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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037563, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595664

RESUMO

Importance: The cohort size of phase 1 clinical trials and thus the timing of the interim decisions are typically prespecified in the trial protocol. During trial implementation, however, the cohort size often deviates from the planned one, which shifts the schedule of the interims. Despite its pervasiveness in phase 1 trials, the association of cohort size deviation with the operating characteristics of these trials is not clear. Objective: To explore the association between cohort size deviation and the operating characteristics of phase 1 clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional simulation study, a review was conducted of 102 phase 1 dose-escalation trials published between January 2017 and May 2018 in 3 peer-reviewed journals (Journal of Clinical Oncology, Clinical Cancer Research, and Cancer). After exclusion of studies that did not report the cohort size, 45 trials remained for analysis. Based on the analysis results, a simulation study was performed to systematically investigate the association of cohort size deviation with the operating characteristics of the trials. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of cohort size deviation and the percentage of correct selection of the maximum tolerated dose. Results: Of the 45 reviewed trials, 10 (22.2%) adhered strictly to the planned cohort size. The simulation study showed that when cohort size deviation was random, it had little association with the performance of novel model-based and model-assisted designs (mean reduction in the percentage of correct selection of the maximum tolerated dose was 0.87 percentage point for the continual reassessment method and 0.84 percentage point for the bayesian optimal interval design). When the cohort size deviation was informative and made based on the observed data on toxicity (eg, if dose-limiting toxicity was observed, the size of the next or current cohort was reduced or expanded), the variation of the design performance increased. The range of the change in the percentage of correct selection was -3.7 to 1.3 percentage points for the continual reassessment method and -4.5 to 0 percentage points for the bayesian optimal interval design. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that when novel phase 1 clinical trial designs are used, some cohort size deviation is acceptable and has little association with the performance of the designs. These deviations may be used by expert investigators to properly interpret the data, ensure safety, and leverage flexibility in the protocol.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Simulação por Computador , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tamanho da Amostra , Teorema de Bayes , Protocolos de Ensaio Clínico como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466469

RESUMO

There is growing interest in Phase I dose-finding studies studying several doses of more than one agent simultaneously. A number of combination dose-finding designs were recently proposed to guide escalation/de-escalation decisions during the trials. The majority of these proposals are model-based: a parametric combination-toxicity relationship is fitted as data accumulates. Various parameter shapes were considered but the unifying theme for many of these is that typically between 4 and 6 parameters are to be estimated. While more parameters allow for more flexible modelling of the combination-toxicity relationship, this is a challenging estimation problem given the typically small sample size in Phase I trials of between 20 and 60 patients. These concerns gave raise to an ongoing debate whether including more parameters into combination-toxicity model leads to more accurate combination selection. In this work, we extensively study two variants of a 4-parameter logistic model with reduced number of parameters to investigate the effect of modelling assumptions. A framework to calibrate the prior distributions for a given parametric model is proposed to allow for fair comparisons. Via a comprehensive simulation study, we have found that the inclusion of the interaction parameter between two compounds does not provide any benefit in terms of the accuracy of selection, on average, but is found to result in fewer patients allocated to the target combination during the trial.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Tamanho da Amostra
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carboplatin is a potent cytoreductive agent for a variety of solid tumors. However, when delivered systemically, clinical efficacy for the treatment of high grade gliomas is poor due to limited penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Direct intracerebral (IC) convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of carboplatin has been used to bypass the BBB and successfully treat the F98 rat glioma. Based on these studies, we initiated a Phase I clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: This Phase I clinical trial was conducted to establish the maximum tolerated dose and define the toxicity profile of carboplatin delivered intracerebrally via convection enhanced delivery (CED) for patients with high grade glial neoplasms. METHODS: Cohorts of 3 patients with recurrent WHO grade III or IV gliomas were treated with escalating doses of CED carboplatin (1-4 µg in 54mL over 72 hours) delivered via catheters placed at the time of recurrent tumor resection. The primary outcome measure was determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and radiographic correlation. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients have completed treatment with infusion doses of carboplatin of 1µg, 2µg, and 4µg. The total planned volume of infusion was 54mL for each patient. All patients had previously received surgery and chemoradiation. Histology at treatment include GBM (n = 9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Median KPS was 90 (range, 70 to 100) at time of treatment. Median PFS and OS were 2.1 and 9.6 months after completion of CED, respectively. A single adverse event possibly related to treatment was noted (generalized seizure). CONCLUSIONS: IC CED of carboplatin as a potential therapy for recurrent malignant glioma is feasible and safe at doses up to 4µg in 54mL over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine the maximum tolerated dose and potential efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Glioma/terapia , Oligodendroglioma/terapia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Convecção , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/instrumentação , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ; 37(2): 148-157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093778

RESUMO

Background: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often do not tolerate pirfenidone in the recommended dose of 2400 mg/day. The proportion of patients requiring dose reduction and its impact on survival in the real-world remain unclear. Methods: Consecutive subjects with IPF were enrolled between March 2017 and June 2019. The maximum tolerated dose of pirfenidone (primary outcome) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were recorded. A post hoc logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictors of drug discontinuation due to ADRs. We also compared survival between the full-dose (2400 mg/day), reduced-dose (< 2400 mg/day), and the no-pirfenidone groups, with age and percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity (%pred FVC) as covariates. Results: Of the 128 subjects (mean age, 67.4 years; 77.3% men) included, 115 were initiated on pirfenidone. Forty-nine (42.6%) and 51 (44.3%) subjects tolerated the full dose and reduced doses, respectively. Ninety-six (83.5%) subjects developed at least one ADR; anorexia dyspepsia, and nausea being the most common. Twenty-two subjects discontinued the drug; 15 of them due to ADRs. Body mass index < 20 kg/m2 was the only predictor of drug discontinuation due to ADRs. Among subjects newly initiated on treatment during the study period (n = 80), survival was longer (hazard ratio [interquartile range], 0.19 [0.04-0.96]; p = 0.045) in the full-dose but not the reduced-dose group (p = 0.08) compared with the no-pirfenidone group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion: Pirfenidone was tolerated in the full dose in a minority of patients with IPF and appears to improve survival only with the full dose. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (2): 148-157).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4841, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973176

RESUMO

Pre-clinical models have shown that targeting pancreatic stellate cells with all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) reprograms pancreatic stroma to suppress pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) growth. Here, in a phase Ib, dose escalation and expansion, trial for patients with advanced, unresectable PDAC (n = 27), ATRA is re-purposed as a stromal-targeting agent in combination with gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy using a two-step adaptive continual re-assessment method trial design. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D, primary outcome) is the FDA/EMEA approved dose of gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel along-with ATRA (45 mg/m2 orally, days 1-15/cycle). Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) is grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Secondary outcomes show no detriment to ATRA pharmacokinetics.. Median overall survival for RP2D treated evaluable population, is 11.7 months (95%CI 8.6-15.7 m, n = 15, locally advanced (2) and metastatic (13)). Exploratory pharmacodynamics studies including changes in diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI measured apparent diffusion coefficient after one cycle, and, modulation of cycle-specific serum pentraxin 3 levels over various cycles indicate stromal modulation. Baseline stromal-specific retinoid transport protein (FABP5, CRABP2) expression may be predicitve of response. Re-purposing ATRA as a stromal-targeting agent with gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel is safe and tolerable. This combination will be evaluated in a phase II randomized controlled trial for locally advanced PDAC. Clinical trial numbers: EudraCT: 2015-002662-23; NCT03307148. Trial acronym: STARPAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos , Tretinoína/farmacocinética
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5687-5700, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously developed a novel technique for expanding highly activated and purified natural killer (NK) cells able to maximize the theoretical activation potential of NK cells; thus, we named this cell population zenithal-NK (ZNK). AIM: To evaluate the safety, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of autologous ZNK cells in patients with different types of advanced cancer with measurable solid lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase I/IIb first-in-human, open-label, dose-escalation study (trial registration ID: UMIN-000011555), eligible patients received ZNK cells intravenously starting from 106 to 108 cells/patient/dose at 2-week dosing intervals. A maximum of six cycles were allowed. Safety and survival analyses were also carried out for cases that were excluded and never administered ZNK cells. RESULTS: As of April 20, 2017, a total of nine patients were enrolled in this study, with one recruited twice. Overall, neither grade 2 or higher toxicities (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0) caused by cell administration, nor adverse events causing discontinuation of protocol treatment were found. In four cases, the number of administered ZNK cells was increased to 108 cells/body/dose without any serious dose-limiting toxicity; the maximally tolerated dose was therefore considered to be at least 108 cells. The overall response rate was 40.0% in 10 net cases, one of partial response and three of stable disease, and the patient with partial response is still alive after 4 year's observation. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that autologous ZNK cells are safe and well-tolerated in patients with different types of advanced solid tumors. Clinical studies using similarly active ZNK cells from human leukocyte antigen/killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor-mismatched healthy donors under Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant manufacturing, and with modified treatment regimen, i.e. doses and frequencies, are warranted for further investigation to show the potential of ZNK cells in such patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Neoplasias/terapia , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
7.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2367-2375, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816079

RESUMO

This study aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with radiotherapy (RT) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Adult patients with PCNSL were treated according to a response-adapted strategy. HD-MTX (3.5 g/m2) was followed by concomitant RT and escalating TMZ (50-60-75 mg/m2/day, 5 days/week). The total radiation dose was modulated according to the patient's response to HD-MTX. All patients received 30 Gy to the whole brain plus leptomeninges to C2, including the third posterior of the orbital cavity (clinical target volume 2; CTV2), plus 6, 10, or 16 Gy to the primary site, including the residual mass (CTV1), if a complete response (CR), partial response (PR)/stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) was observed, respectively. Acute toxicities were graded according to the RTOG-EORTC criteria. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 4 hematological toxicity or grade 3-4 hepatic toxicity, although 75 mg/m2/day was the maximum dose regardless of DLT. Neurocognitive function was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Three patients were enrolled at each TMZ dose level (total = 9 patients). Twelve lesions were treated. Six patients received 2 cycles of HD-MTX, while 3 received only 1 cycle because of hepatic or renal toxicity. All patients completed chemoradiotherapy without interruptions. No DLT events were recorded. TMZ appears to be tolerable at a dose of 75 mg/m2/day when administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and after HD-MTX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Irradiação Craniana , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Leuk Res ; 95: 106385, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521310

RESUMO

There is a significant need for improved therapeutics in older patients with acute leukemia. Camidanlumab tesirine is an antibody-drug conjugate against CD25, an antigen expressed in several malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This open-label, dose-escalation and -expansion study (NCT02588092) assessed the safety, activity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of camidanlumab tesirine in patients with relapsed/refractory ALL/AML. A total of 35 patients (34 AML and 1 ALL) were enrolled and received camidanlumab tesirine intravenously at 3-92 µg/kg once every three weeks (Q3W, n = 26) or 30 or 37.5 µg/kg every week (QW, n = 9). One dose-limiting toxicity of maculopapular rash occurred in the 30 µg/kg QW group; the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. No additional safety concerns or adverse events (AEs) of interest were identified. The most common (>10 % of patients) Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent AEs were febrile neutropenia (25.7 %), lymphopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or fatigue (all 14.3 %), pneumonia, increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, and hypophosphatemia (each 11.4 %). No signal for serious immune-related AEs such as Guillain-Barré syndrome/polyradiculopathy was observed and there was no evidence of immunogenicity. PK showed rapid clearance with apparent half-life <2 days for conjugated and total antibody, suggesting that Q3W dosing may be insufficient for therapeutic efficacy, and prompting exploration of a QW schedule. Two patients achieved complete responses with incomplete hematologic recovery; one each at 30 and 37.5 µg/kg QW. The trial was terminated during dose escalation due to programmatic reasons other than safety. Hence, recommended dose was not determined.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10191, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576898

RESUMO

Having demonstrated the ability of monosialoganglioside GM1 micelles as oncology drug transporter, this work focuses on evaluating its application in an in vivo system, studying the toxicity and antitumoral effect of GM1-Ptx micellar formulation. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) obtained after intravenous administration of GM1-Ptx in mice was 55 mg/kg and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) was 70 mg/kg. This value is higher than those described for the commercial formulations TAXOL and ABRAXANE, with LD50 of 30 and 45 mg/kg respectively. The antitumor activity, mortality and incidence of metastasis were studied on a murine model of mammary gland cancer. The GM1-Ptx formulation was administered i.v. at different doses for 9 weeks using empty GM1 micelles and saline as treatment controls. Once the treatments were completed, biochemical markers were quantified and histological tissue tests were performed. The most promising results were obtained with the treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg/twice a week, condition in which a longer survival and significant reduction in the incidence of animals with metastasis, since only one 25% of the mice showed presence of pulmonary micro metastases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Gangliosídeos/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micelas , Polietilenoglicóis/química
10.
Int J Hematol ; 112(2): 223-233, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564243

RESUMO

Novel therapies are needed for children with relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager immunotherapy that simultaneously binds to CD3-positive cytotoxic T cells and CD19-positive B cells and redirects the patient's T cells to lyse malignant and normal B cells. We conducted an open-label phase 1b study to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and recommended dose of blinatumomab in Japanese children with R/R B-cell precursor ALL. Patients received induction blinatumomab for 4 weeks (5 µg/m2/day week 1; 15 µg/m2/day weeks 2-4), followed by a 2-week treatment-free interval (6-week cycle). In subsequent cycles, patients received blinatumomab 15 µg/m2/day. The primary end point was the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities. Nine patients received blinatumomab. Since no dose-limiting toxicities were reported, the maximum tolerated dose was 5 µg/m2/day for week 1, followed by 15 µg/m2/day weeks 2-4 (5-15 µg/m2/day, the global recommended dose of blinatumomab). All patients had ≥ 1 grade ≥ 3 adverse events; 89% had grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events. M1 remission rate within the first two cycles of treatment was 56%; one patient had a minimal residual disease response. Consistent with global studies, blinatumomab appeared to be safe with preliminary evidence of efficacy in Japanese children with R/R B-cell precursor ALL.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos B , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos T , Adolescente , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Segurança , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20458, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted biologic therapies demonstrate similar efficacies in rheumatoid arthritis despite distinct mechanisms of action. They also exhibit a ceiling effect, with 10% to 20% of patients achieving remission in clinical trials. None of these therapies target synovial fibroblasts, which drive and maintain synovitis. Seliciclib (R-roscovitine) is an orally available cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that suppresses fibroblast proliferation, and is efficacious in preclinical arthritis models. We aim to determine the toxicity and preliminary efficacy of seliciclib in combination with biologic therapies, to inform its potential as an adjunctive therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: TRAFIC is a non-commercial, multi-center, rolling phase Ib/IIa trial investigating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of seliciclib in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis receiving biologic therapies. All participants receive seliciclib with no control arm. The primary objective of part 1 (phase Ib) is to determine the maximum tolerated dose and safety of seliciclib over 4 weeks of dosing. Part 1 uses a restricted 1-stage Bayesian continual reassessment method based on a target dose-limiting toxicity probability of 35%. Part 2 (phase IIa) assesses the potential efficacy of seliciclib, and is designed as a single arm, single stage early phase trial based on a Fleming-A'Hern design using the maximum tolerated dose recommended from part 1. The primary response outcome after 12 weeks of therapy is a composite of clinical, histological and magnetic resonance imaging scores. Secondary outcomes include adverse events, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters, autoantibodies, and fatigue. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been reviewed and approved by the North East - Tyne & Wear South Research Ethics Committee (reference 14/NE/1075) and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), United Kingdom. Results will be disseminated through publication in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presentation at national and international conferences. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN36667085. Registered on September 26, 2014; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN36667085Current protocol version: Protocol version 11.0 (March 21, 2019).


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Roscovitina/administração & dosagem , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204787, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401317

RESUMO

Importance: Phase 1 cancer studies, which guide dose selection for subsequent studies, are almost 3 times more prevalent than phase 3 studies and have a median study duration considerably longer than 2 years, which constitutes a major component of drug development time. Objective: To discern a method to reduce the duration of phase 1 studies in adult and pediatric cancer studies without violating risk limits by better accommodating the accrual and evaluation process (or queue). Design: The process modeled, the phase 1 queue (IQ), includes patient interarrival time, screening, and dose-limiting toxicity evaluation. For this proof of principle, the rules of the 3 + 3 and rolling 6 phase 1 designs were modified to improve patient flow through the queue without exceeding the maximum risk permitted in the parent designs. The resulting designs, the IQ 3 + 3 and the IQ rolling 6, were each compared with their parent design by simulations in 12 different scenarios. Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) The time from study opening to determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), (2) the number of patients treated to determine the MTD, and (3) the association of the design with the dose selected as the MTD. Results: Based on 800 simulations, for all 12 scenarios considered, the IQ 3 + 3 and the IQ rolling 6 designs were associated with reduced expected study durations compared with the parent design. The expected IQ 3 + 3 reduction ranged from 1.6 to 10.4 months (with 3.7 months for the standard scenario), and the expected reduction associated with IQ rolling 6 ranged from 0.4 to 10.5 months (with 3.4 months for the standard scenario). The increase in the mean number of patients treated in the IQ 3 + 3 compared with the 3 + 3 ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 patients. No increase in the number of patients was associated with the IQ rolling 6 compared with the rolling 6 design. The probability of selecting a dose level as the MTD changed by less than 3% for all dose levels and scenarios in both parent designs. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that IQ designs were associated with reduced mean duration of phase 1 studies compared with their parent designs without changing the risk limits or MTD selection operating characteristics. These approaches have been successfully implemented in both hematology and solid tumor phase 1 studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 29-40, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted preclinical experiments and phase I clinical trial to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and antitumour effects of GT0918 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: An androgen receptor (AR) competitive binding assay was performed, followed by evaluation of GT0918 on AR protein expression. The efficacy of GT0918 was investigated in a castration-resistant xenograft model. A phase I dose-escalation study of GT0918 in CRPC was also carried out to evaluate its safety, PK and antitumour efficacy. RESULTS: GT0918 was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of androgen to AR more potently than MDV3100, and to effectively reduce the AR protein level. GT0918 inhibited the transcriptional activity of wild-type AR and AR with clinically relevant ligand-binding domain mutations. Furthermore, GT0918 significantly inhibited the growth of prostate cancer. A total of 16 patients was treated with GT0918 at five dose levels. Among these 16 patients, 10 and 2 patients, respectively, completed a three-cycle and six-cycle treatment, in which MTD was not reached. All the treatment-related adverse events were grade I, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fatigue and anaemia. PK parameters showed that drug exposure increased with dose proportionally from 50 to 300 mg and a saturation was observed between 300 and 400 mg. PSA declines of ≥30% and ≥50% were, respectively, observed in six and two cases. All the 12 patients with metastatic soft tissue lesions confirmed stable disease. CONCLUSIONS: GT0918, a full AR antagonist without agonist effect, has high binding affinity to AR with AR protein down-regulation activity. GT0918 is demonstrated to be well tolerated with a favourable PK profile and exhibits promising antitumour activity in CRPC. CLINICALTRIALS: gov identifier CTR20150501.


Assuntos
Oxazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazóis/farmacocinética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Tioidantoínas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 595-604, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bimekizumab selectively neutralises both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F. We report efficacy and safety in a phase IIb dose-ranging study in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Adults with AS (fulfilling modified New York criteria) were randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to bimekizumab 16 mg, 64 mg, 160 mg, 320 mg or placebo every 4 weeks for 12 weeks (double-blind period). At week 12, patients receiving bimekizumab 16 mg, 64 mg or placebo were re-randomised 1:1 to bimekizumab 160 mg or 320 mg every 4 weeks to week 48; other patients continued on their initial dose (dose-blind period). The primary end point was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) 40 response at week 12 (non-responder imputation (NRI) for missing data). RESULTS: 303 patients were randomised: bimekizumab 16 mg (n=61), 64 mg (n=61), 160 mg (n=60), 320 mg (n=61) or placebo (n=60). At week 12, significantly more bimekizumab-treated patients achieved ASAS40 vs placebo (NRI: 29.5%-46.7% vs 13.3%; p<0.05 all comparisons; OR vs placebo 2.6-5.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 12.9)). A significant dose-response was observed (p<0.001). The primary end point was supported by all secondary efficacy outcomes. At week 48, 58.6% and 62.3% of patients receiving bimekizumab 160 and 320 mg throughout the study achieved ASAS40, respectively (NRI); similar ASAS40 response rates were observed in re-randomised patients. During the double-blind period, treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 26/60 (43.3%) patients receiving placebo and 92/243 (37.9%) receiving bimekizumab. CONCLUSIONS: Bimekizumab provided rapid and sustained improvements in key outcome measures in patients with active AS, with no unexpected safety findings versus previous studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02963506.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(8): 859-866, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tepotinib (MSC2156119J) is an oral, potent and highly selective small molecule mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor for which the recommended Phase II dose of 500 mg once daily has been defined, based on the first-in-man trial conducted in the USA and Europe. We carried out a multicenter Phase I trial with a classic `3 + 3' design to determine the recommended Phase II dose in Japanese patients with solid tumors (NCT01832506). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with advanced solid tumors (refractory to standard therapy or for whom no effective standard therapy was available) received tepotinib at 215, 300 or 500 mg once daily in a 21-day cycle. Occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities during cycle 1 was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were also evaluated to support the dose assessment. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated. Tepotinib was generally well tolerated with no observed dose-limiting toxicities; treatment-related adverse events were mainly grades 1-2. The tolerability profile of tepotinib was similar to that observed in non-Japanese populations. Pharmacokinetics in Japanese and Western patients was comparable. One patient with gastric cancer and one patient with urachal cancer had stable disease of ≥12 weeks in duration. The observed safety profile and pharmacokinetics are comparable with those in patients from the USA and Europe, and the recommended Phase II dose of tepotinib in Japanese patients was confirmed as 500 mg once daily. CONCLUSIONS: These results, including initial signals of antitumor activity, support further development of tepotinib in Japanese patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/farmacocinética , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 35-42, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is critical for tumour growth and metastasis. Dual inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factors and platelet-derived growth factor receptors suppresses angiogenesis. This expansion cohort of a phase I study targeted angiogenesis with sorafenib, bevacizumab and low-dose cyclophosphamide in children and young adults with recurrent solid tumours. METHODS: An expansion cohort including patients with refractory or recurrent solid tumours was enrolled and received bevacizumab (15 mg/kg IV, day 1), sorafenib (90 mg/m2 po twice daily, days 1-21) and low-dose cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2 po daily, days 1-21). Each course was 21 days. Toxicities were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, v3.0, and responses were evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Serial bevacizumab pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were performed during course 1. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (15 males; median age 14.5 yrs; range 1-22 yr) received a median of 6 courses (range 1-18). Twelve patients had a bone or soft tissue sarcoma. The most common grade III/IV non-haematologic toxicities were hypertension (N = 4), hand/foot rash (N = 3) and elevated lipase (N = 3). The most common grade III/IV haematologic toxicities were neutropenia (N = 7) and lymphopenia (N = 17). Three patients (2 synovial sarcoma, 1 rhabdoid tumour) achieved a partial response and 18 had stable disease. The progression-free survival at 3 and 6 months were 78.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 60.6-95.6%) and 54% (95% CI 30.2-78.2%), respectively. Bevacizumab PKs in 15 patients was similar to published adult PK results. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous bevacizumab combined with oral sorafenib and low-dose cyclophosphamide was tolerated and demonstrated promising activity in a subset of childhood solid tumours.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(5): 959-968, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations lead to formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which is elevated in several solid and liquid tumors. Ivosidenib (AG-120) is a targeted, potent, oral inhibitor of the mutant IDH1 protein. We describe detailed pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ivosidenib in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies with an IDH1 mutation treated in a phase I study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02074839). METHODS: Patients received single and multiple oral doses of ivosidenib from 100 mg twice daily to 1200 mg once daily (QD) in 28-day continuous cycles. Concentrations of ivosidenib and 2-HG in plasma, and 2-HG in bone marrow, were assessed at routine intervals. Plasma 4ß-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratios were assessed as a marker of CYP3A activity. RESULTS: Ivosidenib was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated (half-life 72-138 h) after single and multiple dosing. Ivosidenib exhibited dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics, with exposure increasing sub-proportionally to dose, and clearance increasing with increasing dose. Plasma 2-HG concentrations were maximally and persistently inhibited in the majority of patients receiving 500-mg QD ivosidenib, to concentrations close to those observed in healthy subjects. Ivosidenib pharmacokinetics were not affected by mild or moderate renal impairment, mild hepatic impairment, age, weight, sex, race, or co-administration of weak CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers. Moderate-to-strong CYP3A4 inhibitors decreased ivosidenib clearance. Ivosidenib also induced CYP3A enzyme activity, with increases in 4ß-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratios of 119-168% at 500-mg QD ivosidenib. CONCLUSIONS: Ivosidenib 500-mg QD has favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies with an IDH1 mutation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02074839.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Piridinas , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(5): 855-862, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Napabucasin is a cancer stemness inhibitor that targets a number of oncogenic pathways, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phase 1/2 studies suggest tolerability and anti-tumor activity in various types of cancer; a Phase 3 study of napabucasin plus standard therapy in colorectal cancer is ongoing. This is a Phase 1 dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors, and the first study of napabucasin in Japanese patients. METHODS: Patients received napabucasin 480, 960, or 1440 mg daily in 28-day cycles until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary objectives were to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of napabucasin. Blood samples were taken for PK analysis on Days 1, 2, 8, and 15 of Cycle 1, and Days 29 and 30 of Cycle 2. Secondary objectives were to assess napabucasin antitumor activity, and the relationship between biomarkers and antitumor activity. JapicCTI-No: JapicCTI-132152. RESULTS: Enrolled were 14 patients (480 mg [n = 3], 960 mg [n = 4], 1440 mg [n = 7]). One patient experienced a DLT (Grade 3, anorexia). MTD was 1440 mg/day. Most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (n = 9), nausea (n = 4), vomiting (n = 3), and anorexia (n = 3). Napabucasin showed a similar PK profile to previous studies and no abnormal accumulation was observed. Following treatment, two patients had stable disease; the remaining 12 had progressive disease. CONCLUSION: Napabucasin was well-tolerated at doses up to 1440 mg/day in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors; the PK profile was comparable to that reported previously.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofuranos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Naftoquinonas , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Naftoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Naftoquinonas/farmacocinética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 29, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients with early-stage disease are increasingly administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downstage their tumors prior to surgery. In this setting, approximately 31% of patients fail to respond to therapy. This demonstrates the need for techniques capable of providing personalized feedback about treatment response at the earliest stages of therapy to identify patients likely to benefit from changing treatment. Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) has emerged as a promising functional imaging technique for NAC monitoring. DOSI uses non-ionizing near-infrared light to provide non-invasive measures of absolute concentrations of tissue chromophores such as oxyhemoglobin. In 2011, we reported a new DOSI prognostic marker, oxyhemoglobin flare: a transient increase in oxyhemoglobin capable of discriminating NAC responders within the first day of treatment. In this follow-up study, DOSI was used to confirm the presence of the flare as well as to investigate whether DOSI markers of NAC response are regimen dependent. METHODS: This dual-center study examined 54 breast tumors receiving NAC measured with DOSI before therapy and the first week following chemotherapy administration. Patients were treated with either a standard of care maximum tolerated dose (MTD) regimen or an investigational metronomic (MET) regimen. Changes in tumor chromophores were tracked throughout the first week and compared to pathologic response and treatment regimen at specific days utilizing generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: Within patients receiving MTD therapy, the oxyhemoglobin flare was confirmed as a prognostic DOSI marker for response appearing as soon as day 1 with post hoc GEE analysis demonstrating a difference of 48.77% between responders and non-responders (p < 0.0001). Flare was not observed in patients receiving MET therapy. Within all responding patients, the specific treatment was a significant predictor of day 1 changes in oxyhemoglobin, showing a difference of 39.45% (p = 0.0010) between patients receiving MTD and MET regimens. CONCLUSIONS: DOSI optical biomarkers are differentially sensitive to MTD and MET regimens at early timepoints suggesting the specific treatment regimen should be considered in future DOSI studies. Additionally, DOSI may help to identify regimen-specific responses in a more personalized manner, potentially providing critical feedback necessary to implement adaptive changes to the treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Administração Metronômica , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(5): e395-e407, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is an incurable haematological malignancy, representing over 10% of haematological cancers in the USA. We did a phase 1-2 study of melflufen and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma to determine the maximum tolerated dose of melflufen and to investigate its safety and efficacy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, dose-confirmation and dose-expansion, open-label, phase 1-2 study in seven centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma, had received two or more previous lines of therapy (including lenalidomide and bortezomib), were refractory to their last line of therapy, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less. In phase 1, patients received an intravenous infusion of melflufen at 15 mg, 25 mg, 40 mg, or 55 mg for 30 min on day 1 in 21-day cycles plus oral dexamethasone 40 mg weekly and did not receive melflufen as a single agent. Melflufen was also tested in a single-agent cohort late in phase 2 in a small number of patients at the maximum tolerated dose identified in phase 1. In phase 2, patients were enrolled at the maximum tolerated dose in the melflufen plus dexamethasone in the combination cohort.. The phase 1 primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. The phase 2 primary objective was to evaluate overall response rate and clinical benefit rate. This primary analysis was done per protocol, in the all-treated and efficacy-evaluable population (defined as patients who received at least two doses of melflufen and who had a response assessment after baseline). The single-agent melflufen cohort was closed on October 6, 2016, as per the recommendation by the data safety monitoring committee on the basis of interim data suggesting greater activity in the melflufen plus dexamethasone cohort. The study is completed but survival follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01897714. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between July 4, 2013, and Dec 31, 2016: 23 patients in phase 1 and 58 in phase 2, including six patients from phase 1 treated at the maximum tolerated dose of melflufen 40 mg plus weekly dexamethasone. In phase 2, 45 patients were given a combination of melflufen plus dexamethasone and 13 patients were given single-agent melflufen. In phase 1, the established maximum tolerated dose was 40 mg of melflufen in combination with dexamethasone. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the first three dose cohorts (15 mg, 25 mg, and 40 mg). The highest dose cohort tested (55 mg) exceeded the maximum tolerated dose because four of six patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia with grade 4 thrombocytopenia also occurring in three of these patients; therefore, the planned highest dose of 70 mg was not tested. In phase 2, patients treated with combination therapy achieved an overall response rate of 31% (14 of 45 patients; 95% CI 18-47) and clinical benefit rate of 49% (22 of 45; 34-64) in the all-treated population, and 41% (14 of 34; 25-59) and 65% (22 of 34; 47-80) in the efficacy-evaluable population. In the phase 2 single-agent cohort, the overall response rate was 8% (one of 13 patients; 0·2-36·0) and the clinical benefit rate was 23% (three of 13; 5-54). Among the 45 patients given melflufen plus dexamethasone during phase 2, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were clinically manageable thrombocytopenia (28 [62%] patients) and neutropenia (26 [58%]), and non-haematological toxicity was infrequent. 24 serious adverse events were reported in 17 (38%) of 45 patients, most commonly pneumonia (five [11%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events that occurred in the phase 2 single-agent cohort of 13 patients were neutropenia (nine [69%]) and thrombocytopenia (eight [62%]). Nine patients experienced serious adverse events in the single-agent cohort, most commonly thrombocytopenia (two [15%]). There were three deaths from adverse events within 30 days of treatment that were possibly related to treatment: one in the 25 mg cohort in phase 1 (due to bacteraemia) and two in the phase 2 combination cohort (one due to neutropenic sepsis and one due to Escherichia coli sepsis), each in the setting of progressive disease. INTERPRETATION: These data show that melflufen is active in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma and tolerable in most patients. These results show the feasibility of this regimen and support the initiation of additional clinical studies of melflufen in multiple myeloma, both in combination with dexamethasone as well as in triplet regimens with additional classes of drugs. FUNDING: Oncopeptides AB.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Melfalan/análogos & derivados , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Fenilalanina/uso terapêutico
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