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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4818, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376687

RESUMO

The enteroendocrine cell (EEC)-derived incretins play a pivotal role in regulating the secretion of glucagon and insulins in mammals. Although glucagon-like and insulin-like hormones have been found across animal phyla, incretin-like EEC-derived hormones have not yet been characterised in invertebrates. Here, we show that the midgut-derived hormone, neuropeptide F (NPF), acts as the sugar-responsive, incretin-like hormone in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Secreted NPF is received by NPF receptor in the corpora cardiaca and in insulin-producing cells. NPF-NPFR signalling resulted in the suppression of the glucagon-like hormone production and the enhancement of the insulin-like peptide secretion, eventually promoting lipid anabolism. Similar to the loss of incretin function in mammals, loss of midgut NPF led to significant metabolic dysfunction, accompanied by lipodystrophy, hyperphagia, and hypoglycaemia. These results suggest that enteroendocrine hormones regulate sugar-dependent metabolism through glucagon-like and insulin-like hormones not only in mammals but also in insects.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/genética , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Incretinas/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Mutação , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446207

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that blockers of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 2-methoxy-N-((1-phenylcyclopentyl)methyl)benzamide (2-MPB) synergized pyrethroid toxicity as well, or better than, piperonyl butoxide. The present study assessed the involvement of different Kv channels as possible pyrethroid synergist targets in Drosophila melanogaster. Three Kv1 mutants (Sh5, Sh133, and ShM) and one Kv2 mutant (Shab3) were tested. All Kv1 mutant flies showed increased sensitivity to permethrin in topical and glass contact toxicity assays, of 2- to 11-fold. Central nervous system (CNS) recordings of larval D. melanogaster showed a similar pattern of increased sensitivity. Potentiated effects were also observed with deltamethrin on the mutants Sh5 (30- to 35-fold) and Sh133 (33- to 47-fold), but the mutant ShM showed little change in sensitivity. In contrast, the Shab3 strain showed toxicity and physiological effects of both pyrethroids that were similar to the susceptible OR strain. Thus, some K+ channel mutations mimicked the synergistic effect of channel blockers. Additional studies showed that Shab3 had the highest sensitivity to 4-AP in topical assays, and the Shaker-null mutants, ShM and Sh133 showed greater sensitivity to 2-MPB in CNS recordings of larval D. melanogaster. These results suggest that Kv1 channels are a useful synergist target for pyrethroids, as assessed both in whole insects and at the level of the nervous system. Thus, Kv1-targeting compounds can potentially serve as insect control tools to reduce pyrethroid use via synergistic action.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana , Piretrinas , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Permetrina , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Piretrinas/toxicidade
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 6): 396, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meiotic recombination is a vital biological process playing an essential role in genome's structural and functional dynamics. Genomes exhibit highly various recombination profiles along chromosomes associated with several chromatin states. However, eu-heterochromatin boundaries are not available nor easily provided for non-model organisms, especially for newly sequenced ones. Hence, we miss accurate local recombination rates necessary to address evolutionary questions. RESULTS: Here, we propose an automated computational tool, based on the Marey maps method, allowing to identify heterochromatin boundaries along chromosomes and estimating local recombination rates. Our method, called BREC (heterochromatin Boundaries and RECombination rate estimates) is non-genome-specific, running even on non-model genomes as long as genetic and physical maps are available. BREC is based on pure statistics and is data-driven, implying that good input data quality remains a strong requirement. Therefore, a data pre-processing module (data quality control and cleaning) is provided. Experiments show that BREC handles different markers' density and distribution issues. CONCLUSIONS: BREC's heterochromatin boundaries have been validated with cytological equivalents experimentally generated on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster genome, for which BREC returns congruent corresponding values. Also, BREC's recombination rates have been compared with previously reported estimates. Based on the promising results, we believe our tool has the potential to help bring data science into the service of genome biology and evolution. We introduce BREC within an R-package and a Shiny web-based user-friendly application yielding a fast, easy-to-use, and broadly accessible resource. The BREC R-package is available at the GitHub repository https://github.com/GenomeStructureOrganization .


Assuntos
Heterocromatina , Aplicativos Móveis , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Recombinação Genética
4.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3356-3367.e6, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297910

RESUMO

RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) pausing is essential to precisely control gene expression and is critical for development of metazoans. Here, we show that the m6A RNA modification regulates promoter-proximal RNAP II pausing in Drosophila cells. The m6A methyltransferase complex (MTC) and the nuclear reader Ythdc1 are recruited to gene promoters. Depleting the m6A MTC leads to a decrease in RNAP II pause release and in Ser2P occupancy on the gene body and affects nascent RNA transcription. Tethering Mettl3 to a heterologous gene promoter is sufficient to increase RNAP II pause release, an effect that relies on its m6A catalytic domain. Collectively, our data reveal an important link between RNAP II pausing and the m6A RNA modification, thus adding another layer to m6A-mediated gene regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
5.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282733

RESUMO

Genetic differentiation among different natural populations of a species depends upon the environmental factors and the evolutionary forces that operate on them. In this study, seven Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata, two from north and five from south India, have been studied for their chromosomal inversion polymorphism. A total of nine paracentric autosomal inversions were recorded from these seven places but only three of them, present on the 2L, 2R and 3L were found to be cosmopolitan in distribution. In all the populations, the frequency of standard gene arrangement was found to be high than their respective cosmopolitan inversion gene arrangement. The average heterozygosity (Ho) of cosmopolitan inversions increases from north to south. There is a latitudinal cline in the distribution of three cosmopolitan inversion arrangements because their frequency increases with the decreasing latitude, i.e. from north to south India. A comparison of the genetic profile of two north Indian and five south Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata reveals the role of natural selection as well as bottleneck effect in the genetic structuring of these populations which may be due to their varying ecological conditions to which they are constantly encountered. Further, the presence of all kinds of paracentric inversions in individual populations was analysed following Poisson distribution to see whether these inversions occur randomly in natural populations or not and the results indicate that north Indian populations show the random occurrence of these inversions than the populations derived from the south.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Drosophila/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Deriva Genética , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Índia , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4170, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234130

RESUMO

Genome organization is driven by forces affecting transcriptional state, but the relationship between transcription and genome architecture remains unclear. Here, we identified the Drosophila transcription factor Motif 1 Binding Protein (M1BP) in physical association with the gypsy chromatin insulator core complex, including the universal insulator protein CP190. M1BP is required for enhancer-blocking and barrier activities of the gypsy insulator as well as its proper nuclear localization. Genome-wide, M1BP specifically colocalizes with CP190 at Motif 1-containing promoters, which are enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders. M1BP facilitates CP190 chromatin binding at many shared sites and vice versa. Both factors promote Motif 1-dependent gene expression and transcription near TAD borders genome-wide. Finally, loss of M1BP reduces chromatin accessibility and increases both inter- and intra-TAD local genome compaction. Our results reveal physical and functional interaction between CP190 and M1BP to activate transcription at TAD borders and mediate chromatin insulator-dependent genome organization.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genoma de Inseto , Elementos Isolantes/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(16): 5865-5880, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232330

RESUMO

Many organs and tissues have an intrinsic ability to regenerate from a dedicated, tissue-specific stem cell pool. As organisms age, the process of self-regulation or homeostasis begins to slow down with fewer stem cells available for tissue repair. Tissues become more fragile and organs less efficient. This slowdown of homeostatic processes leads to the development of cellular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the recent use and future potential of optogenetic approaches to study homeostasis. Optogenetics uses photosensitive molecules and genetic engineering to modulate cellular activity in vivo, allowing precise experiments with spatiotemporal control. We look at applications of this technology for understanding the mechanisms governing homeostasis and degeneration as applied to widely used model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, where other common tools are less effective or unavailable.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Homeostase/genética , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Humanos , Optogenética/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Cicatrização/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299961

RESUMO

Foraging is vital for animals, especially for food. In Drosophila melanogaster, this behavior is controlled by the foraging gene (for) which encodes a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In wild populations of Drosophila, rover individuals that exhibit long foraging trails and sitter individuals that exhibit short ones coexist and are characterized by high and low levels of PKG activity, respectively. We, therefore, postulated that rover flies are more exposed to environmental stresses, including xenobiotics contamination, than sitter flies. We then tested whether these flies differed in their ability to cope with xenobiotics by exposing them to insecticides from different chemical families. We performed toxicological tests and measured the activity and expression levels of different classes of detoxification enzymes. We have shown that a link exists between the for gene and certain cytochrome P450-dependent activities and that the expression of the insecticide-metabolizing cytochrome P450 Cyp6a2 is controlled by the for gene. An unsuspected regulatory pathway of P450s expression involving the for gene in Drosophila is revealed and we demonstrate its involvement in adaptation to chemicals in the environment. This work can serve as a basis for reconsidering adaptation to xenobiotics in light of the behavior of species, including humans.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Xenobióticos , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genes vif , Larva , Xenobióticos/toxicidade
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4504, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301936

RESUMO

Genes are expressed in stochastic transcriptional bursts linked to alternating active and inactive promoter states. A major challenge in transcription is understanding how promoter composition dictates bursting, particularly in multicellular organisms. We investigate two key Drosophila developmental promoter motifs, the TATA box (TATA) and the Initiator (INR). Using live imaging in Drosophila embryos and new computational methods, we demonstrate that bursting occurs on multiple timescales ranging from seconds to minutes. TATA-containing promoters and INR-containing promoters exhibit distinct dynamics, with one or two separate rate-limiting steps respectively. A TATA box is associated with long active states, high rates of polymerase initiation, and short-lived, infrequent inactive states. In contrast, the INR motif leads to two inactive states, one of which relates to promoter-proximal polymerase pausing. Surprisingly, the model suggests pausing is not obligatory, but occurs stochastically for a subset of polymerases. Overall, our results provide a rationale for promoter switching during zygotic genome activation.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , TATA Box/genética , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Cinética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Yi Chuan ; 43(6): 615-622, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284991

RESUMO

Lipid is one of the important components of living organisms. The precise regulation and homeostasis maintenance of lipid metabolism are essential to human health. The ubiquitination pathway regulates lipid metabolism by degrading lipid-related proteins. Ppa encodes an F-box protein, which is a member of the SCF ubiquitination complex. Previous studies reported that Ppa regulated the body segmentation and the correct localization of centromere histones, while its function in lipid metabolism has not been reported. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was used to explore the function of Ppa in lipid storage. The subcellular localization of PPA was detected by fusion with green fluorescent protein. The deletion mutant of Ppa was constructed via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The morphological changes of lipid droplets in deletion mutants and Ppa overexpression flies were analyzed by BODIPY 493/503 or Nile red staining. Further, Ppa was overexpressed in the deletion mutant to verify its function. The results showed that PPA-GFP fusion protein were localized in the nuclei of salivary gland and fat body. Compared with the control flies, the lipid droplets in Ppa deletion mutants became smaller, and overexpression of Ppa exhibited larger lipid droplets. Overexpression of Ppa in the deletion mutant could restore the lipid droplets to normal state. In summary, this study demonstrated that Ppa could promote lipid storage in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201772

RESUMO

Nucleolar stress occurs when ribosome production or function declines. Nucleolar stress in stem cells or progenitor cells often leads to disease states called ribosomopathies. Drosophila offers a robust system to explore how nucleolar stress causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or autophagy depending on the cell type. We provide an overview of nucleolar stress in Drosophila by depleting nucleolar phosphoprotein of 140 kDa (Nopp140), a ribosome biogenesis factor (RBF) in nucleoli and Cajal bodies (CBs). The depletion of Nopp140 in eye imaginal disc cells generates eye deformities reminiscent of craniofacial deformities associated with the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), a human ribosomopathy. We show the activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in Drosophila larvae homozygous for a Nopp140 gene deletion. JNK is known to induce the expression of the pro-apoptotic Hid protein and autophagy factors Atg1, Atg18.1, and Atg8a; thus, JNK is a central regulator in Drosophila nucleolar stress. Ribosome abundance declines upon Nopp140 loss, but unusual cytoplasmic granules accumulate that resemble Processing (P) bodies based on marker proteins, Decapping Protein 1 (DCP1) and Maternal expression at 31B (Me31B). Wild type brain neuroblasts (NBs) express copious amounts of endogenous coilin, but coilin levels decline upon nucleolar stress in most NB types relative to the Mushroom body (MB) NBs. MB NBs exhibit resilience against nucleolar stress as they maintain normal coilin, Deadpan, and EdU labeling levels.


Assuntos
Nucléolo Celular/genética , Corpos Enovelados/patologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Corpos Enovelados/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfoproteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo
12.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4527, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312384

RESUMO

Optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity through excitatory and inhibitory opsins has become an indispensable experimental strategy in neuroscience research. For many applications bidirectional control of neuronal activity allowing both excitation and inhibition of the same neurons in a single experiment is desired. This requires low spectral overlap between the excitatory and inhibitory opsin, matched photocurrent amplitudes and a fixed expression ratio. Moreover, independent activation of two distinct neuronal populations with different optogenetic actuators is still challenging due to blue-light sensitivity of all opsins. Here we report BiPOLES, an optogenetic tool for potent neuronal excitation and inhibition with light of two different wavelengths. BiPOLES enables sensitive, reliable dual-color neuronal spiking and silencing with single- or two-photon excitation, optical tuning of the membrane voltage, and independent optogenetic control of two neuronal populations using a second, blue-light sensitive opsin. The utility of BiPOLES is demonstrated in worms, flies, mice and ferrets.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Opsinas/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Furões/genética , Furões/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Opsinas/genética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Células Piramidais/citologia , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Exp Biol ; 224(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297111

RESUMO

Visual motion detection is among the best understood neuronal computations. As extensively investigated in tethered flies, visual motion signals are assumed to be crucial to detect and counteract involuntary course deviations. During free flight, however, course changes are also signalled by other sensory systems. Therefore, it is as yet unclear to what extent motion vision contributes to course control. To address this question, we genetically rendered flies motion-blind by blocking their primary motion-sensitive neurons and quantified their free-flight performance. We found that such flies have difficulty maintaining a straight flight trajectory, much like unimpaired flies in the dark. By unilateral wing clipping, we generated an asymmetry in propulsive force and tested the ability of flies to compensate for this perturbation. While wild-type flies showed a remarkable level of compensation, motion-blind animals exhibited pronounced circling behaviour. Our results therefore directly confirm that motion vision is necessary to fly straight under realistic conditions.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Voo Animal , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Movimento (Física) , Visão Ocular , Asas de Animais
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199774

RESUMO

Over a thousand nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins are imported from the cytoplasm; however, mitochondrial (mt) DNA encodes for a small number of critical proteins and the entire suite of mt:tRNAs responsible for translating these proteins. Mitochondrial RNase P (mtRNase P) is a three-protein complex responsible for cleaving and processing the 5'-end of mt:tRNAs. Mutations in any of the three proteins can cause mitochondrial disease, as well as mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Great strides have been made in understanding the enzymology of mtRNase P; however, how the loss of each protein causes mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mt:tRNA processing in vivo has not been examined in detail. Here, we used Drosophila genetics to selectively remove each member of the complex in order to assess their specific contributions to mt:tRNA cleavage. Using this powerful model, we find differential effects on cleavage depending on which complex member is lost and which mt:tRNA is being processed. These data revealed in vivo subtleties of mtRNase P function that could improve understanding of human diseases.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Ribonuclease P/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mutação/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14709-14728, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074800

RESUMO

One of the genes which has been linked to the onset of juvenile/early onset Parkinson's disease (PD) is PINK1. There is evidence that supports the therapeutic potential of exercise in the alleviation of PD symptoms. It is possible that exercise may enhance synaptic plasticity, protect against neuro-inflammation and modulate L-Dopa regulated signalling pathways. We explored the effects of exercise on Pink1 deficient Drosophila melanogaster which undergo neurodegeneration and muscle degeneration. We used a 'power-tower' type exercise platform to deliver exercise activity to Pink1- and age matched wild-type Drosophila. Mitochondrial proteomic profiles responding to exercise were obtained. Of the 516 proteins identified, 105 proteins had different levels between Pink1- and wild-type non-exercised Drosophila. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and STRING network analysis highlighted proteins and pathways with altered expression within the mitochondrial proteome. Comparison of the Pink1- exercised proteome to wild-type proteomes showed that exercising the Pink1- Drosophila caused their proteomic profile to return towards wild-type levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteômica
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3291, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078905

RESUMO

The formation of hyperphosphorylated intracellular Tau tangles in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau hyperphosphorylation destabilizes microtubules, promoting neurodegeneration in AD patients. To identify suppressors of tau-mediated AD, we perform a screen using a microRNA (miR) library in Drosophila and identify the miR-9 family as suppressors of human tau overexpression phenotypes. CG11070, a miR-9a target gene, and its mammalian orthologue UBE4B, an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase, alleviate eye neurodegeneration, synaptic bouton defects, and crawling phenotypes in Drosophila human tau overexpression models. Total and phosphorylated Tau levels also decrease upon CG11070 or UBE4B overexpression. In mammalian neuroblastoma cells, overexpression of UBE4B and STUB1, which encodes the E3 ligase CHIP, increases the ubiquitination and degradation of Tau. In the Tau-BiFC mouse model, UBE4B and STUB1 overexpression also increase oligomeric Tau degradation. Inhibitor assays of the autophagy and proteasome systems reveal that the autophagy-lysosome system is the major pathway for Tau degradation in this context. These results demonstrate that UBE4B, a miR-9 target gene, promotes autophagy-mediated Tau degradation together with STUB1, and is thus an innovative therapeutic approach for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/patologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(8): 725-731, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101322

RESUMO

AIM: We examined the underlying mechanisms associated with the longevity effects of Korean mistletoe extract (KME) in Drosophila melanogaster. METHODS: We measured the lifespan of sirtuin, chico and foxo mutant flies fed KME, the expression of the forkhead box O (FOXO) target genes and insulin-like peptide genes, and the localization of FOXO in flies fed the KME. RESULTS: The longevity effect of KME was abolished in sirtuin, chico and foxo null mutant flies. In addition, the expression of FOXO target genes and the localization of FOXO into nuclei were increased in flies fed KME, but the expression of the insulin-like peptide genes was decreased by KME supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that KME extends the fly lifespan through sirtuin-induced FOXO activation. We suggest that KME has potential use as a beneficial anti-aging and longevity supplement. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 725-731.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Erva-de-Passarinho , Viscum album , Viscum , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Longevidade , República da Coreia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4024, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188051

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause nosocomial infections, especially in ventilated or cystic fibrosis patients. Highly pathogenic isolates express the phospholipase ExoU, an effector of the type III secretion system that acts on plasma membrane lipids, causing membrane rupture and host cell necrosis. Here, we use a genome-wide screen to discover that ExoU requires DNAJC5, a host chaperone, for its necrotic activity. DNAJC5 is known to participate in an unconventional secretory pathway for misfolded proteins involving anterograde vesicular trafficking. We show that DNAJC5-deficient human cells, or Drosophila flies knocked-down for the DNAJC5 orthologue, are largely resistant to ExoU-dependent virulence. ExoU colocalizes with DNAJC5-positive vesicles in the host cytoplasm. DNAJC5 mutations preventing vesicle trafficking (previously identified in adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a human congenital disease) inhibit ExoU-dependent cell lysis. Our results suggest that, once injected into the host cytoplasm, ExoU docks to DNAJC5-positive secretory vesicles to reach the plasma membrane, where it can exert its phospholipase activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Animais , Membrana Celular/patologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo
20.
Development ; 148(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124762

RESUMO

During development, gene expression regulates cell mechanics and shape to sculpt tissues. Epithelial folding proceeds through distinct cell shape changes that occur simultaneously in different regions of a tissue. Here, using quantitative imaging in Drosophila melanogaster, we investigate how patterned cell shape changes promote tissue bending during early embryogenesis. We find that the transcription factors Twist and Snail combinatorially regulate a multicellular pattern of lateral F-actin density that differs from the previously described Myosin-2 gradient. This F-actin pattern correlates with whether cells apically constrict, stretch or maintain their shape. We show that the Myosin-2 gradient and F-actin depletion do not depend on force transmission, suggesting that transcriptional activity is required to create these patterns. The Myosin-2 gradient width results from a gradient in RhoA activation that is refined through the balance between RhoGEF2 and the RhoGAP C-GAP. Our experimental results and simulations of a 3D elastic shell model show that tuning gradient width regulates tissue curvature.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Actomiosina , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Forma Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética
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