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1.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 482-487, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151116

RESUMO

Pain recognition and treatment in companion animals are important aspects of veterinary medicine, yet the teaching of these concepts may not be adequate at all academic institutions. This study was designed to evaluate veterinary students' ability to recall signs of pain and specific analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. We hypothesized that students in the fourth, or final, year of their veterinary curriculum would have a better understanding of pain recognition and be able to recall more analgesic options. A brief, voluntary, and anonymous open question survey was made available to all veterinary students, years 1 to 4, at our institution. The questions included, "How does a cat/dog show signs of pain?" and "What pain medications are used in cats/dogs?" Survey responses were collated according to the students' year in the curriculum, and the most common responses for signs of pain and analgesic medications recalled by the students in both the cat and dog were compared for significant differences. Results showed that students in the class of 2017 (seniors) had no superior recall of analgesic medications or recognition of pain in cats or dogs compared to the other classes. Vocalization was the most common sign of pain recalled with at least 50% responses from all classes. Carprofen was the most commonly recalled analgesic for dogs (the difference between classes, p = .04). Meloxicam was the most commonly recalled analgesic for cats (the difference among classes, p < .001). Based on these results, areas of improvement were identified for our analgesic curriculum.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Educação em Veterinária , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Estudantes
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4534-4538, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019002

RESUMO

Pain and physical function are both essential indices of recovery in critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Units (ICU). Simultaneous monitoring of pain intensity and patient activity can be important for determining which analgesic interventions can optimize mobility and function, while minimizing opioid harm. Nonetheless, so far, our knowledge of the relation between pain and activity has been limited to manual and sporadic activity assessments. In recent years, wearable devices equipped with 3-axis accelerometers have been used in many domains to provide a continuous and automated measure of mobility and physical activity. In this study, we collected activity intensity data from 57 ICU patients, using the Actigraph GT3X device. We also collected relevant clinical information, including nurse assessments of pain intensity, recorded every 1-4 hours. Our results show the joint distribution and state transition of joint activity and pain states in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Dor , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5696-5699, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019268

RESUMO

Critical care patients experience varying levels of pain during their stay in the intensive care unit, often requiring administration of analgesics and sedation. Such medications generally exacerbate the already sedentary physical activity profiles of critical care patients, contributing to delayed recovery. Thus, it is important not only to minimize pain levels, but also to optimize analgesic strategies in order to maximize mobility and activity of ICU patients. Currently, we lack an understanding of the relation between pain and physical activity on a granular level. In this study, we examined the relationship between nurse assessed pain scores and physical activity as measured using a wearable accelerometer device. We found that average, standard deviation, and maximum physical activity counts are significantly higher before high pain reports compared to before low pain reports during both daytime and nighttime, while percentage of time spent immobile was not significantly different between the two pain report groups. Clusters detected among patients using extracted physical activity features were significant in adjusted logistic regression analysis for prediction of pain report group.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Dor , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD004908, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping pain (often called after-birth pain) associated with uterine involution, where the uterus contracts to reduce blood loss and return the uterus to its non-pregnant size. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain relief/analgesia for the relief of after-birth pains following vaginal birth. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia versus placebo or analgesia versus no treatment, for the relief of after-birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted 'Risk of bias' assessment, extracted data and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this update, we include 28 studies (involving 2749 women). The evidence identified in this review comes from middle- to high-income countries. Generally the trials were at low risk of selection bias, performance bias and attrition bias, but some trials were at high risk of bias due to selective reporting and lack of blinding. Our GRADE certainty of evidence assessments ranged from moderate to very low certainty, with downgrading decisions based on study limitations, imprecision, and (for one comparison) indirectness. Most studies reported our primary outcome of adequate pain relief as reported by the women. No studies reported data relating to neonatal adverse events, duration of hospital stay, or breastfeeding rates. Almost half of the included studies (11/28) excluded breastfeeding women from participating, making the evidence less generalisable to a broader group of women. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) compared to placebo NSAIDs are probably better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (risk ratio (RR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45 to 1.91; 11 studies, 946 women; moderate-certainty evidence). NSAIDs may reduce the need for additional pain relief compared to placebo (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33; 4 studies, 375 women; low-certainty evidence). There may be a similar risk of maternal adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.41; 9 studies, 598 women; low-certainty evidence). NSAIDs compared to opioids NSAIDs are probably better than opioids for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.57; 5 studies, 560 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and may reduce the risk of maternal adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89; 3 studies, 255 women; low-certainty evidence). NSAIDs may be better than opioids for the need for additional pain relief, but the wide CIs include the possibility that the two classes of drugs are similarly effective or that opioids are better (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.12; 2 studies, 232 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids compared to placebo Opioids may be better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.61; 5 studies, 299 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids may reduce the need for additional pain relief compared to placebo (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.82; 3 studies, 273 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids may increase the risk of maternal adverse events compared with placebo, although the certainty of evidence is low (RR 1.59, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.55; 3 studies, 188 women; low-certainty evidence). Paracetamol compared to placebo Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if paracetamol is better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, the need for additional pain relief, or risk of maternal adverse events (2 studies, 123 women). Paracetamol compared to NSAIDs Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if there are any differences between paracetamol and NSAIDs for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, or the risk of maternal adverse events. No data were reported about the need for additional pain relief comparing paracetamol and NSAIDs (2 studies, 112 women). NSAIDs compared to herbal analgesia We are uncertain if there are any differences between NSAIDs and herbal analgesia for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, the need for additional pain relief, or risk of maternal adverse events, because the certainty of evidence is very low (4 studies, 394 women). Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) compared to no TENS Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if TENS is better than no TENS for adequate pain relief as reported by the women. No other data were reported comparing TENS with no TENS (1 study, 32 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs may be better than placebo and are probably better than opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs and paracetamol may be as effective as each other, whereas opioids may be more effective than placebo. Due to low-certainty evidence, we are uncertain about the effectiveness of other forms of pain relief. Future trials should recruit adequate numbers of women and ensure greater generalisability by including breastfeeding women. In addition, further research is required, including a survey of postpartum women to describe appropriately their experience of uterine cramping and involution. We identified nine ongoing studies, which may help to increase the level of certainty of the evidence around pain relief due to uterine cramping in future updates of this review.


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cãibra Muscular/complicações , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Contração Uterina/fisiologia , Doenças Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Miométrio , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Útero/fisiologia
6.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(3): 101465, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921385

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling: A report from the American Dental Association. Lockhart PB, Tampi MP, Abt E, et al. J Am Dent Assoc 2019;150(11):906-921.e12. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The American Dental Association. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Dor , Pulpite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Pulpite/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
7.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 433-444, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958571

RESUMO

For decades the broad role of opioids in addiction, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pain states has been somewhat well established. However, in recent years, with the rise of technological advances, not only is the existing dogma being challenged, but we are identifying new disease areas in which opioids play a critical role. This review highlights four new areas of exploration in the opioid field. The most recent addition to the opioid family, the nociceptin receptor system, shows promise as the missing link in understanding the neurocircuitry of motivation. It is well known that activation of the kappa opioid receptor system modulates negative affect and dysphoria, but recent studies now implicate the kappa opioid system in the modulation of negative affect associated with pain. Opioids are critical in pain management; however, the often-forgotten delta opioid receptor system has been identified as a novel therapeutic target for headache disorders and migraine. Lastly, changes to the gut microbiome have been shown to directly contribute to many of the symptoms of chronic opioid use and opioid related behaviors. This review summarizes the findings from each of these areas with an emphasis on identifying new therapeutic targets. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The focus of this minireview is to highlight new disease areas or new aspects of disease in which opioids have been implicated; this includes pain, motivation, migraine, and the microbiome. In some cases, this has resulted in the pursuit of a novel therapeutic target and resultant clinical trial. We believe this is very timely and will be a refreshing take on reading about opioids and disease.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/microbiologia , Dor/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Opioides delta/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881944

RESUMO

An effective and pain-free killing method is required to achieve the goal of euthanasia, a "good death". Overdose of sodium pentobarbital (PB) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection is a widely accepted technique in laboratory rats, but questions remain regarding pain associated with administration. As PB rapidly causes sedation and loss of consciousness, most studies have relied on indirect evidence of pain. The objective of this study was to assess pain associated with IP PB using an appropriate vehicle control. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) and female Wistar rats (N = 84) were block randomised by sex and strain to receive one of three treatments: 1) 800 mg/kg PB (pH 11), 2) saline or 3) vehicle controls (pH 11 or 12.5). Behavior (Rat Grimace Scale (RGS), writhing, back arching) was evaluated at baseline, before loss of righting reflex (LORR, PB group), and at 80s, 151s and 10 min post-injection (PI; saline and vehicle control groups). In the PB group, mean time to LORR was 78 ± 7.9 seconds. In the vehicle control groups, RGS scores were increased at 151s PI (SD: p = 0.0002, 95%CI 0.73 to 0.20) from baseline, as was relative frequency of writhing (SD: p < 0.0001; Wistar; p = 0.0004). RGS scores remained elevated 10 mins PI (SD: p = 0.0005, 95%CI 0.71 to 0.18; Wistar: p = 0.0234, 95%CI 0.91 to 0.07) but the relative frequency of writhing did not (p > 0.999). The RGS scores and the relative frequency of writhing remained low in the PB and saline groups (p > 0.05). These results show that, vehicle controls for IP PB result in signs associated with pain, pain may not be experienced following IP PB when LORR occurs quickly, and that the effects of PB limit behavioral pain assessments.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Pentobarbital/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Músculos/patologia , Dor/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941458

RESUMO

Peperomia pellucida (PP) belongs to the Peperomia genus, which has a pantropic distribution. PP is used to treat a wide range of symptoms and diseases, such as pain, inflammation, and hypertension. Intriguingly, PP extract is used by different tropical countries for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. In fact, these outcomes have been shown in animal models, though the exact bioactive products of PP that exert such results are yet to be discovered. To determine and elucidate the mechanism of action of one of these compounds, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the novel dimeric ArC2 compound, Pellucidin A by using in vivo and in silico models. Animals were then subjected to chemical, biphasic and thermal models of pain. Pellucidin A induced an antinociceptive effect against chemical-induced pain in mice, demonstrated by the decrease of the number of writhes, reaching a reduction of 43% and 65% in animals treated with 1 and 5 mg/kg of Pellucidin A, respectively. In the biphasic response (central and peripheral), animals treated with Pellucidin A showed a significant reduction of the licking time exclusively during the second phase (inflammatory phase). In the hot-plate test, Pellucidin A did not have any impact on the latency time of the treated animals. Moreover, in vivo and in silico results show that Pellucidin A's mechanism of action in the inflammatory pain occurs most likely through interaction with the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Our results demonstrate that the antinociceptive activities of Pellucidin A operate under mechanism(s) of peripheral action, involving inflammatory mediators. This work provides insightful novel evidence of the biological properties of Pellucidin A, and leads to a better understanding of its mechanism of action, pointing to potential pharmacological use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Ciclobutanos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Peperomia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 120-121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969016

RESUMO

This case describes the prolonged treatment of a 38-year-old man with a transpelvic gunshot wound requiring a diverting ostomy and cystostomy for damage control procedures with a comminuted acetabular and femoral head fracture. The team used a ketamine drip for prolonged field care over 48 hours. The benefit of using a ketamine drip included low supply requirement, excellent analgesia, and ease of administration, but side-effects included somnolence and atelectasis necessitating oxygen supplementation before evacuation.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
11.
Toxicon ; 187: 82-85, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891662

RESUMO

Snakebite envenomation is a global health crisis and is classified as a Category A neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). Snakebite envenomations account for a significant amount of morbidity and morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, publications have illustrated the potential for snake envenomations causing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a significant number of patients. Ketamine is on the WHO's list of essential medications and is used for a variety of pharmacologic applications including anesthesia and acute pain management. To date it has not been assessed for pain control in snakebite envenomations. Twelve patients who presented with severe pain secondary to Bitis, Causus, and Atractaspis envenomations were treated with low-dose intravenous ketamine. The patients included 7 males and 5 females with a median age of 37.5 (range 14-64) and a median presentation time of 5.75 h (range 5 min-96 h) after the initial bite occurred. Ten envenomations were presumed to have been caused by Bitis species resulting in extensive swelling and blistering of the affected extremities. One envenomation was presumedC. maculatus causing local swelling and pain. One envenomation was a presumed Atractaspis species causing significant local pain with minimal swelling. All patients expressed having significant pain but could not express the degree of their pain using an analogue pain scale. An initial median dose of 5 mg of ketamine (range 2.5-15 mg) was administered intravenously for pain control. Every patient expressed decreased pain and felt more comfortable within 1 min after administration of ketamine. Nine of the twelve patients only required a single dose. There were no adverse side effects. Ketamine appears to be an effective means of pain control for those suffering from painful envenomations. With minimal risk of significant side effects at acute pain management doses and the average cost per effective dose averaging between US$0.03-0.06, this may provide a cheap, safe, and effective solution for Sub-saharan Africa and other resource-limited settings. Controlled studies need to be done to critically assess our observations.


Assuntos
Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Animais , Antivenenos , Feminino , Guiné , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Viperidae
12.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(10): 404-405, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972488

RESUMO

Through the use of opiate analgesia, it is possible to alter perceptions of pain, but equally, these same drugs have the potential to cause other profound consequences. Long before the COVID-19 pandemic began to impact societies worldwide, many developed nations (and particularly the United States) were caught up in a struggle to contain the consequences of opioid use, which has directly contributed to numerous deaths and ongoing disability for many others.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Epidemia de Opioides , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estados Unidos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22264, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, which can lead to joint destruction, dysfunction, finally deformity. Currently, Western medicine treats it with disease-modifying antireheumatic drugs, NSAIDs, glucocorticoid, biological agents, etc, which can induce adverse drug reactions. And now, as an important mean of treating RA, Zhuang medicine has been widely used in clinics, and has achieved significant efficacy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched for relevant information before July 2020: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. MAJOR RESULTS: levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Rheumatoid factor. Secondary results: morning stiffness time, range of motion, arthralgia, joint tenderness index, joint swelling index, total effective rate, adverse event. Data will be collected independently by 2 researchers, and the risk of bias in meta analysis will be evaluated according to "Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions". All data analysis will be conducted using Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The curative effect and safety of traditional therapies of Zhuang Medicine treatment for RA patients will be evaluated systematically. CONCLUSION: The systematic review of this study will summarize the currently published evidence of traditional therapies of Zhuang Medicine treatment for RA to further guide its promotion and application.Open Science Framework (OSF) registration number: https://osf.io/c4xv3/.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Artralgia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Artropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Artropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S283-S294, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common complication associated with epidural steroid injections (ESIs). However, the effect of different doses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the differences in the duration of HPA suppression following treatment with different doses of ESI; triamcinolone acetate (TA) 40 mg and TA 20 mg. The secondary objectives were to compare the extent of salivary cortisol (SC) reduction, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency (AI), and the differences in a numeric rating scale (NRS) depending on the varying levels of TA dose used for ESI. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Pain clinics in a university hospital. METHODS: The patients were treated with TA epidurally and divided into 2 groups (T20 and T40) depending on the dose of TA (20 mg and 40 mg). The SC concentration was measured before and after ESI to calculate the duration of HPA axis suppression, the extent of SC concentration reduction, and the SC recovery rate. Additionally, NRS and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests were used. RESULTS: Thirty patients were analyzed. The T40 group showed longer HPA suppression (19.7 ± 3.1 days) compared with that of the T20 group (8.0 ± 2.4 days). The recovery rate of the T40 group was lower than that of the T20 group (P < 0.015). However, there was no difference in the extent of reduction in SC concentration after ESI, the occurrence of AI, and pain reduction. LIMITATIONS: There were selection bias and no placebo control. CONCLUSIONS: Although the difference in pain relief according to the ESI dose is not significant, the HPA suppression is prolonged with a higher dose than a lower dose, and the recovery is slower. Therefore, the time interval between consecutive ESIs should be adjusted depending on the steroid dose to ameliorate the adverse effects of steroids.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Saliva/química , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona/efeitos adversos
15.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955494

RESUMO

The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a thermosensitive cation channel, is known to trigger pain in the peripheral nerves. In addition to its peripheral function, its involvement in brain functions has also been suggested. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist, has been known to induce long-term desensitization of TRPV1, and this desensitization has been an alternative approach for investigating the physiological relevance of TRPV1-expressing cells. Here we describe a protocol for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) treatment with RTX in mice. Procedures are described for testing nociception to peripheral TRPV1 stimulation (RTX test) and mechanical stimulation (tail pressure test) then follow. Although the nociceptive responses of mice that had been administered RTX i.c.v. were comparable to those of the control groups, RTX-i.c.v.-administered mice were insensitive to the analgesic effect of acetaminophen, suggesting that i.c.v. RTX treatment can induce supraspinal-selective TRPV1 desensitization. This mouse model can be used as a convenient experimental system for studying the role of TRPV1 in brain/supraspinal function. These techniques can also be applied to studies of the central actions of other drugs.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Cerebrais , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Medição da Dor , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/agonistas
17.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 386-388, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788221

RESUMO

In the past 50 years, scientists have made considerable strides toward understanding how opioids act. This special issue of Molecular Pharmacology celebrates these 50 years of opioid research and the role that the International Narcotics Research Conference has played in driving this research, by bringing together review and original research articles that present historical highlights, the current state of the art, and perspectives on the future of opioid research. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Opioids have been used for thousands of years to manage pain and cause euphoria, but their use has been highly limited due to serious side effects. Deciphering the mechanisms of how opioids mediate beneficial and adverse physiological outcomes is essential for developing better treatments for pain and for opioid addiction.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/síntese química , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Pesquisa Biomédica , Congressos como Assunto , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007789, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute soft tissue injuries are common and costly. The best drug treatment for such injuries is not certain, although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often recommended. There is concern about the use of oral opioids for acute pain leading to dependence. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits or harms of NSAIDs compared with other oral analgesics for treating acute soft tissue injuries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL, 2020 Issue 1, MEDLINE (from 1946), and Embase (from 1980) to January 2020; other databases were searched to February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving people with acute soft tissue injury (sprain, strain, or contusion of a joint, ligament, tendon, or muscle occurring within 48 hours of inclusion in the study), and comparing oral NSAIDs versus paracetamol (acetaminophen), opioid, paracetamol plus opioid, or complementary and alternative medicine. The outcomes were pain, swelling, function, adverse effects, and early re-injury. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 20 studies, with 3305 participants. Three studies included children only. The others included predominantly young adults; approximately 60% were male. Seven studies recruited people with ankle sprains only. Most studies were at low or unclear risk of bias; however, two were at high risk of selection bias, three were at high risk of bias from lack of blinding, and five were at high risk of selective outcome reporting bias. Some evidence relating to pain relief was high certainty. Other evidence was either moderate, low or very low certainty, reflecting study limitations, indirectness, imprecision, or combinations of these. Thus, we are certain or moderately certain about some of the estimates, and uncertain or very uncertain of others. Eleven studies, involving 1853 participants compared NSAIDs with paracetamol. There were no differences between the two groups in pain at one to two hours (1178 participants, 6 studies; high-certainty evidence), at days one to three (1232 participants, 6 studies; high-certainty evidence), and at day seven or later (467 participants, 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). There was little difference between the groups in numbers of participants with minimal swelling at day seven or later (77 participants, 1 study; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence from three studies (386 participants) means we are uncertain of the finding of little difference between the two groups in return to function at day seven or later. There was low-certainty evidence from 10 studies (1504 participants) that NSAIDs may slightly increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events compared with paracetamol. There was low-certainty evidence from nine studies (1679 participants) of little difference in neurological adverse events between the NSAID and paracetamol groups. Six studies, involving 1212 participants compared NSAIDs with opioids. There was moderate-certainty evidence of no difference between the groups in pain at one hour (1058 participants, 4 studies), and low-certainty evidence for no difference in pain at days four or seven (706 participants, 1 study). There was very low-certainty evidence of no important difference between the groups in swelling (84 participants, 1 study). Participants in the NSAIDs group were more likely to return to function in 7 to 10 days (542 participants, 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). There was moderate-certainty evidence (1143 participants, 5 studies) that NSAIDs were less likely to result in gastrointestinal or neurological adverse events compared with opioids. Four studies, involving 240 participants, compared NSAIDs with the combination of paracetamol and an opioid. The applicability of findings from these studies is in question because the dextropropoxyphene combination analgesic agents used are no longer in general use. Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain of the findings of no differences between the two interventions in the numbers with little or no pain at day one (51 participants, 1 study), day three (149 participants, 2 studies), or day seven (138 participants, 2 studies); swelling (230 participants, 3 studies); return to function at day seven (89 participants, 1 study); and the risk of gastrointestinal or neurological adverse events (141 participants, 3 studies). No studies reported re-injury rates. No studies compared NSAIDs with oral complementary and alternative medicines, AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared with paracetamol, NSAIDs make no difference to pain at one to two hours and at two to three days, and may make no difference at day seven or beyond. NSAIDs may result in a small increase in gastrointestinal adverse events and may make no difference in neurological adverse events compared with paracetamol. Compared with opioids, NSAIDs probably make no difference to pain at one hour, and may make no difference at days four or seven. NSAIDs probably result in fewer gastrointestinal and neurological adverse effects compared with opioids. The very low-certainly evidence for all outcomes for the NSAIDs versus paracetamol with opioid combination analgesics means we are uncertain of the findings of no differences in pain or adverse effects. The current evidence should not be extrapolated to adults older than 65 years, as this group was not well represented in the studies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Contusões/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Entorses e Distensões/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Adulto , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(9): 1474-1485, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased mortality. Previous interventions targeting reduced intravenous opioid (IVOPI) exposure for all patients admitted to a general medical unit have decreased total opioid use without compromising pain control. We therefore performed a prospective evaluation of a multimodal intervention encouraging the use of nonopioid alternatives to reduce IVOPI exposure among patients with IBD hospitalized at our institution. METHODS: This was a prospective evaluation of a multimodal intervention to reduce IVOPI use among patients with IBD aged ≥18 years admitted to a general medical unit at a large urban academic medical center from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Intravenous and total (all routes) opioid exposures were measured as proportions and intravenous morphine milligram equivalents/patient day and compared with preintervention (January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018) data. Hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rates (RRs), and pain scores (1-10 scale) were also assessed. RESULTS: Our study involved 345 patients with IBD with similar baseline characteristics in preintervention (n = 241) and intervention (n = 104) periods. Between study periods, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of patients receiving IVOPIs (43.6% vs 30.8%, P = 0.03) and total opioid dose exposure (15.6 vs 8.5 intravenous morphine mg equivalents/d, P = 0.02). We observed similar mean pain scores (3.9 vs 3.7, P = 0.55) and significantly reduced mean LOS (7.2 vs 5.3 days, P = 0.03) and 30-day RRs (21.6% vs 11.5%, P = 0.03). DISCUSSION: A multimodal intervention was associated with reduced opioid exposure, LOS, and 30-day RRs for hospitalized patients with IBD. Additional research is needed to determine long-term benefits of reduced opioid exposure in this population.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Readmissão do Paciente
20.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(10): 750-760, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735783

RESUMO

Background Increasing numbers of neonates are undergoing painful procedures in low-income and middle-income countries, with adequate analgesia seldom used. In collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team in Kenya, we aimed to establish the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of routine procedure-related neonatal pain that consider low-resource hospital settings. METHODS: We did a systematic review by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases for studies published from Jan 1, 1953, to March 31, 2019. We included data from randomised controlled trials using heart rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score, neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS) score, neonatal facial coding system score, and douleur aiguë du nouveau-né scale score as pain outcome measures. We excluded studies in which neonates were undergoing circumcision or were intubated, studies from which data were unextractable, or when pain was scored by non-trained individuals. We did a narrative synthesis of all studies, and meta-analysis when data were available from multiple studies comparing the same analgesics and controls and using the same outcome measures. 17 Kenyan health-care professionals formed our clinical guideline development panel, and we used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework and the panel's knowledge of the local health-care context to guide the guideline development process. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019126620. FINDINGS: Of 2782 studies assessed for eligibility, data from 149 (5%) were analysed, with 80 (3%) of these further contributing to our meta-analysis. We found a high level of certainty for the superiority of breastfeeding over placebo or no intervention (standardised mean differences [SMDs] were -1·40 [95% CI -1·96 to -0·84] in PIPP score and -2·20 [-2·91 to -1·48] in NIPS score), and the superiority of oral sugar solutions over placebo or no intervention (SMDs were -0·38 [-0·61 to -0·16] in heart rate and 0·23 [0·04 to 0·42] in SpO2). We found a moderate level of certainty for the superiority for expressed breastmilk over placebo or no intervention (SMDs were -0·46 [95% CI -0·87 to -0·05] in heart rate and 0·48 [0·20 to 0·75] in SpO2). Therefore, the panel recommended that breastfeeding should be given as first-line analgesic treatment, initiated at least 2 min pre-procedure. Given contextual factors, for neonates who are unable to breastfeed, 1-2 mL of expressed breastmilk should be given as first-line analgesic, or 1-2 mL of oral sugar (≥10% concentration) as second-line analgesic. The panel also recommended parental presence during procedures with adjunctive provision of skin-to-skin care, or non-nutritive sucking when possible. INTERPRETATION: We have generated Kenya's first neonatal analgesic guidelines for routine procedures, which have been adopted by the Kenyan Ministry of Health, and have shown a framework for clinical guideline development that is applicable to other low-income and middle-income health-care settings. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Research Programme, and the Africa-Oxford Initiative.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Método Canguru/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Punções/efeitos adversos
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