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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 1-16, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541693

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as both production and companion animals in the United States. Among sheep, goats, and camelids, there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. This review focuses on the commonly used medications available for pain management of small ruminants and discusses the benefits and negative aspects of their use.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cabras , Ovinos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 17-31, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541697

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as production and companion animals in the United States, and among sheep, goats, and camelids there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. In this second portion of the review, we focus on the application of pain management in these species. These strategies include mono- and multimodal and the use of precision pain management, such as epidural drug administration, regional perfusions, and transdermal applications.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Cabras , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Estados Unidos
3.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 482-487, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151116

RESUMO

Pain recognition and treatment in companion animals are important aspects of veterinary medicine, yet the teaching of these concepts may not be adequate at all academic institutions. This study was designed to evaluate veterinary students' ability to recall signs of pain and specific analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. We hypothesized that students in the fourth, or final, year of their veterinary curriculum would have a better understanding of pain recognition and be able to recall more analgesic options. A brief, voluntary, and anonymous open question survey was made available to all veterinary students, years 1 to 4, at our institution. The questions included, "How does a cat/dog show signs of pain?" and "What pain medications are used in cats/dogs?" Survey responses were collated according to the students' year in the curriculum, and the most common responses for signs of pain and analgesic medications recalled by the students in both the cat and dog were compared for significant differences. Results showed that students in the class of 2017 (seniors) had no superior recall of analgesic medications or recognition of pain in cats or dogs compared to the other classes. Vocalization was the most common sign of pain recalled with at least 50% responses from all classes. Carprofen was the most commonly recalled analgesic for dogs (the difference between classes, p = .04). Meloxicam was the most commonly recalled analgesic for cats (the difference among classes, p < .001). Based on these results, areas of improvement were identified for our analgesic curriculum.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Educação em Veterinária , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Estudantes
4.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): E36-E161, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715504

RESUMO

Dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases are some of the most common problems in small animal veterinary practice. These conditions create significant pain as well as localized and potentially systemic infection. As such, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) believes that un- and under treated oral and dental diseases pose a significant animal welfare concern. Dentistry is an area of veterinary medicine which is still widely ignored and is subject to many myths and misconceptions. Effective teaching of veterinary dentistry in the veterinary school is the key to progression in this field of veterinary medicine, and to the improvement of welfare for all our patients globally. These guidelines were developed to provide veterinarians with the information required to understand best practices for dental therapy and create realistic minimum standards of care. Using the three-tiered continuing education system of WSAVA, the guidelines make global equipment and therapeutic recommendations and highlight the anaesthetic and welfare requirements for small animal patients. This document contains information on common oral and dental pathologies, diagnostic procedures (an easily implementable and repeatable scoring system for dental health, dental radiography and radiology) and treatments (periodontal therapy, extractions). Further, there are sections on anaesthesia and pain management for dental procedures, home dental care, nutritional information, and recommendations on the role of the universities in improving veterinary dentistry. A discussion of the deleterious effects of anaesthesia free dentistry (AFD) is included, as this procedure is ineffective at best and damaging at worst. Throughout the document the negative effects of undiagnosed and/or treated dental disease on the health and well-being of our patients, and how this equates to an animal welfare issue, is discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Universidades
6.
Vet J ; 259-260: 105471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553233

RESUMO

The neurotransmitter Substance P, and its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the regulation of many pathophysiological processes including emesis, inflammation and nociceptive processing. This review provides a brief summary of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of experimental NK-1R antagonists followed by a systematic review and meta-analysis on maropitant, the only NK-1R antagonist with a label indication for emesis in veterinary patients. There is very limited evidence based information on the putative clinical utilisation of maropitant for pain and inflammation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate published reports on anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anaesthesia-sparing effects of maropitant. Medline, Pubmed, Science direct and Web of Science were searched to identify all published studies on maropitant, followed by a meta-analysis. Fourteen studies with 128 animals receiving maropitant and 127 controls met the inclusion criteria. Overall, maropitant had a significant inhalation anaesthetic-sparing effect (SMD -0.92, 95% CI -1.30, -0.54; P < 0.00001). However, treatment with maropitant had no effect on pain (SMD 0.06, 95% CI -0.37, 0.48; P = 0.80), or leukocyte cell infiltration in different inflammatory conditions (SMD -0.60, 95% CI -1.31, 0.11; P = 0.10). Based on all eligible studies for this review, it can be deduced that maropitant significantly reduced the minimum alveolar concentrations for isoflurane and sevoflurane for many different surgical procedures but it had no clearly proven effect on inflammation and pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0221377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352960

RESUMO

A composite pain scale for assessing and quantifying pain in rabbits (CANCRS) has been designed merging the Rabbit Grimace Scale (RbtGS) and a scale including clinical parameters (CPS). Construct validity and inter-rater reliability were assessed for CANCRS, for RbtGS and for CPS, in order to test their potential to detect pain in a clinical setting. Rabbits (n = 116) were either hybrids or purebreds and they were independently evaluated by two raters, who could be veterinarians (V) or veterinary medicine students (S). Score intervals determined four pain classes (No pain, Discomfort, Moderate pain and Severe pain) that matched presumptive pain classes associated with some pathological conditions. A chi-square test was used to assess the construct validity of the scales by checking how frequently scale results and presumptive pain classes matched. Sixty-nine patients were evaluated by one V and one S, whereas forty-seven rabbits were assessed by two V, in order to test inter-rater reliability. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test reliability of the scales, whereas Cohen's kappa tested inter-rater agreement for each parameter of the CANCRS. Construct validity results show that CANCRS and RbtGS efficiently reveal pain (P ≤ 0.05), while CPS does not (p > 0.05). Inter-rater reliability was very good for both CANCRS and CPS (ICC 0.88 V-V, 0.94 between V-S; ICC 0.97 V-V, 0.91 V-S) and good for RbtGS (ICC 0.77 V-V, 0.88 V-S); therefore, CPS reproducibility was better between veterinarians and students than between veterinarians. Inter-rater agreement between veterinarians and veterinary medicine students was moderate to very good for all the parameters included in the CANCRS (Cohen's kappa >0,60). In conclusion, it is possible to state that the CANCRS has construct validity and it is a reliable tool for use in clinical practice, when coping with many rabbits with morphological differences. It is easy and fast to use and enriches the RbtGS with some clinical parameters that should be monitored during any clinical examination, allowing for capture of the multidimensional aspect of pain.


Assuntos
Dor/veterinária , Coelhos/fisiologia , Animais , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Medição da Dor/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
9.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(4): 749-767, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354487

RESUMO

Cats have unique anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral considerations that may influence analgesia and pain management. They present specific challenges that require an individualized, feline-specific approach. This article presents an overview of recent advances in feline pain management and their differences in relation to other species and evolves on its future challenges. The main specific anatomy and physiology of the cat and how it may affect analgesia is discussed. Validated pain assessment tools including the UNESP-Botucatu Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale, Glasgow Feline Composite Measure Pain Scale, and the Feline Grimace Scale are summarized.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal , Gatos/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(4): 769-788, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354489

RESUMO

This article reviews the current knowledge regarding osteoarthritis-related pain in cats as a structure in which to discuss the assessment of chronic pain in the research and clinical settings. The scientific evidence available for current and emerging drug therapies is described. The importance of environmental enrichment and positive emotions to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety as means to promote feline welfare and human-pet bond is discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia
12.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 471-478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows. ANIMALS: 15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows. PROCEDURES: In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days. RESULTS: For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Modelos Teóricos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230079, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142538

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of two dosage regimens using two different concentrations of buprenorphine in cats undergoing dental extractions. Twenty-three cats with oral disease (8.2 ± 2.2 years old; 4.9 ± 0.9 kg) were included in a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial. Cats randomly received either Simbadol (1.8 mg/mL; 0.24 mg/kg, subcutaneously, every 24h: SG, n = 11) or Vetergesic (0.3 mg/mL; 0.02 mg/kg, intramuscularly, every 8h: VG, n = 12) throughout the study. They were admitted at day 0, underwent oral examination/radiographs/treatment under general anesthesia (buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane-meloxicam-local anesthetic blocks) at day 1 and discharged at day 4. Sedation and pain were scored using the dynamic interactive visual analog scale (day 1) and the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale-Feline (CMPS-F; up to postoperative 8 hours at day 1, 8 am, 4 pm and midnight at days 2 and 3, and 8 am at day 4), respectively. Rescue analgesia was administered with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 or 0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly after day 2) when CMPS-F ≥ 5. Resentment defined as any type of escape behavior associated with aversion to drug administration was recorded. Sedation and pain scores, the prevalence of rescue analgesia and resentment during drug administration were analyzed using linear mixed models and Fisher's exact test, respectively (p < 0.05). Pain and sedation scores were not significantly different between groups. Sedation scores were significantly higher up to postoperative 2 hours in both groups. Pain scores in SG and VG were significantly higher up to postoperative 8 hours and 8 am of day 2, respectively, than baseline. Prevalence of rescue analgesia and resentment were not significantly different between groups (SG: 27.3%, VG: 33.3% and SG: 0%, VG: 25%, respectively). Simbadol produced similar analgesic effects to Vetergesic without resentment during drug administration.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Dor/patologia , Animais , Gatos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Dor/veterinária , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Extração Dentária
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182261

RESUMO

Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line survey, we asked both the general public and veterinarians to rate pain sensitivity in 28 different dog breeds, identified only by their pictures. We found that both the general public and veterinarians rated smaller dogs (i.e. based on height and weight) as being more sensitive to pain; the general public respondents rated breeds associated with breed specific legislation as having lower pain sensitivity. While there is currently no known physiological basis for such breed-level differences, over 90% of respondents from both groups indicated belief in differences in pain sensitivity among dog breeds. We discuss how these results inform theories of human social discrimination and suggest that the perception of breed-level differences in pain sensitivity may affect the recognition and management of painful conditions in dogs.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/diagnóstico , Manejo da Dor , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(5): 267-271, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201945

RESUMO

This is the fourth Capsule review article provided by the WSAVA Global Pain Council and which discusses the use of ice or cold therapy as a non-pharmacologic modality for pain control in small animal practice. The physiological effects of cold therapy on tissues, receptors and ion channels are discussed; as well as indications, recommendations for, and limitations of use.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/veterinária , Gelo , Animais , Dor/veterinária , Manejo da Dor/veterinária
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 91, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine otitis externa is a painful condition which can be challenging to treat due to difficulties in the administration of otic medication. This can be due to lack of owner compliance in the application of ear drops or due to the resentment that some dogs demonstrate when attempts are made to administer topical medication into a sensitive ear canal. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a topical LED-illuminated gel (LIG) in canine otitis externa in comparison to standard of care therapy. Dogs with spontaneous otitis externa were randomly allocated in three groups: groups QW received LIG once weekly; BW received LIG twice weekly; group C received enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine twice daily. LIG consists of a topical application of a gel containing chromophores that, when illuminated by a LED lamp, re-emit fluorescent light which can stimulate physiological responses, promoting healing and controlling bacteria. The evaluation protocol (T0 to T5) considered clinical assessment (OTIS-3-index-scoring-system; pruritus-severity-scale; pain-severity-score; aural temperature), cytological scoring system, quali-quantitative bacteriologic assessment. RESULTS: All groups (QW, n = 21; BW, n = 23; C, n = 20) showed improvement during the study (QW: P < 0.02 for cytological and pain scores, P < 0.003 for bacteriologic assessment, P < 10- 4 for pruritus, total OTIS-3 and temperature assessments; BW: P < 10- 4 for all clinical, cytological and bacteriologic assessments; C: P < 0.02 for all clinical and cytological assessments, P < 10- 4 for bacteriologic assessment). The highest clinical score reduction occurred in Group BW (P < 0.014 in T3; P < 0.001 in T4 and P < 10- 4 in T5). BW reached the clinically relevant effect level at T3 (- 3.26 ± 1.21 levels), QW reached it at T4 (- 3.24 ± 0.99), C did not reach it. No differences between groups were seen in the reduction of CFU/mL (T0-T5). CONCLUSIONS: All treatment groups showed a positive clinical effect. LIG administered twice-a-week was the most favourable protocol of the study. LIG may be considered beneficial in the management of canine otitis externa; it seems to be effective in controlling the clinical condition, including the signs of inflammation and local pain, the bacterial growth, and it may help increasing treatment compliance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/terapia , Géis/efeitos da radiação , Otite Externa/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cães , Enrofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluorescência , Masculino , Otite Externa/terapia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/veterinária , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico
17.
Can Vet J ; 61(3): 289-293, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165753

RESUMO

This pilot study evaluated the short-term analgesic effect of oral tapentadol hydrochloride (tapentadol) in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness secondary to naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Baseline data including pharmacodynamic parameters, sedation scores, lameness scores, and objective gait analyses were collected. Tapentadol was administered orally (30 mg/kg body weight). Four hours following administration of tapentadol all data were collected again. Plasma concentrations of tapentadol 4 hours after administration were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No significant side effects were noted. All dogs had measurable plasma concentrations of tapentadol (mean concentration: 18.9 ng/mL). There were no significant differences in pharmacodynamic parameters or sedation over time. Subjective lameness scores were significantly lower than baseline at 4 hours post-drug administration. No significant improvement was seen in objective gait analysis. Further studies are needed to assess dosing regimens which may lead to effective treatment of acute pain and long-term use.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Cães , Dor/veterinária , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Tapentadol
18.
Can Vet J ; 61(3): 294-300, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165754

RESUMO

A prospective, observational, cross-sectional study documenting the prevalence of pain in dogs presented to the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital and their handling (times to triage, examination, treatment) was conducted. Pain was assessed and compared using a validated and an unvalidated pain assessment scale. Sedation was monitored using a validated scale. A first evaluation was completed in 109 dogs. A second evaluation was completed for 95 dogs: 36 (38%) were identified as painful and 53% (19/36) were provided analgesia in the clinic. The remainder either did not receive analgesia (6/36, 17%) or were prescribed an analgesic for administration at home (11/36, 31%). Of dogs receiving analgesia in the clinic, most showed a decrease in pain score (15/19, 79%). Pain assessment scales were positively correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) but the unvalidated scale was insensitive in discriminating changes. Between painful and non-painful dogs, progression did not differ: admission to treatment [P = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): -23 to 22 minutes] and examination to treatment (P = 0.73, 95% CI: 14 to 20 minutes). Suboptimal analgesic use suggests focused training in pain assessment and analgesic use guided by a validated pain assessment scale, is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 336-345, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162431

RESUMO

Foot pain is a common presenting complaint in Warmblood horses. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the spectrum of foot lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Warmblood horses used for dressage, jumping, and eventing. The medical records of 550 Warmblood horses with foot pain that were scanned using standing MRI were reviewed and the following data were recorded: signalment, occupation, lameness, diagnostic analgesia, imaging results, treatments, and follow-up assessments. Associations between standing MRI lesions and chronic lameness following treatment were tested. Abnormalities of the navicular bone (409 horses, 74%), distal interphalangeal joint (362 horses, 65%), and deep digital flexor (DDF) tendon (260 horses, 47%) occurred with the highest frequency. The following abnormalities were significantly associated (P < .05) with chronic lameness following conservative therapy: moderate to severe MRI lesions in the trabecular bone of the navicular bone, mild or severe erosions of the flexor surface of the navicular bone, moderate sagittal/parasagittal DDF tendinopathies, and moderate collateral sesamoidean desmopathies. Also, identification of concurrent lesions of the DDF tendon, navicular bone, navicular bursa, and distal sesamoidean impar ligament was associated with chronic lameness after conservative therapy. Development of effective treatment options for foot lesions that respond poorly to conservative therapy is necessary.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Bolsa Sinovial , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/patologia , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/patologia , Dor/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Tarso/patologia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/patologia
20.
Aust Vet J ; 98(6): 256-263, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a critical need for safe and effective analgesic treatments to address pain resulting from surgical husbandry procedures in livestock. Piglet castration results in acute pain and stress to the animal; however, it is performed globally on millions of piglets annually, often without any analgesia what-so-ever. Tri-Solfen® (Animal Ethics Pty Ltd, Yarra Glen, Victoria, Australia) is a combination local anaesthetic and antiseptic formulation which, applied topically to wounds, has proven effective, and is registered for use to alleviate pain associated with castration (and other wounds) in lambs and calves in Australia and New Zealand. It is also reported to be effective to reduce pain in piglets following castration. DESIGN: This randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled study examined the safety and efficacy of the formulation, administered via an adapted wound instillation method, to control pain both during and following piglet castration. METHOD: Piglets received Tri-Solfen or placebo, instilled to the wound immediately following skin incision. A 30 s wait period was then observed prior to completing castration. Pain mitigation was assessed by grading nociceptive resistance movements and piglet vocal response during castration, as well as by grading response to mechanical sensory stimulation of the wound (von Frey and needlestick) following castration. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in nociceptive motor and vocal response during castration and in response to mechanical sensory wound stimulation up to and including 2 h following castration. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administered via this method, Tri-Solfen is effective to mitigate acute peri-operative castration pain in piglets.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Suínos , Vitória
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