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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2603: 187-198, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370280

RESUMO

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a classic genetic model organism that is amenable to a plethora of comprehensive analyses including proteomics. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics is a powerful method to investigate the translational and posttranslational regulation ongoing in cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Here we describe a protocol for routine SILAC labeling of Drosophila adults within one generation to produce embryos with a labeling efficiency of over 92%. In combination with genetic selection markers, this method permits the quantification of translational and posttranslational changes in embryos mutant for developmental and disease-related genes.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Proteômica , Animais , Proteômica/métodos , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 472-480, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182155

RESUMO

Antibiotics have been identified as obesogens contributing to the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, their environmental toxicity shows sex dependence, which might also explain the sex-dependent obesity observed. Yet, the direct evidence for such a connection and the underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, the effects of tetracycline, which is a representative antibiotic found in both environmental and food samples, on Drosophila melanogaster were studied with consideration of both sex and circadian rhythms (represented by the eclosion rhythm). Results showed that in morning-eclosed adults, tetracycline significantly stimulated the body weight of females (AM females) at 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0 µg/L, while tetracycline only stimulated the body weight of males (AM males) at 1.0 µg/L. In the afternoon-eclosed adults, tetracycline significantly stimulated the body weight of females (PM females) at 0.1, 1.0 and 100.0 µg/L, while it showed more significant stimulation in males (PM males) at all concentrations. Notably, the stimulation levels were the greatest in PM males among all the adults. The results showed the clear sex dependence of the obesogenic effects, which was diminished by dysrhythmia. Further biochemical assays and clustering analysis suggested that the sex- and rhythm-dependent obesogenic effects resulted from the bias toward lipogenesis against lipolysis. Moreover, they were closely related to the preference for the energy storage forms of lactate and glucose and also to the presence of excessive insulin, with the involvement of glucolipid metabolism. Such relationships indicated potential bridges between the obesogenic effects of pollutants and other diseases, e.g., cancer and diabetes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Insulinas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Glucose , Insulinas/farmacologia , Lactatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Tetraciclina/toxicidade
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129826, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084456

RESUMO

Metastasis includes tumor invasion and migration and underlies over 90% of cancer mortality. The metastatic effects of environmental carcinogens raised serious health concerns. However, the underlying mechanisms remained poorly studied. In the present study, an in vivo RasV12/lgl-/- model of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, with an 8-day exposure was employed to explore the metastatic effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2). At 1.0 mg/L, PCB126, PFOA, and CdCl2 significantly increased tumor invasion rates by 1.32-, 1.33-, and 1.29-fold of the control, respectively. They also decreased the larval body weight and locomotion behavior. Moreover, they commonly disturbed the expression levels of target genes in MAPK and UPR pathways, and their metastatic effects were significantly abolished by the addition of p38 inhibitor (SB203580), JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and IRE1 inhibitor (KIRA6). Notably, the addition of the IRE inhibitor significantly influenced sna/E-cad pathway which is essential in both p38 and JNK regulations. The results demonstrated an essential role of sna/E-cad in connecting the effects of carcinogens on UPR and MAPK regulations and the resultant metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais , Neoplasias , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio , Caprilatos , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Fluorcarbonetos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104539, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087786

RESUMO

Intestinal tissue functions in innate immunity to prevent the entry of harmful substances, and to maintain homeostasis through the constant proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). To understand the mechanisms which regulate ISC in response to gut damage, we identified 81 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) through RNA-seq analysis after oral administration of three intestinal-damaging substances to Drosophila melanogaster. Through protein-protein interaction (PPI) and functional annotation studies, the top 22 DEGs ordered by the number of nodes in the PPI network were analyzed in relation to cell development. Through network topology analysis, we identified 12 essential seed genes. From this we confirmed that p53, RpL17, Fmr1, Stat92E, CG31343, Cnot4, CG9281, CG8184, Evi5, and to were essential for ISC proliferation during gut damage using knockdown RNAi Drosophila. This study presents a method for identifying candidate genes relating to intestinal damage that has scope for furthering our understanding of gut disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reguladores , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Células-Tronco , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
5.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 133: 107-122, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396167

RESUMO

During morphogenesis, changes in the shapes of individual cells are harnessed to mold an entire tissue. These changes in cell shapes require the coupled remodeling of the plasma membrane and underlying actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we highlight cellularization of the Drosophila embryo as a model system to uncover principles of how membrane and actin dynamics are co-regulated in space and time to drive morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Actinas , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Actinas/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo
6.
J Cell Biol ; 222(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399182

RESUMO

Maintaining long, energetically demanding axons throughout the life of an animal is a major challenge for the nervous system. Specialized glia ensheathe axons and support their function and integrity throughout life, but glial support mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we identified a collection of secreted and transmembrane molecules required in glia for long-term axon survival in vivo. We showed that the majority of components of the TGFß superfamily are required in glia for sensory neuron maintenance but not glial ensheathment of axons. In the absence of glial TGFß signaling, neurons undergo age-dependent degeneration that can be rescued either by genetic blockade of Wallerian degeneration or caspase-dependent death. Blockade of glial TGFß signaling results in increased ATP in glia that can be mimicked by enhancing glial mitochondrial biogenesis or suppressing glial monocarboxylate transporter function. We propose that glial TGFß signaling supports axon survival and suppresses neurodegeneration through promoting glial metabolic support of neurons.


Assuntos
Axônios , Neuroglia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Nervos Periféricos/citologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Biogênese de Organelas , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo
7.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 136: 38-48, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595601

RESUMO

The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in Drosophila is found as two additive clusters of individual 35 S cistrons. The multiplicity of rDNA is essential to assure proper translational demands, but the nature of the tandem arrays expose them to copy number variation within and between populations. Here, we discuss means by which a cell responds to insufficient rDNA copy number, including a historical view of rDNA magnification whose mechanism was inferred some 35 years ago. Recent work has revealed that multiple conditions may also result in rDNA loss, in response to which rDNA magnification may have evolved. We discuss potential models for the mechanism of magnification, and evaluate possible consequences of rDNA copy number variation.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila/genética , Ribossomos
8.
J Cell Biol ; 222(2)2023 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409222

RESUMO

In Drosophila melanogaster, the anterior-posterior body axis is maternally established and governed by differential localization of partitioning defective (Par) proteins within the oocyte. At mid-oogenesis, Par-1 accumulates at the oocyte posterior end, while Par-3/Bazooka is excluded there but maintains its localization along the remaining oocyte cortex. Past studies have proposed the need for somatic cells at the posterior end to initiate oocyte polarization by providing a trigger signal. To date, neither the molecular identity nor the nature of the signal is known. Here, we provide evidence that mechanical contact of posterior follicle cells (PFCs) with the oocyte cortex causes the posterior exclusion of Bazooka and maintains oocyte polarity. We show that Bazooka prematurely accumulates exclusively where posterior follicle cells have been mechanically detached or ablated. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PFC contact maintains Par-1 and oskar mRNA localization and microtubule cytoskeleton polarity in the oocyte. Our observations suggest that cell-cell contact mechanics modulates Par protein binding sites at the oocyte cortex.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Folículo Ovariano , Animais , Feminino , Padronização Corporal , Polaridade Celular , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/fisiologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 616-629, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375944

RESUMO

The widely use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as antimicrobial agents gives rise to potential environmental risks. AgNPs exposure have been reported to cause toxicity in animals. Nevertheless, the known mechanisms of AgNPs toxicity are still limited. In this study, we systematically investigated the toxicity of AgNPs exposure using Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that AgNPs significantly decreased Drosophila fecundity, the third-instar larvae weight and rates of pupation and eclosion in a dose-dependent manner. AgNPs reduced fat body cell viability in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. AgNPs caused DNA damage in hemocytes and S2 cells. Interestingly, the mRNA levels of the entire metallothionein gene family were increased under AgNPs exposure as determined by RNA-seq analysis and validated by qRT-PCR, indicating that Drosophila responded to the metal toxicity of AgNPs by producing metallothioneins for detoxification. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of AgNPs toxicity and may provide clues to effect on other organisms, including humans.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Humanos , Animais , Prata/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Drosophila , Mecanismos de Defesa
10.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 138: 104-116, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393234

RESUMO

Over the last decade, the combination of genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches yielded substantial insights into the mechanisms behind the synthesis and breakdown of energy stores in the model organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been particularly useful to unravel genetic regulations of energy metabolism. Despite the considerable evolutionary distance between humans and flies, the energy storage organs, main metabolic pathways, and even their genetic regulations remained relatively conserved. Glycogen and fat are universal energy reserves used in all animal phyla and several of their endocrine regulators, such as the insulin pathway, are highly evolutionarily conserved. Nevertheless, some of the factors inducing catabolism of energy stores have diverged significantly during evolution. Moreover, even within a single insect species, D. melanogaster, there are substantial developmental and context-dependent variances in the regulation of energy stores. These differences include, among others, the endocrine pathways that govern the catabolic events or the predominant fuel which is utilized for the given process. For example, many catabolic regulators that control energy reserves in adulthood seem to be largely dispensable for energy mobilization during development. In this review, we focus on a selection of the most important catabolic regulators from the group of peptide hormones (Adipokinetic hormone, Corazonin), catecholamines (octopamine), steroid hormones (20-hydroxyecdysone), and other factors (extracellular adenosine, regulators of lipase Brummer). We discuss their roles in the mobilization of energy reserves for processes such as development through non-feeding stages, flight or starvation survival. Finally, we conclude with future perspectives on the energy balance research in the fly model.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Glicogênio , Animais , Humanos , Adulto , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Lipólise , Drosophila/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 138: 128-141, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440411

RESUMO

Infection with pathogenic microbes is a severe threat that hosts manage by activating the innate immune response. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Toll and Imd signaling pathways are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to initiate cellular and humoral immune processes that neutralize and kill invaders. The Toll and Imd signaling pathways operate in organs such as fat body and gut that control host nutrient metabolism, and infections or genetic activation of Toll and Imd signaling also induce wide-ranging changes in host lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Metabolic regulation by immune signaling can confer resistance to or tolerance of infection, but it can also lead to pathology and susceptibility to infection. These immunometabolic phenotypes are described in this review, as are changes in endocrine signaling and gene regulation that mediate survival during infection. Future work in the field is anticipated to determine key variables such as sex, dietary nutrients, life stage, and pathogen characteristics that modify immunometabolic phenotypes and, importantly, to uncover the mechanisms used by the immune system to regulate metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 138: 117-127, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469676

RESUMO

Adult females and males of most species differ in many aspects of their morphology, physiology and behavior, in response to sex-specific selective pressures that maximize fitness. While we have an increasingly good understanding of the genetic mechanisms that initiate these differences, the sex-specific developmental trajectories that generate them are much less well understood. Here we review recent advances in the sex-specific regulation of development focusing on two models where this development is increasingly well understood: Sexual dimorphism of body size in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and sexual dimorphism of horns in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. Because growth and development are also supported by metabolism, the regulation of sex-specific metabolism during and after development is an important aspect of the generation of female and male phenotypes. Hitherto, the study of sex-specific development has largely been independent of the study of sex-specific metabolism. Nevertheless, as we discuss in this review, recent research has begun to reveal considerable overlap in the cellular and physiological mechanisms that regulate sex-specific development and metabolism.


Assuntos
Besouros , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Besouros/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2607: 95-114, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449160

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs), also known as transposons, are repetitive DNA sequences, present in virtually all organisms, that can move from one genomic position to another. TEs can be a source of mutations with important consequences for organisms. Despite their interest, its repetitive nature has made their study very challenging. However, the emergence of new sequencing technologies that allow obtaining long-read sequences, has improved the in silico de novo detection and annotation of TEs. The de novo annotation of TEs has already been performed in several organisms including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Yet, experimental validation can be used to confirm the presence of TEs in specific D. melanogaster natural populations. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol to experimentally validate by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the presence and/or absence of TEs in natural populations of D. melanogaster. This detailed protocol has been implemented in the participant high schools of the Citizen Fly Lab activity that is part of the international citizen science project Melanogaster: Catch the Fly! ( https://melanogaster.eu ). Specifically, the students collaborate with the scientists of the European Drosophila Population Genomics Consortium (DrosEU) in the experimental validation of new genetic variants, previously identified using bioinformatic techniques.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Drosophila melanogaster , Humanos , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Drosophila , Genômica
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2607: 311-327, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449168

RESUMO

The extent of transposable element (TE) mobilization in different somatic tissues and throughout diverse species is not well understood. Somatic transposition is often challenging to study as it generates de novo TE insertions that represent rare genetic variants present in heterogenous tissues. Here, we describe experimental approaches that can be applied to address TE mobility in somatic tissues with the use of short- and long-read whole-genome DNA sequencing. Focusing on the analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster intestinal and head tissues, we provide instructions on how to design, perform, and validate experiments that aim at detecting somatic transposition. In addition to providing examples of protocols, this chapter intends to deliver general experimental guidelines that may be adapted to other fly tissues or to other species.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347494

RESUMO

Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is an important heavy metal widely regarded as an environmental contaminant. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, has an established properties against free radicals, apoptosis, and inflammation. The present study investigated the protective actions of hesperidin on CdCl2-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in Drosophila melanogaster. For 7 consecutive days via their diet regimen, the flies were exposed to CdCl2 alone (0.05 mM) or in combination with hesperidin (50 and 100 µM). Exposure to CdCl2 significantly (p < 0.05) increased mortality rate of flies, whereas the survived flies demonstrated significant oxidative toxicity from decreased activities of catalase and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Total Thiol (T-SH) and Non-Protein Thiols (NPSH) levels as well as accumulation of Nitric Oxide (NO (nitrite/nitrate)), protein carbonyl and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). However, hesperidin-supplemented diet improved Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, mitochondrial metabolic rate (cell viability), locomotor activity, and amelioration of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by CdCl2. The hesperidin diet supplement boosted the antioxidant milieu and ameliorated the oxidative damage in the treated flies. Overall, the findings revealed that hesperidin improved antioxidative protective capacity in Drosophila melanogaster model of CdCl2-induced toxicity. This suggests hesperidin as a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress disorders due to exposure to CdCl2 and or related toxicants.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio , Hesperidina , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Cloretos , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Acetilcolinesterase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico , Inflamação
16.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 133: 74-82, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365398

RESUMO

Cells with subcellular lumens form some of the most miniature tubes in the tubular organs of animals. These are often crucial components of the system, executing functions at remote body locations. Unlike tubes formed by intercellular or autocellular junctions, the cells with junctionless subcellular lumens face unique challenges in modifying the cell shape and plasma membrane organization to incorporate a membrane-bound tube within, often associated with dramatic cellular growth and extensions. Results in the recent years have shown that membrane dynamics, including both the primary delivery and recycling, is crucial in providing the cell with the flexibility to face these challenges. A significant portion of this information has come from two in vivo invertebrate models; the Drosophila tracheal terminal cells and the C. elegans excretory cell. This review focuses on the data obtained from these systems in the recent past about how trafficking pathways influence subcellular tube and branching morphogenesis. Given that such tubes occur in vertebrate vasculature, these insights are relevant to human health, and we contrast our conclusions with the less understood subcellular tubes of angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Drosophila/metabolismo
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 637: 196-202, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403483

RESUMO

E3 ubiquitin ligase, HOIL1-interacting protein (HOIP), forms the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) with HOIL and SHANK-associated RH domain interactor and catalyzes linear ubiquitination, directly linking the N- and C-termini of ubiquitin. Recently, several studies have implicated linear ubiquitination in aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, little is currently known about the roles of HOIP in brain aging and AD pathology. Here, we investigated the role of linear ubiquitin E3 ligase (LUBEL), a Drosophila HOIP ortholog, in brain aging and amyloid ß (Aß) pathology in a Drosophila AD model. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were increased in the aged brains of neuron-specific LUBEL-knockdown flies compared to the age-matched controls. Silencing of LUBEL in the neuron of AD model flies increased the neuronal apoptosis and neurodegeneration, whereas silencing in glial cells had no such effect. Aß aggregation levels and DSBs were also increased in the LUBEL-silenced AD model fly brains, but autophagy and proteostasis were not affected by LUBEL silencing. Collectively, our results suggest that LUBEL protects neurons from aging-induced DNA damage and Aß neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Ubiquitina , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Encéfalo , Envelhecimento , Dano ao DNA , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Drosophila
18.
Elife ; 112022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398882

RESUMO

The agricultural pest Drosophila suzukii differs from most other Drosophila species in that it lays eggs in ripe, rather than overripe, fruit. Previously, we showed that changes in bitter taste sensation accompanied this adaptation (Dweck et al., 2021). Here, we show that D. suzukii has also undergone a variety of changes in sweet taste sensation. D. suzukii has a weaker preference than Drosophila melanogaster for laying eggs on substrates containing all three primary fruit sugars: sucrose, fructose, and glucose. Major subsets of D. suzukii taste sensilla have lost electrophysiological responses to sugars. Expression of several key sugar receptor genes is reduced in the taste organs of D. suzukii. By contrast, certain mechanosensory channel genes, including no mechanoreceptor potential C, are expressed at higher levels in the taste organs of D. suzukii, which has a higher preference for stiff substrates. Finally, we find that D. suzukii responds differently from D. melanogaster to combinations of sweet and mechanosensory cues. Thus, the two species differ in sweet sensation, mechanosensation, and their integration, which are all likely to contribute to the differences in their egg-laying preferences in nature.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Açúcares , Oviposição , Sensação
19.
J Immunol ; 209(10): 1817-1825, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426939

RESUMO

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Toll signaling pathway has an evolutionarily conserved role in controlling immune responses. Whereas the microbial recognition mechanisms and the core signaling pathway leading to activation of the humoral immune response via the NF-κB transcription factors have been well established for many years, the mechanistic understanding of the effector functions at the molecular level is currently rapidly evolving. In this review, we discuss the current developments in elucidating the role of the Drosophila Toll signaling pathway in immunity. We discuss the emerging role of Toll in viral infections and sex-specific differences in immunity. Mainly, we focus on Toll pathway regulation, the effector molecules, and cellular immunity.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Celular
20.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 781, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse class of RNAs that are critical for gene regulation, DNA repair, and splicing, and have been implicated in development, stress response, and cancer. However, the functions of many lncRNAs remain unknown. In Drosophila melanogaster, U snoRNA host gene 4 (Uhg4) encodes an antisense long noncoding RNA that is host to seven small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Uhg4 is expressed ubiquitously during development and in all adult tissues, with maximal expression in ovaries; however, it has no annotated function(s). RESULTS: We used CRISPR-Cas9 germline gene editing to generate multiple deletions spanning the promoter region and first exon of Uhg4. Females showed arrested egg development and both males and females were sterile. In addition, Uhg4 deletion mutants showed delayed development and decreased viability, and changes in sleep and responses to stress. Whole-genome RNA sequencing of Uhg4 deletion flies and their controls identified co-regulated genes and genetic interaction networks associated with Uhg4. Gene ontology analyses highlighted a broad spectrum of biological processes, including regulation of transcription and translation, morphogenesis, and stress response. CONCLUSION: Uhg4 is a lncRNA essential for reproduction with pleiotropic effects on multiple fitness traits.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno , Splicing de RNA , Redes Reguladoras de Genes
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