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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4987, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404776

RESUMO

In Drosophila, direction-selective neurons implement a mechanism of motion computation similar to cortical neurons, using contrast-opponent receptive fields with ON and OFF subfields. It is not clear how the presynaptic circuitry of direction-selective neurons in the OFF pathway supports this computation if all major inputs are OFF-rectified neurons. Here, we reveal the biological substrate for motion computation in the OFF pathway. Three interneurons, Tm2, Tm9 and CT1, provide information about ON stimuli to the OFF direction-selective neuron T5 across its receptive field, supporting a contrast-opponent receptive field organization. Consistent with its prominent role in motion detection, variability in Tm9 receptive field properties transfers to T5, and calcium decrements in Tm9 in response to ON stimuli persist across behavioral states, while spatial tuning is sharpened by active behavior. Together, our work shows how a key neuronal computation is implemented by its constituent neuronal circuit elements to ensure direction selectivity.


Assuntos
Drosophila/metabolismo , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Clorfenamidina , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Interneurônios/metabolismo
2.
Prog Mol Subcell Biol ; 60: 27-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386871

RESUMO

The fact that satellite DNAs (satDNAs) in eukaryotes are abundant genomic components, can perform functional roles, but can also change rapidly across species while being homogenous within a species, makes them an intriguing and fascinating genomic component to study. It is also becoming clear that satDNAs represent an important piece in genome architecture and that changes in their structure, organization, and abundance can affect the evolution of genomes and species in many ways. Since the discovery of satDNAs more than 50 years ago, species from the Drosophila genus have continuously been used as models to study several aspects of satDNA biology. These studies have been largely concentrated in D. melanogaster and closely related species from the Sophophora subgenus, even though the vast majority of all Drosophila species belong to the Drosophila subgenus. This chapter highlights some studies on the satDNA structure, organization, and evolution in two species groups from the Drosophila subgenus: the repleta and virilis groups. We also discuss and review the classification of other abundant tandem repeats found in these species in the light of the current information available.


Assuntos
DNA Satélite , Drosophila , Animais , DNA Satélite/genética , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
3.
Prog Mol Subcell Biol ; 60: 1-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386870

RESUMO

Satellite repeats make up a large fraction of the genomes of many higher eukaryotes. Until recently these sequences were viewed as molecular parasites with few functions. Drosophila melanogaster and related species have a wealth of diverse satellite repeats. Comparative studies of Drosophilids have been instrumental in understanding how these rapidly evolving sequences change and move. Remarkably, satellite repeats have been found to modulate gene expression and mediate genetic conflicts between chromosomes and between closely related fly species. This suggests that satellites play a key role in speciation. We have taken advantage of the depth of research on satellite repeats in flies to review the known functions of these sequences and consider their central role in evolution and gene expression.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos , DNA Satélite/genética , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Evolução Molecular
4.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282733

RESUMO

Genetic differentiation among different natural populations of a species depends upon the environmental factors and the evolutionary forces that operate on them. In this study, seven Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata, two from north and five from south India, have been studied for their chromosomal inversion polymorphism. A total of nine paracentric autosomal inversions were recorded from these seven places but only three of them, present on the 2L, 2R and 3L were found to be cosmopolitan in distribution. In all the populations, the frequency of standard gene arrangement was found to be high than their respective cosmopolitan inversion gene arrangement. The average heterozygosity (Ho) of cosmopolitan inversions increases from north to south. There is a latitudinal cline in the distribution of three cosmopolitan inversion arrangements because their frequency increases with the decreasing latitude, i.e. from north to south India. A comparison of the genetic profile of two north Indian and five south Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata reveals the role of natural selection as well as bottleneck effect in the genetic structuring of these populations which may be due to their varying ecological conditions to which they are constantly encountered. Further, the presence of all kinds of paracentric inversions in individual populations was analysed following Poisson distribution to see whether these inversions occur randomly in natural populations or not and the results indicate that north Indian populations show the random occurrence of these inversions than the populations derived from the south.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Drosophila/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Deriva Genética , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Índia , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1208: 333-356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260032

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that delivers cellular contents to the lysosome for degradation. It not only serves as a bulk degradation system for various cytoplasmic components but also functions selectively to clear damaged organelles, aggregated proteins, and invading pathogens (Feng et al., Cell Res 24:24-41, 2014; Galluzzi et al., EMBO J 36:1811-36, 2017; Klionsky et al., Autophagy 12:1-222, 2016). The malfunction of autophagy leads to multiple developmental defects and diseases (Mizushima et al., Nature 451:1069-75, 2008). Drosophila and zebrafish are higher metazoan model systems with sophisticated genetic tools readily available, which make it possible to dissect the autophagic processes and to understand the physiological functions of autophagy (Lorincz et al., Cells 6:22, 2017a; Mathai et al., Cells 6:21, 2017; Zhang and Baehrecke, Trends Cell Biol 25:376-87, 2015). In this chapter, we will discuss recent progress that has been made in the autophagic field by using these animal models. We will focus on the protein machineries required for autophagosome formation and maturation as well as the physiological roles of autophagy in both Drosophila and zebrafish.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Autofagia , Citosol , Drosophila/genética , Lisossomos , Peixe-Zebra/genética
6.
Development ; 148(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313318

RESUMO

Heterozygosity of ribosomal protein genes causes a variety of developmental abnormalities in humans, which are collectively known as ribosomopathies, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we analyzed Drosophila Minute (M)/+ mutants, a group of mutants heterozygous for ribosomal protein genes that exhibit a characteristic thin-bristle phenotype. We found that, although M/+ flies develop essentially normal wings, simultaneous deletion of one copy of the Hippo pathway effector yki resulted in severe wing growth defects. These defects were caused by JNK-mediated cell death in the wing pouch via Eiger/TNF signaling. The JNK activation in M/+, yki/+ wing discs required the caspase Dronc, which is normally blocked by DIAP1. Notably, heterozygosity of yki reduced DIAP1 expression in the wing pouch, leading to elevation of Dronc activity. Dronc and JNK formed a positive-feedback loop that amplifies Dronc activation, leading to apoptosis. Our observations suggest a mechanism of robust tissue growth whereby tissues with reduced ribosomal protein prevent ectopic apoptosis via Yki activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2328: 67-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251620

RESUMO

Diverse cellular phenotypes are determined by groups of transcription factors (TFs) and other regulators that influence each others' gene expression, forming transcriptional gene regulatory networks (GRNs). In many biological contexts, especially in development and associated diseases, the expression of the genes in GRNs is not static but evolves in time. Modeling the dynamics of GRN state is an important approach for understanding diverse cellular phenomena such as cell-fate specification, pluripotency and cell-fate reprogramming, oncogenesis, and tissue regeneration. In this protocol, we describe how to model GRNs using a data-driven dynamic modeling methodology, gene circuits. Gene circuits do not require knowledge of the GRN topology and connectivity but instead learn them from training data, making them very general and applicable to diverse biological contexts. We utilize the MATLAB-based gene circuit modeling software Fast Inference of Gene Regulation (FIGR) for training the model on quantitative gene expression data and simulating the GRN. We describe all the steps in the modeling life cycle, from formulating the model, training the model using FIGR, simulating the GRN, to analyzing and interpreting the model output. This protocol highlights these steps with the example of a dynamical model of the gap gene GRN involved in Drosophila segmentation and includes example MATLAB statements for each step.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Software , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201604

RESUMO

The spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) is native to eastern Asia, but has become a global threat to fruit production. In recent years, CRISPR/Cas9 targeting was established in this species allowing for functional genomic and genetic control studies. Here, we report the generation and characterization of Cas9-expressing strains of D. suzukii. Five independent transgenic lines were generated using a piggyBac construct containing the EGFP fluorescent marker gene and the Cas9 gene under the control of the D. melanogaster heat shock protein 70 promoter and 3'UTR. Heat-shock (HS) treated embryos were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR, revealing strong heat inducibility of the transgenic Cas9 expression. By injecting gRNA targeting EGFP into one selected line, 50.0% of G0 flies showed mosaic loss-of-fluorescence phenotype, and 45.5% of G0 flies produced G1 mutants without HS. Such somatic and germline mutagenesis rates were increased to 95.4% and 85.7%, respectively, by applying a HS. Parental flies receiving HS resulted in high inheritance of the mutation (92%) in their progeny. Additionally, targeting the endogenous gene yellow led to the lack of pigmentation and male lethality. We discuss the potential use of these efficient and temperature-dependent Cas9-expressing strains for the genetic studies in D. suzukii.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Drosophila/genética , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Drosophila/embriologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Masculino , Mutagênese , Pigmentação/genética , Temperatura , Transgenes
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4061, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210982

RESUMO

PIWI proteins use guide piRNAs to repress selfish genomic elements, protecting the genomic integrity of gametes and ensuring the fertility of animal species. Efficient transposon repression depends on amplification of piRNA guides in the ping-pong cycle, which in Drosophila entails tight cooperation between two PIWI proteins, Aub and Ago3. Here we show that post-translational modification, symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA), of Aub is essential for piRNA biogenesis, transposon silencing and fertility. Methylation is triggered by loading of a piRNA guide into Aub, which exposes its unstructured N-terminal region to the PRMT5 methylosome complex. Thus, sDMA modification is a signal that Aub is loaded with piRNA guide. Amplification of piRNA in the ping-pong cycle requires assembly of a tertiary complex scaffolded by Krimper, which simultaneously binds the N-terminal regions of Aub and Ago3. To promote generation of new piRNA, Krimper uses its two Tudor domains to bind Aub and Ago3 in opposite modification and piRNA-loading states. Our results reveal that post-translational modifications in unstructured regions of PIWI proteins and their binding by Tudor domains that are capable of discriminating between modification states is essential for piRNA biogenesis and silencing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/química , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/química , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química
10.
Biol Lett ; 17(7): 20210194, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314641

RESUMO

Intrapopulation variation in behaviour, including activity, boldness and aggressiveness, is becoming more widely recognized and is hypothesized to substantially affect ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Although previous studies used candidate-gene approaches and genome-wide association analyses to identify genes correlated with variations in activity and aggressiveness, behavioural variation may not be fully captured in the nuclear genome, as it does not account for mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial genes encode products that are key regulators of the cellular energy-producing pathways in metabolic processes and are thought to play a significant role in life-history and reproductive traits. In this study, we considered many isofemale lines of Drosophila immigrans established from two wild populations to investigate whether intrapopulation variation in the mitochondrial genome affected activity level within this species. We identified two major haplogroups in these populations, and activity levels in both larvae and adults differed significantly between the two haplogroups. This result indicated that intrapopulation variation in activity level may be partially controlled by mitochondrial genes, along with the interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genes and the age of individual organisms.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Drosophila/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mitocôndrias/genética
11.
Genetica ; 149(3): 155-169, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129131

RESUMO

The adaptive value of chromosomal inversions continues raising relevant questions in evolutionary biology. In many species of the Drosophila genus, different inversions have been recognized to be related to thermal adaptation, but it is necessary to determine to which specific climatic variables the inversions are adaptive. With this aim, the behavior of thermal adapted inversions of Drosophila subobscura regarding climatic variables was studied in the natural population of Avala (Serbia) during the 2014-2017 period. The results obtained were compared with those previously reported in the Font Groga (Barcelona, Spain) population, which presents different climatic and environmental conditions. In both populations, it was observed that most thermal adapted inversions were significantly associated with the first, second or both principal components, which were related with maximum, minimum and mean temperatures. Moreover, a significant increase over years (2004-2017) for the minimum temperature was detected. In parallel, a significant variation over time in Avala was only observed for the frequencies of 'warm' and 'non-thermal' adapted inversions of the U chromosome. However, stability in the chromosomal inversion polymorphism was observed for the 2014-2017 period which might result from the temporal span of the study and/or selective process acting on the population.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Inversão Cromossômica , Drosophila/genética , Animais , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Drosophila/fisiologia , Ecótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7602-7617, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181732

RESUMO

Metazoan transcription factors distinguish their response elements from a large excess of similar sequences. We explored underlying principles of DNA shape read-out and factor cooperativity in chromatin using a unique experimental system. We reconstituted chromatin on Drosophila genomes in extracts of preblastoderm embryos, mimicking the naïve state of the zygotic genome prior to developmental transcription activation. We then compared the intrinsic binding specificities of three recombinant transcription factors, alone and in combination, with GA-rich recognition sequences genome-wide. For MSL2, all functional elements reside on the X chromosome, allowing to distinguish physiological elements from non-functional 'decoy' sites. The physiological binding profile of MSL2 is approximated through interaction with other factors: cooperativity with CLAMP and competition with GAF, which sculpts the profile by occluding non-functional sites. An extended DNA shape signature is differentially read out in chromatin. Our results reveal novel aspects of target selection in a complex chromatin environment.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Sistema Livre de Células , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Cromossomo X
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065869

RESUMO

The evolution of the GC (guanine cytosine) content at the third codon position of the histone genes (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4, H2AvD, H3.3A, H3.3B, and H4r) in 12 or more Drosophila species is reviewed. For explaining the evolution of the GC content at the third codon position of the genes, a model assuming selection with a deleterious effect for adenine/thymine and a size effect is presented. The applicability of the model to whole-genome genes is also discussed.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , Drosophila/genética , Histonas/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Códon/genética , Modelos Genéticos
14.
Toxicol Sci ; 182(2): 159-167, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076689

RESUMO

Big data approaches have profoundly influenced state-of-the-art in many fields of research, with toxicology being no exception. Here, we use Parkinson's disease as a window through which to explore the challenges of a dual explosion of metabolomic data addressing the myriad environmental exposures individuals experience and genetic analyses implicating many different loci as risk factors for disease. We argue that new experimental approaches are needed to convert the growing body of omics data into molecular mechanisms of disease that can be therapeutically targeted in specific patients. We outline one attractive strategy, which capitalizes on the rapid generation time and advanced molecular tools available in the fruit fly, Drosophila, to provide a platform for mechanistic dissection and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Medicina de Precisão
15.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 107(4): e21822, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155698

RESUMO

RNAi efficiency in insects is different from species to species; some species in Coleoptera are relatively more amenable to RNA interference (RNAi) than other species. One of the major factors is the presence of dsRNA-degrading enzymes, called dsRNases, in saliva, gut, or hemolymph in insects, which degrade the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) introduced, resulting in the low efficacy of RNAi. In this study, we report a dsRNA-degrading activity in the gut homogenates from the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, by ex vivo assay. Then, we identified two Drosophila suzukii dsRNase genes, named DrosudsRNase1 and DrosudsRNase2. In silico analysis shows that the gene structures are similar to dsRNases found in other insects. When dsRNases expressed in Sf9 cells were compared for their dsRNA degrading activities, dsRNase1 was more vital than dsRNase2. Both dsRNases were expressed highly and exclusively in the gut compared to the rest of body. Also, they were highly expressed during larval and adult stages but not in embryonic and pupal stages, suggesting the dsRNases protect foreign RNA molecules received during the feeding periods. DsRNase1 was expressed at a higher level in adults, whereas dsRNase2 showed more expression in early larvae. Our study on the tissue and development-specific patterns of dsRNases provides an improved understanding of the RNAi application for the management of D. suzukii.


Assuntos
Drosophila/enzimologia , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Drosophila/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/enzimologia , Endorribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/enzimologia , Masculino , Pupa/enzimologia , Células Sf9
16.
Development ; 148(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117888

RESUMO

Persistent loss of dietary protein usually signals a shutdown of key metabolic pathways. In Drosophila larvae that have reached a 'critical weight' and can pupariate to form viable adults, such a metabolic shutdown would needlessly lead to death. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium (IP3/Ca2+) release in some interneurons (vGlutVGN6341) allows Drosophila larvae to pupariate on a protein-deficient diet by partially circumventing this shutdown through upregulation of neuropeptide signaling and the expression of ecdysone synthesis genes. Here, we show that IP3/Ca2+ signals in vGlutVGN6341 neurons drive expression of Set2, a gene encoding Drosophila Histone 3 Lysine 36 methyltransferase. Furthermore, Set2 expression is required for larvae to pupariate in the absence of dietary protein. IP3/Ca2+ signal-driven Set2 expression upregulates key Ca2+-signaling genes through a novel positive-feedback loop. Transcriptomic studies, coupled with analysis of existing ChIP-seq datasets, identified genes from larval and pupal stages that normally exhibit robust H3K36 trimethyl marks on their gene bodies and concomitantly undergo stronger downregulation by knockdown of either the intracellular Ca2+ release channel IP3R or Set2. IP3/Ca2+ signals thus regulate gene expression through Set2-mediated H3K36 marks on select neuronal genes for the larval to pupal transition.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Pupa/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Pupa/genética
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 117, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracing the association between insect cold tolerance and latitudinally and locally varying environmental conditions, as well as key morphological traits and molecular mechanisms, is essential for understanding the processes involved in adaptation. We explored these issues in two closely-related species, Drosophila montana and Drosophila flavomontana, originating from diverse climatic locations across several latitudes on the coastal and mountainous regions of North America. We also investigated the association between sequence variation in one of the key circadian clock genes, vrille, and cold tolerance in both species. Finally, we studied the impact of vrille on fly cold tolerance and cold acclimation ability by silencing it with RNA interference in D. montana. RESULTS: We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on variables representing bioclimatic conditions on the study sites and used latitude as a proxy of photoperiod. PC1 separated the mountainous continental sites from the coastal ones based on temperature variability and precipitation, while PC2 arranged the sites based on summer and annual mean temperatures. Cold tolerance tests showed D. montana to be more cold-tolerant than D. flavomontana and chill coma resistance (CTmin) of this species showed an association with PC2. Chill coma recovery time (CCRT) of both species improved towards northern latitudes, and in D. flavomontana this trait was also associated with PC1. D. flavomontana flies were darkest in the coast and in the northern mountainous populations, but coloration showed no linkage with cold tolerance. Body size decreased towards cold environments in both species, but only within D. montana populations largest flies showed fastest recovery from cold. Finally, both the sequence analysis and RNAi study on vrille suggested this gene to play an essential role in D. montana cold resistance and acclimation, but not in recovery time. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the complexity of insect cold tolerance and emphasizes the need to trace its association with multiple environmental variables and morphological traits to identify potential agents of natural selection. It also shows that a circadian clock gene vrille is essential both for short- and long-term cold acclimation, potentially elucidating the connection between circadian clock system and cold tolerance.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila/genética , América do Norte
18.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(3): 355-361, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097672

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an important regulator of the main cellular processes. The components of the UPS are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, signal transduction, the cell response to DNA damage, metabolism, and transcription control. E3 ubiquitin ligases (the enzymes that covalently attaches ubiquitin to target proteins) play a key role in the functioning of the UPS. The Drosophila tumor suppressor Hyd (hyperplastic discs) is one of the most interesting E3 ligases; it is required for the regulation of proliferation, growth, and cell differentiation. The study of hyd mutations in different tissues of Drosophila demonstrated that depending on the cellular context, Hyd can not only perform proteolytic functions associated with protein degradation, but can also, interacting with other proteins and/or nucleic acids, act as an important regulator of cellular processes.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
19.
EMBO Rep ; 22(7): e51530, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031963

RESUMO

Stem cells have the unique ability to undergo asymmetric division which produces two daughter cells that are genetically identical, but commit to different cell fates. The loss of this balanced asymmetric outcome can lead to many diseases, including cancer and tissue dystrophy. Understanding this tightly regulated process is crucial in developing methods to treat these abnormalities. Here, we report that during a Drosophila female germline stem cell asymmetric division, the two daughter cells differentially inherit histones at key genes related to either maintaining the stem cell state or promoting differentiation, but not at constitutively active or silenced genes. We combine histone labeling with DNA Oligopaints to distinguish old versus new histones and visualize their inheritance patterns at a single-gene resolution in asymmetrically dividing cells in vivo. This strategy can be applied to other biological systems involving cell fate change during development or tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Divisão Celular Assimétrica , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Padrões de Herança
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