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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 13-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657050

RESUMO

Primary care guidelines provide a reference point to guide clinicians based on a systematic review of the literature, contextualised by expert clinical opinion. These guidelines develop a modification of the GRADE framework for assessment of research evidence (vetGRADE) and applied this to a range of clinical scenarios regarding use of analgesic agents. Key guidelines produced by the panel included recommendations that horses undergoing routine castration should receive intratesticular local anaesthesia irrespective of methods adopted and that horses should receive NSAIDs prior to surgery (overall certainty levels high). Butorphanol and buprenorphine should not be considered appropriate as sole analgesic for such procedures (high certainty). The panel recommend the continuation of analgesia for 3 days following castration (moderate certainty) and conclude that phenylbutazone provided superior analgesia to meloxicam and firocoxib for hoof pain/laminitis (moderate certainty), but that enhanced efficacy has not been demonstrated for joint pain. In horses with colic, flunixin and firocoxib are considered to provide more effective analgesia than meloxicam or phenylbutazone (moderate certainty). Given the risk of adverse events of all classes of analgesic, these agents should be used only under the control of a veterinary surgeon who has fully evaluated a horse and developed a therapeutic, analgesic plan that includes ongoing monitoring for such adverse events such as the development of right dorsal colitis with all classes of NSAID and spontaneous locomotor activity and potentially ileus with opiates. Finally, the panel call for the development of a single properly validated composite pain score for horses to allow accurate comparisons between medications in a robust manner.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Cavalos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 981-991, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581985

RESUMO

Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for canine and human solid cancers. Alarmingly, evidence suggests that the process of surgery may exacerbate metastasis and accelerate the kinetics of cancer progression. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer progression is accelerated as a result of surgery may provide pharmacologic interventions. This review discusses surgery-induced cancer progression. It focuses on immunomodulatory properties of anesthesia and opioids and evidence that studies evaluating the role of opioids in tumor progression are indicated. It concludes by discussing why companion animals with spontaneously arising cancer are an ideal model for clinical trials to investigate this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Cães , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Neoplasias/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária
3.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 993-1011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519356

RESUMO

This article reviews the mechanisms of action, clinical use, and recent scientific evidence for the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, grapiprant, acetaminophen (paracetamol), metamizole (dipyrone), and corticosteroids in pain management. The discussion is presented with an emphasis on the treatment of acute pain.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dipirona/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 155-163, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494378

RESUMO

A score system was used to evaluate pain, distress and discomfort in healthy pigs and pigs with two different diseases: lameness and rectal prolapse. In addition, correlations between the results of this score and a panel of salivary biomarkers and severity of disease were studied. This panel included biomarkers of stress (cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total esterase activity (TEA), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipase (Lip)), immunity (adenosine deaminase isozymes 1 (ADA1) and 2 (ADA2)) and oxidative status (uric acid (UA), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of saliva (FRAS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)). Based on their score, diseased animals were subdivided in those without and with evident pain. Lame pigs and prolapsed pigs with pain showed higher salivary levels of cortisol, sAA, TEA, BChE, ADA1 and ADA2 compared with the healthy pigs. In addition, the prolapsed pigs with pain showed higher levels of FRAS, AOPP and H2O2 compared with the healthy animals. Salivary cortisol, TEA, BChE, ADA isozymes 1 and 2, FRAS and AOPP correlated with the pain score. This five-point pain score system can be easily applied to lame and prolapsed pigs, and salivary biomarkers could be used as an additional tool for pain assessment in those pigs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Prolapso Retal/veterinária , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Masculino , Dor/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/métodos , Prolapso Retal/fisiopatologia , Saliva/química , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suínos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 1013-1027, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481257

RESUMO

Alpha-2 agonists have potent analgesic effects, in addition to their sedative actions. Alpha-2 agonists provide analgesia through any of several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, epidural or intrathecal and intraarticular, because of spinal and supraspinal actions. Systemic doses are short acting, whereas local administration at the site of action result in longer analgesic effects. The potent cardiovascular and respiratory effects of alpha-2 agonists should be considered when used as analgesics.


Assuntos
Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10152-10162, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477294

RESUMO

Hot-iron disbudding in goat kids causes acute pain and tissue damage. However, the duration of healing and wound sensitivity is unknown. We assessed wound healing and pain sensitivity in 18 female dairy goat kids disbudded with a heated iron at 10 d of age (range: 5-15 d). Pressure algometry was carried out twice a week from d 1 after disbudding to determine the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) in 4 locations on each bud (front, lateral, caudal, and middle). At the same time, digital and infrared images of the wounds were used to visually and thermally describe the healing process. Wounds were visually scored daily for the presence of 7 tissue types: attached necrotic tissue, detached necrotic tissue, burns outside the necrotic ring, exudate, granulation, crust, and epithelium. All data were taken until epithelium was present for 4 consecutive days. Necrotic tissue detached completely from the scalp 26 ± 5 d after the procedure (mean ± SD; range: 17-43 d), and wounds took 50 ± 8 d (35-63 d) to re-epithelialize. Wounds were more sensitive at all stages of the healing process compared with re-epithelialized tissue. The caudal and middle locations were the most- and least-sensitive test sites (1.24 ± 0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.10 N, respectively; mean ± SE). Goats became less responsive to stimulation as their wounds decreased in size. Sensitivity did not differ between left and right sides of the head. Maximum surface temperature of necrotic tissue, when present, tended to be higher than that of epithelium (38.8 ± 0.2 vs. 38.1 ± 0.2°C); temperature did not differ among other tissue types. Our results indicate that hot-iron disbudding wounds in goats take, on average 7, wk to re-epithelialize (35-63 d) and are painful throughout this time, raising additional welfare concerns about this procedure.


Assuntos
Cabras/fisiologia , Dor/veterinária , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cauterização/veterinária , Feminino , Cabras/cirurgia , Cornos/fisiologia , Cornos/cirurgia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Ferro , Limiar da Dor
7.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 1143-1156, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473030

RESUMO

Physical agent modalities can be effective in the perioperative period for controlling pain and inflammation. This article presents research-based evidence to support the use of these modalities in pain management and to reduce the use of pain medications, including opioids. The mechanism of action, applications, contraindications, and adverse effects of cryotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and laser therapy are reviewed. Incorporation of 1 or more of these therapies in anesthesia pain management protocols can improve outcomes and reduce potential drug side effects.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Assistência Perioperatória/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos
8.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 1127-1141, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474414

RESUMO

Adjuvant analgesics (ie, gabapentin, tramadol, and ketamine) are commonly used in small animal practice. Most of these drugs are prescribed for outpatients, when pain is refractory to classic analgesics (ie, local anesthetics, opioids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), or when contraindications exist to the administration of other analgesics, including NSAIDs. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, clinical use, potential adverse effects, and current evidence of adjuvant analgesics in the treatment of acute pain in companion animals. These drugs should be considered as alternatives aimed at reducing or replacing opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8410-8416, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301844

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether pain-related stress caused by disbudding could be detected using nonlinear measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-five female Holstein calves (4-7 wk of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) sham disbud (SHAM; n = 9), (2) disbud with lidocaine-meloxicam pain mitigation (MED; n = 8), or (3) disbud without pain mitigation (NoMED; n = 8). Heart rate variability (sample entropy, percentage determinism, percentage recurrence, or mean length of diagonal lines in a recurrence plot) was recorded on d -1, 0, 1, 3, and 5 relative to the experimental procedure, with disbudding taking place on d 0. The short-term detrended fluctuation analysis scaling exponent was greater in MED calves than in SHAM calves, indicating a greater stress response to the disbudding procedure regardless of pain mitigation. These results indicate that calves in the MED group may have experienced pain-related stress as a result of the disbudding procedure. The remaining nonlinear HRV measures did not differ by treatment. Future research on this topic should address additional potential confounding factors, such as the effect of pain-mitigating drugs on autonomic function or the influence of the autonomic nervous system on wound healing, that may prohibit HRV measurement as an indicator of disbudding pain severity.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cornos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
N Z Vet J ; 67(6): 295-305, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272290

RESUMO

Aims: To compare the effect of a topically applied anaesthetic to no pain relief or meloxicam on the behavioural responses, pain sensitivity and weight gain of calves following disbudding with or without sedation. Methods: A total of 364, 2-6 week-old calves from three commercial farms were systematically allocated to one of six treatment groups. All calves received a cornual nerve block prior to disbudding, with half restrained in a crate and half sedated with xylazine. Within these groups one third received no further treatment (control), one third were treated with meloxicam >10 minutes prior to disbudding and one third received a topical anaesthetic applied to the horn bud wounds following disbudding. The frequency of ear flicks, head shakes, head scratches and pain sensitivity of the wound were recorded on up to eight occasions over 24 hours after disbudding. Calves were weighed before, and 7 and 28 days after, disbudding to determine average daily weight gain (ADG). Results: Compared to calves in the crate-control group, all other groups had reduced ear flicks at all times following disbudding (p < 0.01). Treatment with meloxicam and topical anaesthesia in addition to sedation reduced head scratches compared to calves in the crate-control group (p ≤ 0.013). At 22 hours after disbudding head shakes were reduced in sedated calves treated with topical anaesthetic compared to calves in the crate-control group (p < 0.001). Pain sensitivity was lower in all sedated calves than unsedated calves (p < 0.001). The ADG between Days 0-7 was 0.14 (95% CI = 0.015-0.274) kg/day greater in sedated calves treated with meloxicam than calves in the crate-control group (p = 0.03), and the ADG between Days 0-28 tended to be 0.06 (95% CI=-0.01-0.13) kg/day greater in sedated calves treated with topical anaesthetic than calves in the crate-control group (p = 0.09). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Sedation of calves for disbudding reduced the pain experienced in the following 24 hours. There was a benefit to providing calves with topical anaesthetic following disbudding on behavioural responses and pain sensitivity, which was similar to that of treating calves with meloxicam.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cornos/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestesia Local/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/cirurgia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10163-10172, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155250

RESUMO

Hot-iron disbudding, the process of cauterizing the horn buds of calves or goat kids at an early age to prevent horn growth, is routinely practiced in dairy production. The wounds take weeks to heal and are painful to touch throughout this time. Possible strategies to hasten the healing of disbudding wounds are not well understood, but the type of iron used may be an important factor to consider. When evaluating strategies to hasten healing, a within-subjects design may be preferable, but laterality effects might act as a potential source of variation and confounding in this type of experiment. Our objectives were to compare healing after disbudding with 2 commercially available irons, and to determine whether wounds healed differently on the left versus the right side of the head. Ten Holstein calves 4 to 10 d of age were disbudded using the Rhinehart X50A electric disbudder (Rhinehart Development Corp., Spencerville, IN) on one horn bud and the Portasol gas disbudder (Portasol USA, Elmira, OR) on the other; side (left vs. right) was balanced between treatments. We scored wounds daily for the presence of 6 tissue types: attached necrotic tissue, detached necrotic tissue, exudate, granulation, crust, and epithelium. Surface temperature and size of the wound were measured twice-weekly using thermal and digital photographs, respectively. The type of iron used did not affect latency to re-epithelialize, which took on average (mean ± standard deviation) 53 ± 3 d and 55 ± 3 d for Portasol and Rhinehart wounds, respectively (range: 40-70 d). However, compared with Portasol wounds, those from the Rhinehart had fewer days of granulation tissue and tended to have more days of detached necrotic tissue. The Portasol tip had a smaller total surface area than the Rhinehart, which may have resulted in a less severe burn, causing the necrotic tissue to fall off sooner. The left side tended to re-epithelialize faster than the right side (mean ± standard error: left 51 ± 3 d; right 57 ± 3 d) and have fewer days of crust. Left-sided wounds were also cooler and tended to be smaller than those on the right. To assess the external validity of these laterality effects in our primary experiment (experiment A), we analyzed wound healing data from 2 other disbudding studies, one on calves (experiment B) and one on goat kids (experiment C). We observed laterality effects in the opposite direction in Experiment B, but negligible effects in experiment C, indicating that the differences in laterality had low external validity; the biological meaning of this asymmetry is unclear. Nonetheless, if using a within-subjects design, asymmetries in wound healing should be considered to avoid confounding effects. In conclusion, wounds from both irons took 7 to 8 wk to heal, on average; other strategies to accelerate healing should be explored.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Cabras/fisiologia , Dor/veterinária , Cicatrização , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos/cirurgia , Cauterização/instrumentação , Cauterização/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras/cirurgia , Cornos/fisiologia , Cornos/cirurgia , Temperatura Alta , Ferro , Limiar da Dor , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 538-547, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thermal antinociception from intravenous (IV) administration of hydromorphone alone or followed by butorphanol or naloxone in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, masked, crossover design. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult female cats. METHODS: Cats were administered six treatments of two IV injections 30 minutes apart: treatments S-S, two 0.9% saline; H-S, hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg-1) and saline; H-LB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.02 mg kg-1); H-MB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.1 mg kg-1); H-HB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1); H-N, hydromorphone and naloxone (0.04 mg kg-1). Skin temperature (ST), thermal threshold (TT) and sedation score (SS) were recorded before (baseline) and for 8 hours after the first injection. Percentage maximum possible effect (%MPE), thermal excursion (TE), TT, SS and ST were compared using two-way repeated measures anova or Friedman test followed by Tukey's or Dunn's multiple comparisons test when appropriate. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Data from seven cats were analyzed. There were no significant differences among treatments in baseline values, SS and within S-S over time. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values following hydromorphone administration, %MPE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6-8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values, TE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 2 and 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6 and 8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Butorphanol and naloxone reduced hydromorphone-induced thermal antinociception. Butorphanol preserved hydromorphone antinociceptive properties better than naloxone. Butorphanol is recommended during non-life-threatening scenarios as a partial reversal agent for hydromorphone in cats.


Assuntos
Butorfanol/farmacologia , Gatos , Hidromorfona/farmacologia , Naloxona/farmacologia , Dor/veterinária , Administração Intravenosa , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hidromorfona/administração & dosagem , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Temperatura Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 529-537, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the antinociceptive, sedative and cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine pharmacopuncture at Governing Vessel 1 (GV 1) with dexmedetomidine intramuscular (IM) administration. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, masked crossover design. ANIMALS: A group of eight healthy female cats. METHODS: Cats were randomly administered either dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1; Dex-IM) IM or at acupuncture point GV 1 (Dex-P) separated by 1 week. Prior to and up to 120 minutes posttreatment, skin temperature (ST), thermal threshold (TT), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), sedation, muscle relaxation and auditory response scores were recorded. Parametric data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures anova followed by Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. Nonparametric data were analyzed using a Friedman test followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences within or between treatments for ST, fR and auditory response. TT was significantly higher at 30-90 minutes in Dex-P (p ≤ 0.0285) than baseline. TT was significantly higher at 60-90 minutes for Dex-P than for Dex-IM (p ≤ 0.0252). HR was significantly lower at 10-75 minutes in Dex-P (p ≤ 0.0378) and at 5-75 minutes in Dex-IM (p ≤ 0.0132) than baseline. Compared with baseline, sedation scores were higher at 25 minutes (p = 0.0327) and 30 minutes (p = 0.0327), and muscle relaxation scores were higher at 25 minutes (p = 0.0151) and 35 minutes (p = 0.0151) in Dex-P. There were no differences in HR, sedation and muscle relaxation scores between treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dex-P increased thermal antinociception compared with Dex-IM at the same dose of dexmedetomidine in cats. This antinociceptive effect must be evaluated under clinical situations.


Assuntos
Analgesia por Acupuntura/veterinária , Gatos , Sedação Consciente/veterinária , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the effectiveness of local anaesthesia (LA) in piglet castration with the combination of scrotal and inguinal application of procaine 2 % and lidocaine 5 % to the intratesticular application of lidocaine 1 % using following parameters: adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), defensive movements and coordinated movement patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2 substudies 232 male suckling piglets (3-6 days of age) were randomly allocated to study groups. In groups L5 and group P2 lidocaine 5 % and procaine 2 % was applied inguinally and scrotally, respectively, while piglets of groups H (handling) and K (castration without local anaesthesia) were only fixated as for an injection. In group L1 lidocaine 1 % was injected intratesticularly. After 30 min piglets were were castrated, whereas animals of group H were again only fixated. In substudy 1 (n = 112) blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of catecholamines after castration. During injection and castration defensive movements were judged. In substudy 2 (n = 120) piglets completed a chute to document the individual stress level. RESULTS: Groups H and L1 demonstrated significantly less defensive movements during fixation for injection/injection compared to the other study groups (p ≤ 0.05). After the injection piglets of group P2 had significantly more difficulties in the chute and needed > 50 % more time to complete the course. In all study groups defensive movements during castration were the highest at the moment of severing the spermal cord. Group K obtained the highest possible rating of 8 and differed significantly from the other groups as well as when cutting the skin (p ≤ 0.05). Both the concentration of A and NA significantly rose in all groups. The increase in A and NA was significantly higher in group 2, as well as the increase in NA in group K, both in comparison to the other study groups (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: None of the applied techniques for local anaesthesia achieved a complete elimination of pain during castration of suckling piglets. The behaviour analysis indicated an altogether higher distress for P2. After castration, this injection led to a neuroendocrine pain reaction that was comparable to or higher than that of group K. In both lidocaine groups (L1, L5) the pain reaction after castration tended to be lower. These results provide approaches to apply longer acting LA with a higher analgesic potency in an appropriate dosage and with an appropriate method of application.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Lidocaína , Orquiectomia , Dor , Procaína , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecolaminas/sangue , Injeções/efeitos adversos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/farmacologia , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/veterinária , Procaína/administração & dosagem , Procaína/farmacologia , Procaína/uso terapêutico , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
16.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 411-419, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206734

RESUMO

The present study aims to comparatively evaluate the effects of different doses of intravenous xylazine and medetomidine on sedation and antinociception scores, and physiological and laboratory parameters in dromedary calves. Thirty clinically healthy male dromedary calves 15 ± 2 weeks old and weighing 95 ± 5.5 kg were studied. Two groups received xylazine at low (0.2 mg/kg) and high (0.4 mg/kg) doses. Two groups received medetomidine at low (10 µg/kg) and high (20 µg/kg) doses. One group received normal saline. Sedation signs were scored using a 3-point scale. Analgesic effect was analyzed using pinpricks. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Sedation and antinociception scores of the animals 1 hr after receiving the higher dose of xylazine and medetomidine were significantly higher than that of other groups. Compared with other studied groups, the animals receiving the higher dose of xylazine showed significantly higher potassium and creatinine serum levels after 24 hr. Doses as high as 0.4 mg/kg for xylazine and 20 µg/kg for medetomidine can be considered safe and useful for procedures associated with mild pain in dromedary calves.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Camelus , Sedação Consciente/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Xilazina/farmacologia , Animais , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 36-42, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125820

RESUMO

The present study aimed to use behavioural measures to assess pain induced by surgical castration of piglets, and evaluate the efficacy of pain-relief medications. In total, 143 male piglets from 29 sows were used. The treatments included: 1) non-castration (NC; n = 28), 2) castration without medication (SC; n = 29), 3) castration with meloxicam injection 0.4 mg/kg i.m. (ME; n = 28), 4) castration with 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine in each testicle (LA; n = 29), and 5) castration with general inhalation anaesthesia using isoflurane (1.5%) and meloxicam injection (GA; n = 29). Behaviour was monitored continuously for a ten minute period one hour prior to castration (-1 h), as well as immediately (0 h), one hour (1 h), and two hours (2 h) after castration. Behaviour was also monitored twice (08:00 and 20:00) during the following day. Compared to -1 h, castration induced changes in several behavioural measures in SC piglets at 0 h, suggesting that castration was painful. Furthermore, inactive standing or sitting, tail wagging and aggressive behaviour differed between SC and NC piglets at 0 h. ME and LA piglets spent less time standing or sitting inactively, and LA and GA piglets showed more tail wagging than SC piglets at 0 h (P < 0.05 for all). No other behavioural measures differed among the various groups of castrated piglets. In conclusion, the results indicate that surgical castration is indeed painful. However, the efficacy of various pain-relief protocols in piglets shortly after castration was not verified.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Comportamento Animal , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Suínos/cirurgia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/farmacologia
18.
N Z Vet J ; 67(5): 241-248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081479

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop a technique for the injection of local anaesthetic into the spinal canal of broiler chickens by first determining the ideal location for needle placement based on anatomy and histology, and then using the developed technique to assess the onset and duration of action of three doses of lidocaine. METHODS: Two-month-old Ross broiler chickens (n = 30) were used in this study. Computed tomography imaging followed by anatomical examination of fresh cadavers (n = 6) were used to identify a suitable intervertebral space for injection of local anaesthetic, and landmarks to locate this space. Histological evaluation of the microanatomy of the caudal vertebral column in another six birds was used to examine the position of the spinal cord within the canal. Spinal anaesthesia was attempted using injection of lidocaine at 0.5 mg/kg (n = 6), 1 mg/kg (n = 6), and 2 mg/kg (n = 6) via the selected intervertebral space. Analgesia was tested by pinching the skin of the pericloacal area with thumb forceps to determine the onset and duration of analgesia. Respiratory rate, and cloacal temperature were measured at 0 minutes and every 10 minutes after injection until sensation returned. RESULTS: The space between synsacrum and first free coccygeal vertebra (synsacrococcygeal space) was selected as the most suitable site for spinal injection. In this region, the dura mater adhered to the internal wall of the spinal canal, and the subarachnoid space was large indicating that injection would be into the subarachnoid rather than the epidural space. The interval to onset of analgesia was similar for all doses of lidocaine (1.5 (SD 0.7), 2 (SD 1) and 1.3 (SD 0.5) minutes for 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, respectively; p = 0.604). Duration of analgesia was longer following injection with 2 than 0.5 or 1 mg/kg lidocaine (21.3 (SD 2.5) vs. 4.5 (SD 3.5) vs. 11.3 (SD 2) minutes, respectively; p = 0.002). Mean cloacal temperature decreased between 0 and 20 minutes after injection with all doses of lidocaine (p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Spinal anaesthesia in chickens is feasible and is a practical, inexpensive and simple technique for regional anaesthesia of the pericloacal area.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor/veterinária , Análise de Variância , Raquianestesia/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Disco Intervertebral , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Região Sacrococcígea/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/citologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2750-2768, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100113

RESUMO

Painful processing procedures in piglets such as tail docking, castration, and teeth clipping are an emerging animal welfare concern. We hypothesized that transmammary delivery of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, firocoxib, would reduce pain associated with processing in piglets. This study compared the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and tissue residue concentrations of 4 doses of firocoxib (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg) administered to sows and delivered to nursing piglets prior to processing. Sixteen sows, 5 ± 2 d postpartum, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. On day 0, sows received a single intramuscular dose of firocoxib at 7 ± 1 h before piglet surgical castration, tail docking, and teeth clipping (males) or sham handling (females). Firocoxib and cortisol concentrations were determined from selected samples collected from sows and 3 piglets per litter (2 barrows and 1 gilt) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after drug administration. On day 21, piglets were weighed and all animals were euthanized and necropsied. Tissues were collected from 3 piglets per litter for histological examination and drug residue analysis. Mean (±SEM) peak plasma firocoxib concentrations (Cmax) were 107.90 ± 15.18, 157.50 ± 24.91, 343.68 ± 78.89, and 452.83 ± 90.27 ng/mL in sows receiving 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg firocoxib, respectively, and 9.53 ± 1.21, 31.04 ± 6.79, 53.30 ± 11.1, and 44.03 ± 7.47 ng/mL in their respective piglets. Mean plasma terminal half-life values ranged from 26 to 31 h in sows and 30 to 48 h in piglets. Barrows nursing sows that received 2.0 mg/kg firocoxib had a lower mean plasma cortisol concentration at 1 ± 1 h after processing compared with barrows nursing sows that received 1.0 mg/kg (P = 0.0416) and 0.5 mg/kg of firocoxib (P = 0.0397). From processing to weaning, litters of sows receiving 2.0 mg/kg firocoxib gained more weight than litters of sows that received 0.5 mg/kg (P = 0.008) or 1.0 mg/kg (P = 0.005). No signs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicity were observed on examination of the kidney, liver, stomach, and small intestine, and concentrations of firocoxib and the descyclopropylmethyl metabolite were below the limit of detection (0.01 µg/g) in all tissues examined from sows and piglets. These findings indicate that maternal delivery of firocoxib to suckling piglets before tail docking and castration may safely reduce processing-induced stress and enhance production by increasing weaning weights.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Bem-Estar do Animal , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , 4-Butirolactona/administração & dosagem , 4-Butirolactona/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Lactação , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/veterinária , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sulfonas/farmacocinética , Suínos/cirurgia , Dente/cirurgia , Desmame
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125384

RESUMO

Oral meloxicam is labelled for reducing pain and inflammation associated with castration in cattle in Canada, however, subcutaneous meloxicam is only labelled for pain associated with dis-budding and abdominal surgery. The aim of this project was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of oral (PO; 1.0 mg/kg BW) and subcutaneous meloxicam (SC; 0.5 mg/kg BW), and to assess the effect of meloxicam on physiological and behavioural indicators of pain associated with knife castration in 7-8 month old calves. Twenty-three Angus crossbred beef calves (328 ± 4.4 kg BW) were randomly assigned to two treatments: PO n = 12 or SC n = 11 administration of meloxicam immediately before knife castration. Physiological parameters included salivary and hair cortisol, substance P, haptoglobin, serum amyloid-A, weight, complete blood count, scrotal and rectal temperature. Behavioural parameters included standing and lying behaviour, pen behaviour and feeding behaviour. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX (SAS), with repeated measures using mixed procedures including treatment as a fixed effect and animal and pen as a random effect. The pharmacokinetic profile of the drug including area under the curve, volume of distribution and clearance was greater (P < 0.05) in PO than SC calves. After surgery, substance P concentrations, white blood cell counts (WBC), weight and lying duration were greater (P < 0.05) in PO than SC calves, while scrotal circumference was lower (P < 0.05) in PO calves than SC calves. Although statistical differences were observed for pharmacokinetic, physiological and behavioural parameters differences were small and may lack biological relevance.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/sangue , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/veterinária
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