis, measurement of pressure algometry thresholds in the ipsilateral knee joints, and assessment of mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hind paws using von Frey filaments. These pain behavioural endpoints were assessed premonoiodoacetate injection and for up to 42-days postmonoiodoacetate injection in a blinded manner. Body weights were also assessed as a measure of general health. Good general health was maintained as all rats gained weight at a similar rate for the 42-day study period. In the chronic phase of the model (days 9-42), intraarticular monoiodoacetate at 3 mg evoked robust alterations in multiple gait parameters as well as persistent mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hind paws. For the chronic phase of the monoiodoacetate-induced rat model of osteoarthritis knee pain, gait analysis, such as mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hind paws, is a robust pain behavioural measure.


Assuntos
Artralgia , Sintomas Comportamentais , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Hiperalgesia , Osteoartrite , Dor , Animais , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Hiperalgesia/psicologia , Ácido Iodoacético/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/psicologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(1): 13-23, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586357

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic back pain (CBP) is a leading cause of disability, and treatment is often ineffective. Approximately 85% of cases are primary CBP, for which peripheral etiology cannot be identified, and maintenance factors include fear, avoidance, and beliefs that pain indicates injury. Objective: To test whether a psychological treatment (pain reprocessing therapy [PRT]) aiming to shift patients' beliefs about the causes and threat value of pain provides substantial and durable pain relief from primary CBP and to investigate treatment mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial with longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 1-year follow-up assessment was conducted in a university research setting from November 2017 to August 2018, with 1-year follow-up completed by November 2019. Clinical and fMRI data were analyzed from January 2019 to August 2020. The study compared PRT with an open-label placebo treatment and with usual care in a community sample. Interventions: Participants randomized to PRT participated in 1 telehealth session with a physician and 8 psychological treatment sessions over 4 weeks. Treatment aimed to help patients reconceptualize their pain as due to nondangerous brain activity rather than peripheral tissue injury, using a combination of cognitive, somatic, and exposure-based techniques. Participants randomized to placebo received an open-label subcutaneous saline injection in the back; participants randomized to usual care continued their routine, ongoing care. Main Outcomes and Measures: One-week mean back pain intensity score (0 to 10) at posttreatment, pain beliefs, and fMRI measures of evoked pain and resting connectivity. Results: At baseline, 151 adults (54% female; mean [SD] age, 41.1 [15.6] years) reported mean (SD) pain of low to moderate severity (mean [SD] pain intensity, 4.10 [1.26] of 10; mean [SD] disability, 23.34 [10.12] of 100) and mean (SD) pain duration of 10.0 (8.9) years. Large group differences in pain were observed at posttreatment, with a mean (SD) pain score of 1.18 (1.24) in the PRT group, 2.84 (1.64) in the placebo group, and 3.13 (1.45) in the usual care group. Hedges g was -1.14 for PRT vs placebo and -1.74 for PRT vs usual care (P < .001). Of 151 total participants, 33 of 50 participants (66%) randomized to PRT were pain-free or nearly pain-free at posttreatment (reporting a pain intensity score of 0 or 1 of 10), compared with 10 of 51 participants (20%) randomized to placebo and 5 of 50 participants (10%) randomized to usual care. Treatment effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up, with a mean (SD) pain score of 1.51 (1.59) in the PRT group, 2.79 (1.78) in the placebo group, and 3.00 (1.77) in the usual care group. Hedges g was -0.70 for PRT vs placebo (P = .001) and -1.05 for PRT vs usual care (P < .001) at 1-year follow-up. Longitudinal fMRI showed (1) reduced responses to evoked back pain in the anterior midcingulate and the anterior prefrontal cortex for PRT vs placebo; (2) reduced responses in the anterior insula for PRT vs usual care; (3) increased resting connectivity from the anterior prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula to the primary somatosensory cortex for PRT vs both control groups; and (4) increased connectivity from the anterior midcingulate to the precuneus for PRT vs usual care. Conclusions and Relevance: Psychological treatment centered on changing patients' beliefs about the causes and threat value of pain may provide substantial and durable pain relief for people with CBP. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03294148.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor/etiologia , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Scand J Pain ; 22(2): 374-384, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Past work has found that optimism reduces a person's responsiveness to pain, but the effects of pessimism are not clear. Therefore, we gave pessimistic forecasts of participants' future social life and measured changes in their pain responsiveness. In particular, some participants were told that they would end up alone in life. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects were investigated in three conditions (negative forecast, positive forecast, no forecast) for changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold. Pressure pain induction was accomplished by either human- or machine-driven algometers. A randomly assigned bogus forecast promising either a lonely or a socially satisfying future was ostensibly based on a personality questionnaire and an emotional dot-probe task. As potential covariates, questionnaires assessing dispositional optimism (LOT-R), pain catastrophizing (PCS), and self-esteem (SISE) were given. RESULTS: Pain thresholds suggested a change toward unresponsiveness only in the negative forecast condition, with only small differences between the modes of pain induction (i.e., human or machine). The results for pain tolerance thresholds were less clear also because of limiting stimulation intensity for safety reasons. The covariates were not associated with these changes. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, people expecting a lonely future became moderately less responsive to pain. This numbing effect was not modulated by personality measures, neither in a protective fashion via dispositional optimism and self-esteem nor in a risk-enhancing fashion via trait pain catastrophizing. Alternative mechanisms of action should be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Catastrofização/psicologia , Humanos , Otimismo , Dor/psicologia , Personalidade
18.
Pain ; 163(5): 809-819, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510137

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Many analgesics inadequately address the psychiatric comorbidities of chronic and persistent pain, but there is no standard preclinical model of pain-altered behavior to support the development of new therapies. To explore this conflicting and inconclusive literature, we conducted a focused systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of complete Freund adjuvant-induced (CFA) rodent hind paw inflammation on multiple classical indicators of exploratory behavior, stress coping, and naturalistic behavior. Our primary objective was to define CFA's effect on assays including, but not limited to, the elevated plus maze and forced swim test. Our secondary objective was to discover how variables such as species and strain may influence outcomes in such assays. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science in April and October 2020 for studies with adult rodents injected with CFA into the hind paw and subsequently tested for aspects of "anxiety-like" or "depressive-like" behaviors. Forty-four studies evaluated performance in the elevated plus or zero maze, open field test, light-dark box, place escape and avoidance paradigm, forced swim test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test, wheel running, and burrowing assay. Complete Freund adjuvant modestly but significantly decreased exploratory behavior, significantly increased passive stress coping in the tail suspension test but not the forced swim test, and significantly decreased preference for sucrose and naturally rewarding activity. Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences between species and animal sourcing. Based on the evidence provided here, we conclude future studies should focus on CFA's effect on natural rewards and naturalistic behaviors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Roedores , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Adjuvante de Freund/toxicidade , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/psicologia , Sacarose/farmacologia
19.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 64(3): 364-371, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553772

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the lived experiences of pain in children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Participants were recruited from the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and the New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory CP Registers. Inclusion criteria were as follows: CP; aged 9 to 17 years; current/past experience of pain; fluent in English; no greater than mild intellectual disability. Purposive sampling ensured representation across age, motor subtypes, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted. Data were analysed following an interpretative phenomenological approach. RESULTS: Ten participants (three male) were included (mean age 14y 5mo, SD 2y), GMFCS levels I (n=4), II (n=3), III (n=2), and IV (n=1). Analysis led to three superordinate themes: (1) Everybody's experience of pain is different; (2) When the pain is winning; (3) 'I know how to deal with it'. Pain contributors and locations varied between children. Pain intruded on school, physical activity, and psychosocial functioning. Children described personalized strategies used to deal with pain. INTERPRETATION: In this study, children self-reported highly individualized pain experiences which interfered with their daily life and psychosocial well-being. There is a need for improvement in pain assessment and a personalized approach to pain management.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(3): 1054-1062.e1, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular malformations (VM) can negatively impact the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain is a common problem in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with pain and to assess how pain affects QoL. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary vascular anomaly expertise center. Between June and December 2020, all patients from our local database (334 adults and 189 children) with peripheral VMs were invited to complete the Outcome Measures for VAscular MAlformations questionnaire to evaluate the presence, frequency, and intensity of pain. Additionally, patients were asked to complete several Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System scales to evaluate their QoL. Risk factors associated with pain were identified in bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression. QoL domains were compared between patients who experienced pain and patients who did not. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients completed the questionnaire about pain and 133 patients completed all QoL questionnaires. Approximately one-half of the patients (52%) reported pain in the past four weeks and 57% of these patients reported pain daily or several times a week. Female sex (P = .009), lesions located in the upper extremity (P < .001) or lower extremity (P < .001), and intramuscular/intraosseous lesions (P = .004) were independently associated with the presence of pain. The following QoL domains were diminished in patients who experienced pain in comparison with patients who did not: pain interference (P < .001), physical functioning (P < .001), and social participation (P < .001) in adults, and pain interference (P = .001), mobility (P = .001), and anxiety (P = .024) in children. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is a frequently reported complaint in patients with VMs and is present in approximately one-half of the patients. Patients with lesions located in the upper or lower extremity, intramuscular/intraosseous lesions, and female patients are more likely to experience pain. The presence of pain negatively impacted patients' QoL. Although VM are a benign condition and expectative management is frequently applied, our study shows that pain is a serious concern and needs to be actively assessed. Pain is a sign of various etiologies and should be examined to properly treat the pain.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Participação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico , Malformações Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Malformações Vasculares/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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