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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027732

RESUMO

Temperate insect species often enter diapause in preparation for overwintering. One such species is the invasive vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), which has seasonal polymorphisms, considered winter and summer morphs. To date, the morphs have been differentiated by color and size with winter morphs typically being darker and larger compared to summer morphs. 'Dark' and 'large' are subjective, however, and standardizing an identification process can ensure that the morph of interest is being accurately characterized. The goal of our research was to investigate a quantitative method to distinguish between D. suzukii morphs based on body and wing size. We reared winter and summer morph D. suzukii in the laboratory using standard procedures, and measured wing length, wing width, and hind tibia length. Additionally, we collected field D. suzukii to document the seasonal phenology of the morphs in Minnesota based on our model's cutoff criteria. A classification and regression tree analysis were used to determine which metrics would be best for predicting field-caught D. suzukii morphs. Using laboratory-reared flies as our known morphs for the training data in the classification model we developed classification trees based on wing length and the ratio of wing length to hind tibia length. The frequency of winter and summer morphs present in the field varied based on which classification tree was used. Nevertheless, we suggest ratio of wing length to hind tibia length as the most robust criteria for differentiating D. suzukii morphs because the ratio accounts for the size variability between laboratory-reared and field-caught flies and the error rate of misclassification is reduced to 0.01 for males. The results from this work can aid in future D. suzukii research by allowing scientists to objectively differentiate the morphs, and thereby improve our understanding of the biology and phenology of seasonal morph dynamics.


Assuntos
Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032373

RESUMO

The synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, is the principle Ca2+ sensor for synaptic transmission. Ca2+ influx into active nerve terminals is translated into neurotransmitter release by Ca2+ binding to synaptotagmin's tandem C2 domains, triggering the fast, synchronous fusion of multiple synaptic vesicles. Two hydrophobic residues, shown to mediate Ca2+-dependent membrane insertion of these C2 domains, are required for this process. Previous research suggested that one of its tandem C2 domains (C2B) is critical for fusion, while the other domain (C2A) plays only a facilitatory role. However, the function of the two hydrophobic residues in C2A have not been adequately tested in vivo. Here we show that these two hydrophobic residues are absolutely required for synaptotagmin to trigger vesicle fusion. Using in vivo electrophysiological recording at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction, we found that mutation of these two key C2A hydrophobic residues almost completely abolished neurotransmitter release. Significantly, mutation of both hydrophobic residues resulted in more severe deficits than those seen in synaptotagmin null mutants. Thus, we report the most severe phenotype of a C2A mutation to date, demonstrating that the C2A domain is absolutely essential for synaptotagmin's function as the electrostatic switch.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Humanos , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sinaptotagminas/química , Sinaptotagminas/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 168, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924754

RESUMO

Variations in transcription start site (TSS) selection reflect diversity of preinitiation complexes and can impact on post-transcriptional RNA fates. Most metazoan polymerase II-transcribed genes carry canonical initiation with pyrimidine/purine (YR) dinucleotide, while translation machinery-associated genes carry polypyrimidine initiator (5'-TOP or TCT). By addressing the developmental regulation of TSS selection in zebrafish we uncovered a class of dual-initiation promoters in thousands of genes, including snoRNA host genes. 5'-TOP/TCT initiation is intertwined with canonical initiation and used divergently in hundreds of dual-initiation promoters during maternal to zygotic transition. Dual-initiation in snoRNA host genes selectively generates host and snoRNA with often different spatio-temporal expression. Dual-initiation promoters are pervasive in human and fruit fly, reflecting evolutionary conservation. We propose that dual-initiation on shared promoters represents a composite promoter architecture, which can function both coordinately and divergently to diversify RNAs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , RNA/genética , RNA/fisiologia , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zigoto
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856229

RESUMO

Collective migration plays critical roles in animal development, physiological events, and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of collective cell migration are not well understood. Drosophila border cells represent an excellent in vivo genetic model to study collective cell migration and identify novel regulatory genes for cell migration. Using the Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker (MARCM) system, we screened 240 P-element insertion lines to identify essential genes for border cell migration. Two genes were uncovered, including dlg5 (discs large 5) and CG31689. Further analysis showed that Dlg5 regulates the apical-basal polarity and cluster integrity in border cell clusters. Dlg5 is enriched in lateral surfaces between border cells and central polar cells but also shows punctate localization between border cells. We found that the distribution of Dlg5 in border cell clusters is regulated by Armadillo. Structure-function analysis revealed that the N-terminal Coiled-coil domain and the C-terminal PDZ3-PDZ4-SH3-GUK domains but not the PDZ1-PDZ2 domains of Dlg5 are required for BC migration. The Coiled-coil domain and the PDZ4-SH3-GUK domains are critical for Dlg5's cell surface localization in border cell clusters.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Guanilato Quinases/metabolismo , Oogênese , Animais , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Polaridade Celular , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Genes Reporter , Guanilato Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Guanilato Quinases/química , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 412-425.e5, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492656

RESUMO

Surviving infection requires immune and repair mechanisms. Developing organisms face the additional challenge of integrating these mechanisms with tightly controlled developmental processes. The larval Drosophila midgut lacks dedicated intestinal stem cells. We show that, upon infection, larvae perform limited repair using adult midgut precursors (AMPs). AMPs differentiate in response to damage to generate new enterocytes, transiently depleting their pool. Developmental delay allows for AMP reconstitution, ensuring the completion of metamorphosis. Notch signaling is required for the differentiation of AMPs into the encasing, niche-like peripheral cells (PCs), but not to differentiate PCs into enterocytes. Dpp (TGF-ß) signaling is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PC differentiation into enterocytes. Infection-induced JAK-STAT pathway is both required and sufficient for differentiation of AMPs and PCs into new enterocytes. Altogether, this work highlights the constraints imposed by development on an organism's response to infection and demonstrates the transient use of adult precursors for tissue repair.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila/microbiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia , Metamorfose Biológica , Pectobacterium carotovorum/patogenicidade , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(9): e1007324, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527870

RESUMO

Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is a central task in systems biology. Most of the existing methods for GRN inference rely on gene co-expression analysis or TF-target binding information, where the determination of co-expression is often unreliable merely based on gene expression levels, and the TF-target binding data from high-throughput experiments may be noisy, leading to a high ratio of false links and missed links, especially for large-scale networks. In recent years, the microscopy images recording spatial gene expression have become a new resource in GRN reconstruction, as the spatial and temporal expression patterns contain much abundant gene interaction information. Till now, the spatial expression resources have been largely underexploited, and only a few traditional image processing methods have been employed in the image-based GRN reconstruction. Moreover, co-expression analysis using conventional measurements based on image similarity may be inaccurate, because it is the local-pattern consistency rather than global-image-similarity that determines gene-gene interactions. Here we present GripDL (Gene regulatory interaction prediction via Deep Learning), which incorporates high-confidence TF-gene regulation knowledge from previous studies, and constructs GRNs for Drosophila eye development based on Drosophila embryonic gene expression images. Benefitting from the powerful representation ability of deep neural networks and the supervision information of known interactions, the new method outperforms traditional methods with a large margin and reveals new intriguing knowledge about Drosophila eye development.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 691, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria perform many key roles in their eukaryotic hosts, from integrating signaling pathways through to modulating whole organism phenotypes. The > 1 billion years of nuclear and mitochondrial gene co-evolution has necessitated coordinated expression of gene products from both genomes that maintain mitochondrial, and more generally, eukaryotic cellular function. How mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation modifies host fitness has proved a challenging question but has profound implications for evolutionary and medical genetics. In Drosophila, we have previously shown that recently diverged mtDNA haplotypes within-species can have more impact on organismal phenotypes than older, deeply diverged haplotypes from different species. Here, we tested the effects of mtDNA haplotype variation on gene expression in Drosophila under standardized conditions. Using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), we constructed a panel of mitonuclear genotypes that consists of factorial variation in nuclear and mtDNA genomes, with mtDNAs originating in D. melanogaster (2x haplotypes) and D. simulans (2x haplotypes). RESULTS: We show that mtDNA haplotype variation unequivocally alters nuclear gene expression in both females and males, and mitonuclear interactions are pervasive modifying factors for gene expression. There was appreciable overlap between the sexes for mtDNA-sensitive genes, and considerable transcriptional variation attributed to particular mtDNA contrasts. These genes are generally found in low-connectivity gene co-expression networks, occur in gene clusters along chromosomes, are often flanked by non-coding RNA, and are under-represented among housekeeping genes. Finally, we identify the giant (gt) transcription factor motif as a putative regulatory sequence associated with mtDNA-sensitive genes. CONCLUSIONS: There are predictive conditions for nuclear genes that are influenced by mtDNA variation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Drosophila/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Genes Essenciais/genética , Genes Essenciais/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3339, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350387

RESUMO

Organs are sculpted by extracellular as well as cell-intrinsic forces, but how collective cell dynamics are orchestrated in response to environmental cues is poorly understood. Here we apply advanced image analysis to reveal extracellular matrix-responsive cell behaviors that drive elongation of the Drosophila follicle, a model system in which basement membrane stiffness instructs three-dimensional tissue morphogenesis. Through in toto morphometric analyses of wild type and round egg mutants, we find that neither changes in average cell shape nor oriented cell division are required for appropriate organ shape. Instead, a major element is the reorientation of elongated cells at the follicle anterior. Polarized reorientation is regulated by mechanical cues from the basement membrane, which are transduced by the Src tyrosine kinase to alter junctional E-cadherin trafficking. This mechanosensitive cellular behavior represents a conserved mechanism that can elongate edgeless tubular epithelia in a process distinct from those that elongate bounded, planar epithelia.


Assuntos
Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Matriz Extracelular/química , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Membrana Basal/química , Membrana Basal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Forma Celular , Drosophila/química , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo
9.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 626-637, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257561

RESUMO

Since the first reports of damage by Drosophila suzukii, the spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), over a decade ago in Europe, widespread efforts have been made to understand both the ecology and the evolution of this insect pest, especially due to its phylogenetic proximity to one of the original model organisms, D. melanogaster. In addition, researchers have sought to find economically viable solutions for the monitoring and management of this agricultural pest, which has now swept across much of Europe, North America and Asia. In a new direction of study, we present an investigation of plant-based chemistry, where we search for natural compounds that are structurally similar to known olfactory cues from parasitoid wasps that in turn are well-described ovipositional avoidance cues for many Drosophila species. Here we test 11 plant species across two plant genera, Nepeta and Actinidia, and while we find iridoid compounds in both, only those odorants from Actinidia are noted to be detected by the insect antenna, and in addition, found to be behaviorally active. Moreover, the Actinidia extracts resulted in oviposition avoidance when they were added to fruit samples in the laboratory. Thus we propose the possible efficacy of these plants or their extracted chemistry as a novel means for establishing a cost-effective integrated pest management strategy towards the control of this pest fly.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Nepeta/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Actinidia/parasitologia , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Nepeta/metabolismo , Nepeta/parasitologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(7): e1006635, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276489

RESUMO

The Drosophila larva executes a stereotypical exploratory routine that appears to consist of stochastic alternation between straight peristaltic crawling and reorientation events through lateral bending. We present a model of larval mechanics for axial and transverse motion over a planar substrate, and use it to develop a simple, reflexive neuromuscular model from physical principles. The mechanical model represents the midline of the larva as a set of point masses which interact with each other via damped translational and torsional springs, and with the environment via sliding friction forces. The neuromuscular model consists of: 1. segmentally localised reflexes that amplify axial compression in order to counteract frictive energy losses, and 2. long-range mutual inhibition between reflexes in distant segments, enabling overall motion of the model larva relative to its substrate. In the absence of damping and driving, the mechanical model produces axial travelling waves, lateral oscillations, and unpredictable, chaotic deformations. The neuromuscular model counteracts friction to recover these motion patterns, giving rise to forward and backward peristalsis in addition to turning. Our model produces spontaneous exploration, even though the nervous system has no intrinsic pattern generating or decision making ability, and neither senses nor drives bending motions. Ultimately, our model suggests a novel view of larval exploration as a deterministic superdiffusion process which is mechanistically grounded in the chaotic mechanics of the body. We discuss how this may provide new interpretations for existing observations at the level of tissue-scale activity patterns and neural circuitry, and provide some experimental predictions that would test the extent to which the mechanisms we present translate to the real larva.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais
11.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(4): 699-705, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069663

RESUMO

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive species originating in Southeast Asia and considered a severe pest in berry crops in several countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. In South America, the species was first detected in 2013. The objective of the study was to monitor the seasonal activity of D. suzukii in commercial crops of blackberry, strawberry guava, surinam cherry, blueberry, and strawberry during two consecutive harvests and in three properties in the Southern region of Brazil during the 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 harvests, with the aid of traps baited with apple cider vinegar. The highest population peaks were observed during late spring to mid-fall in all areas and plant species studied. It was verified that temperature is the factor that most influenced the seasonal activity of D. suzukii in the field, promoting low catches of the species during winter. However, even during periods of low temperatures (winter period), the presence of D. suzukii in the crops was verified, demonstrating the species' ability to stay in place from year to year, surviving in alternative hosts such as Eriobotrya japonica, a common species in the region. The information on the time of the highest occurrence of the pest in different hosts presented in this study provides the basis for decision-making in relation to the management of D. suzukii, to avoid further economic damage.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(6): 1541-1551, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076758

RESUMO

The birth-and-death evolutionary model proposes that some members of a multigene family are phylogenetically stable and persist as a single copy over time, whereas other members are phylogenetically unstable and undergo frequent duplication and loss. Functional studies suggest that stable genes are likely to encode essential functions, whereas rapidly evolving genes reflect phenotypic differences in traits that diverge rapidly among species. One such class of rapidly diverging traits are insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which play dual roles in chemical communications as short-range recognition pheromones as well as protecting the insect from desiccation. Insect CHCs diverge rapidly between related species leading to ecological adaptation and/or reproductive isolation. Because the CHC and essential fatty acid biosynthetic pathways share common genes, we hypothesized that genes involved in the synthesis of CHCs would be evolutionary unstable, whereas those involved in fatty acid-associated essential functions would be evolutionary stable. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the evolutionary history of the fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) gene family that encodes enzymes in CHC synthesis. We compiled a unique data set of 200 FAR proteins across 12 Drosophila species. We uncovered a broad diversity in FAR content which is generated by gene duplications, subsequent gene losses, and alternative splicing. We also show that FARs expressed in oenocytes and presumably involved in CHC synthesis are more unstable than FARs from other tissues. Taken together, our study provides empirical evidence that a comparative approach investigating the birth-and-death evolution of gene families can identify candidate genes involved in rapidly diverging traits between species.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Drosophila/enzimologia , Drosophila/genética , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Drosophila/classificação , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Duplicação Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Filogenia
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(12): 3340-3345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unintentional introduction of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) from Asia has caused global economic losses in the soft and stone fruit industries. Pesticide use can have unintended negative impacts on natural enemies, disrupting attempts to incorporate integrated pest management programmes. Generalist predators could potentially act as biocontrol agents of D. suzukii. In this context, the predatory capabilities of the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) were investigated. RESULTS: In semi-field conditions, F. auricularia were effective at reducing the reproductive rate of D. suzukii in more densely populated enclosures. In controlled laboratory conditions, significant negative effects of earwigs were observed for both low (three breeding pairs) and high (six breeding pairs) D. suzukii densities. Both semi-field and laboratory experiments revealed that F. auricularia predation on adult D. suzukii could not account for the subsequent reductions in population density. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in both larval and adult offspring in the presence of earwigs indicate an impact on D. suzukii via predation prior to metamorphosis or disruption of oviposition. Although F. auricularia may predate D. suzukii populations, its capacity to act as a biocontrol agent may be limited. However, results suggest that F. auricularia may be a more effective biocontrol agent earlier in the growing season. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060255

RESUMO

GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3) is a conserved protein kinase governing numerous regulatory pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, GSK3 is encoded by shaggy (sgg), which forms 17 annotated transcripts corresponding to 10 protein isoforms. Our goal was to demonstrate how differential sgg transcription affects lifespan, which GSK3 isoforms are important for the nervous system, and which changes in the nervous system accompany accelerated aging. Overexpression of three sgg transcripts affected the lifespan in a stage- and tissue-specific way: sgg-RA and sgg-RO affected the lifespan only when overexpressed in muscles and in embryos, respectively; the essential sgg-RB transcript affected lifespan when overexpressed in all tissues tested. In the nervous system, only sgg-RB overexpression affected lifespan, causing accelerated aging in a neuron-specific way, with the strongest effects in dopaminergic neurons and the weakest effects in GABAergic neurons. Pan-neuronal sgg-RB overexpression violated the properties of the nervous system, including the integrity of neuron bodies; the number, distribution, and structure of mitochondria; cytoskeletal characteristics; and synaptic activity. Such changes observed in young individuals indicated premature aging of their nervous system, which paralleled a decline in survival. Our findings demonstrated the key role of GSK3 in ensuring the link between the pathology of neurons and lifespan.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Longevidade/genética , Animais , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Genetics ; 212(2): 537-552, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975764

RESUMO

Organismal physiology emerges from metabolic pathways and subcellular structures like the mitochondria that can vary across development and among individuals. Here, we tested whether genetic variation at one level of physiology can be buffered at higher levels of biological organization during development by the inherent capacity for homeostasis in physiological systems. We found that the fundamental scaling relationship between mass and metabolic rate, as well as the oxidative capacity per mitochondria, changed significantly across development in the fruit fly Drosophila However, mitochondrial respiration rate was maintained at similar levels across development. Furthermore, larvae clustered into two types-those that switched to aerobic, mitochondrial ATP production before the second instar, and those that relied on anaerobic, glycolytic production of ATP through the second instar. Despite genetic variation for the timing of this metabolic shift, metabolic rate in second-instar larvae was more robust to genetic variation than was the metabolic rate of other instars. We found that larvae with a mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility that disrupts mitochondrial function had increased aerobic capacity and relied more on anaerobic ATP production throughout development relative to larvae from wild-type strains. By taking advantage of both ways of making ATP, larvae with this mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility maintained mitochondrial respiratory capacity, but also had higher levels of whole-body reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, potentially as a physiological defense mechanism. Thus, genetic defects in core physiology can be buffered at the organismal level via physiological plasticity, and natural populations may harbor genetic variation for distinct metabolic strategies in development that generate similar organismal outcomes.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Variação Genética , Larva/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Respiração
16.
J Insect Physiol ; 116: 77-89, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004669

RESUMO

Selection experiments offer an efficient way to study the evolvability of traits that play an important role in insects' reproduction and/or survival and to trace correlations and trade-offs between them. We have exercised bi-directional selection on Drosophila montana flies' pre-adult development time under constant light and temperature conditions for 10 generations and traced the indirect effects of this selection on females' diapause induction under different day lengths, as well as on the body weight and cold tolerance of both sexes. Overall, selection was successful towards slow, but not towards fast development. However, all fast selection line replicates showed at the end of selection increased variance in females' photoperiodic diapause response and about one hour increase in the critical day (CDL), where more than 50% of emerging females enter diapause. Indirect effects of selection on flies' body weight and cold-tolerance were less clear, as the flies of the slow selection line were significantly heavier and less cold-tolerant than the control line flies after five generations of selection, but lighter and more cold-tolerant at the end of selection. Changes in females' diapause induction resulting from selection for fast development could be due to common metabolic pathways underlying these traits, collaboration of circadian clock and photoperiodic timer and/or by the interaction between the endocrine and circadian systems.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2820-2829, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, we investigated measures adopted by Swiss grape growers in response to Drosophila suzukii by conducting a survey presenting information obtained from 372 growers on 1708 vineyards. RESULTS: We found the strategies adopted to be heterogeneous and largely dependent on grape variety (table vs. wine grapes). We identified six clusters of control methods to combat D. suzukii, the most important of which involves using a combination of control methods such as insecticides, mass trapping and sanitation measures, especially pinching of foliage or mowing and mulching. Grape growers in our sample rely primarily on information from public institutions or other growers and the majority plan to continue taking sanitation measures to combat D. suzukii. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that strategies adopted in Switzerland differ widely, not only between growers, but also at a vineyard and regional level. Thus, policies and extension services should be targeted (e.g. to varieties and regions) and tailored to types of growers. We find that preventive measures are important when combatting D. suzukii and can reduce post-infestation measures such as pesticide usage. In our sample, biological insecticides, such as kaolin, played a vital role in the control of D. suzukii and merit further support. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Insetos/estatística & dados numéricos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suíça
18.
Mech Dev ; 156: 20-31, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904594

RESUMO

In a screen for human kinases that regulate Xenopus laevis embryogenesis, we identified Nagk and other components of the UDP-GlcNAc glycosylation salvage pathway as regulators of anteroposterior patterning and Wnt signaling. We find that the salvage pathway does not affect other major embryonic signaling pathways (Fgf, TGFß, Notch, or Shh), thereby demonstrating specificity for Wnt signaling. We show that the role of the salvage pathway in Wnt signaling is evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish and Drosophila. Finally, we show that GlcNAc is essential for the growth of intestinal enteroids, which are highly dependent on Wnt signaling for growth and maintenance. We propose that the Wnt pathway is sensitive to alterations in the glycosylation state of a cell and acts as a nutritional sensor in order to couple growth/proliferation with its metabolic status. We also propose that the clinical manifestations observed in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) in humans may be due, in part, to their effects on Wnt signaling during development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Xenopus laevis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glicosilação , Humanos , Xenopus laevis/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1141-1151, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733382

RESUMO

In a large-scale RNAi screen in Tribolium castaneum for genes with knock-down phenotypes in the larval somatic musculature, one recurring phenotype was the appearance of larval muscle fibers that were significantly thinner than those in control animals. Several of the genes producing this knock-down phenotype corresponded to orthologs of Drosophila genes that are known to participate in myoblast fusion, particularly via their effects on actin polymerization. A new gene previously not implicated in myoblast fusion but displaying a similar thin-muscle knock-down phenotype was the Tribolium ortholog of Nostrin, which encodes an F-BAR and SH3 domain protein. Our genetic studies of Nostrin and Cip4, a gene encoding a structurally related protein, in Drosophila show that the encoded F-BAR proteins jointly contribute to efficient myoblast fusion during larval muscle development. Together with the F-Bar protein Syndapin they are also required for normal embryonic midgut morphogenesis. In addition, Cip4 is required together with Nostrin during the profound remodeling of the midgut visceral musculature during metamorphosis. We propose that these F-Bar proteins help govern proper morphogenesis particularly of the longitudinal midgut muscles during metamorphosis.


Assuntos
Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Tribolium/genética , Animais , Comunicação Celular/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Metamorfose Biológica , Morfogênese/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tribolium/metabolismo
20.
Oncogene ; 38(24): 4739-4754, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792539

RESUMO

Organ size is regulated by intercellular signaling for cell growth and proliferation. The TOR pathway mediates a key signaling mechanism for controlling cell size and number in organ growth. Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a complex that assists protein folding and function, but its role in animal development is largely unknown. Here we show that the CCT complex is required for organ growth by interacting with the TOR pathway in Drosophila. Reduction of CCT4 results in growth defects by affecting both cell size and proliferation. Loss of CCT4 causes preferential cell death anterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the eye disc and within wing pouch in the wing disc. Depletion of any CCT subunit in the eye disc results in headless phenotype. Overgrowth by active TOR signaling is suppressed by CCT RNAi. The CCT complex physically interacts with TOR signaling components including TOR, Rheb, and S6K. Loss of CCT leads to decreased phosphorylation of S6K and S6 while increasing phosphorylation of Akt. Insulin/TOR signaling is also necessary and sufficient for promoting CCT complex transcription. Our data provide evidence that the CCT complex regulates organ growth by directly interacting with the TOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chaperonina com TCP-1/fisiologia , Chaperoninas/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Chaperoninas/genética , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexos Multiproteicos/fisiologia , Organogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
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