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1.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693806

RESUMO

Background odors produced by plants in the environment can interfere with the response of insects to a point-releasing attractant, especially when their compositions overlap. In this study, a series of binary choice tests was conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate whether background odors emitted from cherry, blueberry, blackberry, or raspberry fruits would affect the level of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) attraction to its symbiotic yeast, Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus) (Saccharomycetales: Saccharomycetaceae). Whether an increase in the intensity of background odors would affect the attractiveness of H. uvarum to D. suzukii was also investigated, either by increasing the number of cherry or raspberry fruit per cup or by increasing the number of fruit cups surrounding the cup baited with the yeast. In wind tunnel assays, background fruit odors interfering with D. suzukii attraction to the yeast varied among fruit types. Raspberry odor inhibited the attractiveness of H. uvarum to the fly the most, followed by blackberry odor, whereas cherry and blueberry odors had no significant impact on the attraction. An increase in the intensity of odors by adding more cherry or raspberry fruit per cup did not increase the impact of fruit odor on the attraction; however, adding more raspberry cups around H. uvarum linearly decreased its attractiveness, suggesting that background host fruit abundance and likely increase in host odor may influence D. suzukii attraction to yeast odor depending on host species.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Frutas/fisiologia , Hanseniaspora , Odorantes , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Drosophila/microbiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Rubus/fisiologia , Saccharomycetales , Simbiose
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241696, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326445

RESUMO

Automated quantification of behavior is increasingly prevalent in neuroscience research. Human judgments can influence machine-learning-based behavior classification at multiple steps in the process, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches. Such steps include the design of the algorithm for machine learning, the methods used for animal tracking, the choice of training images, and the benchmarking of classification outcomes. However, how these design choices contribute to the interpretation of automated behavioral classifications has not been extensively characterized. Here, we quantify the effects of experimenter choices on the outputs of automated classifiers of Drosophila social behaviors. Drosophila behaviors contain a considerable degree of variability, which was reflected in the confidence levels associated with both human and computer classifications. We found that a diversity of sex combinations and tracking features was important for robust performance of the automated classifiers. In particular, features concerning the relative position of flies contained useful information for training a machine-learning algorithm. These observations shed light on the importance of human influence on tracking algorithms, the selection of training images, and the quality of annotated sample images used to benchmark the performance of a classifier (the 'ground truth'). Evaluation of these factors is necessary for researchers to accurately interpret behavioral data quantified by a machine-learning algorithm and to further improve automated classifications.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Comportamento de Escolha , Drosophila/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/normas , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pesquisadores/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo/normas , Gravação em Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23085-23095, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873637

RESUMO

Animals use active sensing to respond to sensory inputs and guide future motor decisions. In flight, flies generate a pattern of head and body movements to stabilize gaze. How the brain relays visual information to control head and body movements and how active head movements influence downstream motor control remains elusive. Using a control theoretic framework, we studied the optomotor gaze stabilization reflex in tethered flight and quantified how head movements stabilize visual motion and shape wing steering efforts in fruit flies (Drosophila). By shaping visual inputs, head movements increased the gain of wing steering responses and coordination between stimulus and wings, pointing to a tight coupling between head and wing movements. Head movements followed the visual stimulus in as little as 10 ms-a delay similar to the human vestibulo-ocular reflex-whereas wing steering responses lagged by more than 40 ms. This timing difference suggests a temporal order in the flow of visual information such that the head filters visual information eliciting downstream wing steering responses. Head fixation significantly decreased the mechanical power generated by the flight motor by reducing wingbeat frequency and overall thrust. By simulating an elementary motion detector array, we show that head movements shift the effective visual input dynamic range onto the sensitivity optimum of the motion vision pathway. Taken together, our results reveal a transformative influence of active vision on flight motor responses in flies. Our work provides a framework for understanding how to coordinate moving sensors on a moving body.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Asas de Animais/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4182, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826882

RESUMO

Living in a group allows individuals to decrease their defenses, enabling other beneficial behaviors such as foraging. The detection of a threat through social cues is widely reported, however, the safety cues that guide animals to break away from a defensive behavior and resume alternate activities remain elusive. Here we show that fruit flies display a graded decrease in freezing behavior, triggered by an inescapable threat, with increasing group sizes. Furthermore, flies use the cessation of movement of other flies as a cue of threat and its resumption as a cue of safety. Finally, we find that lobula columnar neurons, LC11, mediate the propensity for freezing flies to resume moving in response to the movement of others. By identifying visual motion cues, and the neurons involved in their processing, as the basis of a social safety cue this study brings new insights into the neuronal basis of safety in numbers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Drosophila/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Segurança , Comportamento Social , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Congelamento
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201286, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752988

RESUMO

Spermatozoa are the most morphologically diverse cell type, leading to the widespread assumption that they evolve rapidly. However, there is no direct evidence that sperm evolve faster than other male traits. Such a test requires comparing male traits that operate in the same selective environment, ideally produced from the same tissue, yet vary in function. Here, we examine rates of phenotypic evolution in sperm morphology using two insect groups where males produce fertile and non-fertile sperm types (Drosophila species from the obscura group and a subset of Lepidoptera species), where these constraints are solved. Moreover, in Drosophila we test the relationship between rates of sperm evolution and the link with the putative selective pressures of fertilization function and postcopulatory sexual selection exerted by female reproductive organs. We find repeated evolutionary patterns across these insect groups-lengths of fertile sperm evolve faster than non-fertile sperm. In Drosophila, fertile sperm length evolved faster than body size, but at the same rate as female reproductive organ length. We also compare rates of evolution of different sperm components, showing that head length evolves faster in fertile sperm while flagellum length evolves faster in non-fertile sperm. Our study provides direct evidence that sperm length evolves more rapidly in fertile sperm, probably because of their functional role in securing male fertility and in response to selection imposed by female reproductive organs.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização , Masculino
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23044-23053, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839324

RESUMO

Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test. Here, we demonstrate that in the fruit fly Drosophila, the illusory motion percept is generated by unbalanced contributions of direction-selective neurons' responses to stationary edges. First, we found that flies, like humans, perceive sustained motion in the stationary gradients. The percept was abolished when the elementary motion detector neurons T4 and T5 were silenced. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that T4 and T5 neurons encode the location and polarity of stationary edges. Furthermore, our proposed mechanistic model allowed us to predictably manipulate both the magnitude and direction of the fly's illusory percept by selectively silencing either T4 or T5 neurons. Interestingly, human brains possess the same mechanistic ingredients that drive our model in flies. When we adapted human observers to moving light edges or dark edges, we could manipulate the magnitude and direction of their percepts as well, suggesting that mechanisms similar to the fly's may also underlie this illusion in humans. By taking a comparative approach that exploits Drosophila neurogenetics, our results provide a causal, mechanistic account for a long-known visual illusion. These results argue that this illusion arises from architectures for motion detection that are shared across phyla.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Neurônios/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17269-17277, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611818

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the strongest environmental risk factor for the accelerated development of neurodegenerative diseases. There are currently no therapeutics to address this due to lack of insight into mechanisms of injury progression, which are challenging to study in mammalian models. Here, we have developed and extensively characterized a head-specific approach to TBI in Drosophila, a powerful genetic system that shares many conserved genes and pathways with humans. The Drosophila TBI (dTBI) device inflicts mild, moderate, or severe brain trauma by precise compression of the head using a piezoelectric actuator. Head-injured animals display features characteristic of mammalian TBI, including severity-dependent ataxia, life span reduction, and brain degeneration. Severe dTBI is associated with cognitive decline and transient glial dysfunction, and stimulates antioxidant, proteasome, and chaperone activity. Moreover, genetic or environmental augmentation of the stress response protects from severe dTBI-induced brain degeneration and life span deficits. Together, these findings present a tunable, head-specific approach for TBI in Drosophila that recapitulates mammalian injury phenotypes and underscores the ability of the stress response to mitigate TBI-induced brain degeneration.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16606-16615, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601210

RESUMO

Neural network function requires an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition to be maintained by homeostatic plasticity. However, little is known about homeostatic mechanisms in the intact central brain in vivo. Here, we study homeostatic plasticity in the Drosophila mushroom body, where Kenyon cells receive feedforward excitation from olfactory projection neurons and feedback inhibition from the anterior paired lateral neuron (APL). We show that prolonged (4-d) artificial activation of the inhibitory APL causes increased Kenyon cell odor responses after the artificial inhibition is removed, suggesting that the mushroom body compensates for excess inhibition. In contrast, there is little compensation for lack of inhibition (blockade of APL). The compensation occurs through a combination of increased excitation of Kenyon cells and decreased activation of APL, with differing relative contributions for different Kenyon cell subtypes. Our findings establish the fly mushroom body as a model for homeostatic plasticity in vivo.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Homeostase , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
10.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 268-279.e5, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592682

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant and accumulate with age in neurons of diverse species. However, only few circRNAs have been functionally characterized, and their role during aging has not been addressed. Here, we use transcriptome profiling during aging and find that accumulation of circRNAs is slowed down in long-lived insulin mutant flies. Next, we characterize the in vivo function of a circRNA generated by the sulfateless gene (circSfl), which is consistently upregulated, particularly in the brain and muscle, of diverse long-lived insulin mutants. Strikingly, lifespan extension of insulin mutants is dependent on circSfl, and overexpression of circSfl alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan. Moreover, circSfl is translated into a protein that shares the N terminus and potentially some functions with the full-length Sfl protein encoded by the host gene. Our study demonstrates that insulin signaling affects global circRNA accumulation and reveals an important role of circSfl during aging in vivo.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Insulina/fisiologia , Longevidade/genética , RNA Circular/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sulfotransferases/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20201030, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576111

RESUMO

Fertility depends, in part, on interactions between male and female reproductive proteins inside the female reproductive tract (FRT) that mediate postmating changes in female behaviour, morphology, and physiology. Coevolution between interacting proteins within species may drive reproductive incompatibilities between species, yet the mechanisms underlying postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ) isolating barriers remain poorly resolved. Here, we used quantitative proteomics in sibling Drosophila species to investigate the molecular composition of the FRT environment and its role in mediating species-specific postmating responses. We found that (i) FRT proteomes in D. simulans and D. mauritiana virgin females express unique combinations of secreted proteins and are enriched for distinct functional categories, (ii) mating induces substantial changes to the FRT proteome in D. mauritiana but not in D. simulans, and (iii) the D. simulans FRT proteome exhibits limited postmating changes irrespective of whether females mate with conspecific or heterospecific males, suggesting an active female role in mediating reproductive interactions. Comparisons with similar data in the closely related outgroup species D. melanogaster suggest that divergence is concentrated on the D. simulans lineage. Our study suggests that divergence in the FRT extracellular environment and postmating response contribute to previously described patterns of PMPZ isolation and the maintenance of species boundaries.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteômica , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3095, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555259

RESUMO

Genetically modified conditional lethal strains have been created to improve the control of insect pest populations damaging to human health and agriculture. However, understanding the potential for the genetic breakdown of lethality systems by rare spontaneous mutations, or selection for inherent suppressors, is critical since field release studies are in progress. This knowledge gap was addressed in a Drosophila tetracycline-suppressible embryonic lethality system by analyzing the frequency and structure of primary-site spontaneous mutations and second-site suppressors resulting in heritable survivors from 1.2 million zygotes. Here we report that F1 survivors due to primary-site deletions and indels occur at a 5.8 × 10-6 frequency, while survival due to second-site maternal-effect suppressors occur at a ~10-5 frequency. Survivors due to inherent lethal effector suppressors could result in a resistant field population, and we suggest that this risk may be mitigated by the use of dual redundant, albeit functionally unrelated, lethality systems.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Controle da População/métodos , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Insetos/genética , Mutação/genética , Zigoto/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484826

RESUMO

During the past decade, Drosophila suzukii has established itself as a global invasive fruit pest, enabled by its ability to lay eggs into fresh, ripening fruit. In a previous study, we investigated the impact of different strawberry accessions on the development of D. suzukii eggs, in the search of natural resistance. We identified several accessions that significantly reduced adult fly emergence from infested fruit. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the chemical basis of this effect. We first noted that one of the more resistant accessions showed an unusual enrichment of methyl anthranilate within its fruit, prompting us to investigate this fruit compound as a possible cause limiting fly development. We found that methyl anthranilate alone triggers embryo lethality in a concentration-dependent manner, unlike another comparable organic fruit compound. We also showed that a chemical fraction of the resistant strawberry accession that contains methyl anthranilate carries some activity toward the egg hatching rate. Surprisingly, in spite of the lethal effect of this compound to their eggs, adult females are not only attracted to methyl anthranilate at certain concentrations, but they also display a concentration-dependent preference to lay on substrates enriched in methyl anthranilate. This study demonstrates that methyl anthranilate is a potent agonist molecule against D. suzukii egg development. Its elevated concentration in a specific strawberry accession proven to reduce the fly development may explain, at least in part the fruit resistance. It further illustrates how a single, natural compound, non-toxic to humans could be exploited for biological control of a pest species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Volatilização , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
14.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478839

RESUMO

The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, which is widely spread in the main soft-skinned fruits production areas in China, presents a threat to importing countries. In order to develop a phytosanitary cold treatment measure for preventing the movement of this drosophila fly, cold tolerance of six immature life stages of D. suzukii was compared followed by time-mortality and large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in grape fruit. Egg was defined as the most cold-tolerant stage by comparing the mortality of all the immature stages (egg, first, second, and third instars, early and late pupa) treated at 0 and 2°C. The minimal lethal time (LT) for 99.9968% mortality (95% confidence level [CL]) estimated by the probit model was 10.47 d at 0°C and 11.92 d at 2°C, respectively. Hence, 11 d (at 0°C) and 12 d (at 2°C) were chosen as the target time to conduct the confirmatory tests. No survivors were found among the estimated 50,385 and 57,366 treated eggs, which resulted in the efficacy of 99.9941 and 99.9948% mortality (95% CL) at 0 and 2°C, respectively. Our study suggests a technical basis for cold disinfestation on D. suzukii in cage-infested Chinese 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape, which could provide flexible phytosanitary treatment for control of D. suzukii in the international trade of grape.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Drosophila/fisiologia , Frutas , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Vitis , Animais , China , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7898, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398716

RESUMO

Aggression plays a crucial role in survival all across the animal kingdom. In this study, we investigate the aggressive behaviour of Drosophila suzukii, a known agricultural pest. Bioassays were performed between same sex pairs and the effect of environmental (food deprivation, sex, age and photophase) and social factors (non-social and social). Initially the inter-male and inter-female aggression was determined ethologically consisting of several behaviour patterns. Two hours starvation period increase locomotor activity of flies, promoting increased aggressive behaviour. Most of the behavioural patterns were common between males and females with a few sex-selective. Number of male encounters was higher in flies held in isolation than in those that had been reared with siblings whereas in case of females, only those that were isolated exhibited increased aggression. Females and males D. suzukii that were 4-day-old were more aggressive. In addition it is found that on the 3rd hour after the beginning of photophase, regardless of age, both males and females rise to high intensity aggression patterns.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12402-12410, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430320

RESUMO

Habituation is a form of simple memory that suppresses neural activity in response to repeated, neutral stimuli. This process is critical in helping organisms guide attention toward the most salient and novel features in the environment. Here, we follow known circuit mechanisms in the fruit fly olfactory system to derive a simple algorithm for habituation. We show, both empirically and analytically, that this algorithm is able to filter out redundant information, enhance discrimination between odors that share a similar background, and improve detection of novel components in odor mixtures. Overall, we propose an algorithmic perspective on the biological mechanism of habituation and use this perspective to understand how sensory physiology can affect odor perception. Our framework may also help toward understanding the effects of habituation in other more sophisticated neural systems.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Memória , Redes Neurais de Computação , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia
17.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417920

RESUMO

After its initial discovery in California in 2008, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura has become one of the most important invasive agricultural pest insects across climate zones in much of Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Populations of D. suzukii have demonstrated notable behavioral and physiological plasticity, adapting to diverse environmental and climatic conditions, interspecific competition, novel food sources, and potential predators. This adaptability and plasticity have enabled rapid range expansion and diversified niche use by D. suzukii, making it a species particularly suited to changing habitats and conditions. This article reviews factors and evidence that influence plasticity in D. suzukii and promotes this species' invasiveness.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Drosophila/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Cadeia Alimentar
18.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(22): 4523-4551, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448994

RESUMO

Organisms adapt to changing environments by adjusting their development, metabolism, and behavior to improve their chances of survival and reproduction. To achieve such flexibility, organisms must be able to sense and respond to changes in external environmental conditions and their internal state. Metabolic adaptation in response to altered nutrient availability is key to maintaining energy homeostasis and sustaining developmental growth. Furthermore, environmental variables exert major influences on growth and final adult body size in animals. This developmental plasticity depends on adaptive responses to internal state and external cues that are essential for developmental processes. Genetic studies have shown that the fruit fly Drosophila, similarly to mammals, regulates its metabolism, growth, and behavior in response to the environment through several key hormones including insulin, peptides with glucagon-like function, and steroid hormones. Here we review emerging evidence showing that various environmental cues and internal conditions are sensed in different organs that, via inter-organ communication, relay information to neuroendocrine centers that control insulin and steroid signaling. This review focuses on endocrine regulation of development, metabolism, and behavior in Drosophila, highlighting recent advances in the role of the neuroendocrine system as a signaling hub that integrates environmental inputs and drives adaptive responses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11573-11583, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404421

RESUMO

Animals interact with each other in species-specific reproducible patterns. These patterns of organization are captured by social network analysis, and social interaction networks (SINs) have been described for a wide variety of species including fish, insects, birds, and mammals. The aim of this study is to understand the evolution of social organization in Drosophila Using a comparative ecological, phylogenetic, and behavioral approach, the different properties of SINs formed by 20 drosophilids were compared. We investigate whether drosophilid network structures arise from common ancestry, a response to the species' past climate, other social behaviors, or a combination of these factors. This study shows that differences in past climate predicted the species' current SIN properties. The drosophilid phylogeny offered no value to predicting species' differences in SINs through phylogenetic signal tests. This suggests that group-level social behaviors in drosophilid species are shaped by divergent climates. However, we find that the social distance at which flies interact correlated with the drosophilid phylogeny, indicating that behavioral elements of SINs have remained largely unchanged in their evolutionary history. We find a significant correlation of leg length to social distance, outlining the interdependence of anatomy and complex social structures. Although SINs display a complex evolutionary relationship across drosophilids, this study suggests that the ecology, and not common ancestry, contributes to diversity in social structure in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Drosophila , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Social , Animais , Drosophila/classificação , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11531-11540, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414916

RESUMO

A polarized architecture is central to both epithelial structure and function. In many cells, polarity involves mutual antagonism between the Par complex and the Scribble (Scrib) module. While molecular mechanisms underlying Par-mediated apical determination are well-understood, how Scrib module proteins specify the basolateral domain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate dependent and independent activities of Scrib, Discs-large (Dlg), and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) using the Drosophila follicle epithelium. Our data support a linear hierarchy for localization, but rule out previously proposed protein-protein interactions as essential for polarization. Cortical recruitment of Scrib does not require palmitoylation or polar phospholipid binding but instead an independent cortically stabilizing activity of Dlg. Scrib and Dlg do not directly antagonize atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), but may instead restrict aPKC localization by enabling the aPKC-inhibiting activity of Lgl. Importantly, while Scrib, Dlg, and Lgl are each required, all three together are not sufficient to antagonize the Par complex. Our data demonstrate previously unappreciated diversity of function within the Scrib module and begin to define the elusive molecular functions of Scrib and Dlg.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila , Células Epiteliais , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/citologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
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